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Nanocrystalline MnxZn1-xFe2O4 with the varying concentration of Mn (x= 0.25, 0.50) have been synthesized by citrate route method. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of as-synthesized materials was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the improved crystallinity and purity of the samples at high temperature annealing. Also, the increase in the annealing temperature yielded nanocrystals with bigger crystallite size. The samples annealed at higher temperature were analyzed by TEM which showed the formation of irregular polycrystalline particles with average size in the range of 150-180 nm. The magnetic measurements were taken using vibrating sample magnetometer and displayed the superparamagnetic behavior of the prepared materials. Also, the increase in magnetization was observed with Mn substitution.
The effect of feeding two levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the performance of crossbred Friesian calves was investigated. Twenty-four neonatal male Friesian × Baladi calves (35·5 ± 0·25 kg of initial body weight) were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design into three experimental groups for 90 days (eight calves per group). Calves fed their diets without yeast (S. cerevisiae) were considered as Control, while the diets of other calves were supplemented daily either with 2·5 g (YL diet) or with 5 g (YH diet) of yeast per calf. Calves fed the YH diet showed increased feed intake, while dry matter and fibre digestibilities were increased in calves fed YH and YL diets. Calves fed YL and YH diets showed lower ruminal ammonia-N and higher total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate concentrations than Control calves. Both YH and YL calves showed increased plasma concentrations of total protein, globulin and glucose and decreased cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Calves’ final weight and daily gain were increased with S. cerevisiae yeast supplemented diets. After 42 days of experiment, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteria spp. counts were down to undetectable levels in the faeces of calves fed S. cerevisiae additive. It could be concluded that adding S. cerevisiae to milk-fed calves increased feed utilization and improved pre-weaned calf performance and health status, reducing faecal pathogenic bacteria.
Exoplanetary transit observations were carried out for the first time with all the three telescopes at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, Mexico.
We present preliminary results on WASP-39 and WASP-43, two Hot Jupiters known for the presence of a highly-inflated radius. Using the defocused photometry technique, we observed these systems, achieving photometric precision of ± 3–5mmag peak-to-valley. The preliminary fit of their lightcurves shows physical and orbital parameters consistent with published results.
Meningococcal disease is mostly endemic in Latin America, with periodic occurrences of outbreaks and epidemics over the last few decades. This literature review summarizes the available epidemiological data for this region between 1945 and 2010. Incidence rates and serogroup distribution differ from country to country and over time. Serogroups A, B, and C have all been major causes of meningococcal disease since the 1970s. In the last decade serogroups W135 and Y may now be emerging in certain countries, with serogroup A virtually disappearing. Although progress has been made in improving and coordinating the surveillance of invasive disease, the uniformity and quality of reported data reflect the fact that the current surveillance systems focus on passive rather than active reporting, hence the reliability of data may vary between countries. Consideration of vaccination policies to control meningococcal disease can only be made with a sufficient understanding of the changing epidemiology in the region.
Human activities have had a huge impact on the environment and landscape, through industrialisation and land-use change, leading to climate change, deforestation, desertification, land degradation, and air and water pollution. These impacts are strongly linked to the occurrence of geomorphological hazards, such as floods, landslides, snow avalanches, soil erosion, and others. Geomorphological work includes not only the understanding but the mapping and modelling of Earth's surface processes, many of which directly affect human societies. In addition, geomorphologists are becoming increasingly involved with the dimensions of societal problem solving, through vulnerability analysis, hazard and risk assessment and management. The work of geomorphologists is therefore of prime importance for disaster prevention. An international team of geomorphologists have contributed their expertise to this volume, making this a scientifically rigorous work for a wide audience of geomorphologists and other Earth scientists, including those involved in environmental science, hazard and risk assessment, management and policy.
The zoonotic risk of Brucella canis has been considered fairly high for persons who handle breeding dogs in kennels or are exposed to infected animals. Transmission to humans in other circumstances has been thought to be rare. We describe an uncommon outbreak of brucellosis caused by B. canis which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported in the literature. This outbreak involved six persons (three children and three adults), a bitch and three puppies which had close daily contact with the family. The clinical symptoms of the index case led to an erroneous diagnosis and the infection would have gone undiagnosed if culture had not been positive. This report aims to increase awareness of medical personnel of the need to order screening tests for children, immunodeficient persons or pregnant women presenting with fever of unknown origin, unexplained spleen or liver enlargement or other systemic signs. The emerging zoonotic potential of this disease in urban areas and the need to coordinate canine brucellosis surveillance systems should be evaluated.
This paper pursed one new cost effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic activity of the sol-gel developed Zn doped TiO2 by mechano-chemically milling in high energy planetary mill. The results showed that the photocatlytic activity was improved two times due to the increase of the surface area and the decrease in average crystallite size at the same time after using the high energy ball milling. Kubelka-Munk spectra of pristine and ball milled samples revealed a blue shift from 3.2 eV to 3.35 eV, which may be because of the presence of quantum size effects. SEM microstructural investigations revealed variations in the surface morphology with different Zn doping concentrations in the TiO2-Xwt.% Zn nanoparticulates. EDS spectra of these samples confirmed the stoichiometric concentration of Zn. Other characterization including X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface and the photocatalytic decomposition were also studied and the results were in agreement with each other.
We report a retrospective analysis of 1933 Brucella strains isolated from humans and animals in Latin American countries between 1968 and 1991 and in Argentina between 1994 and 2006. During the first period 50% of strains were from humans, mainly from Argentina, Mexico and Peru but, while B. suis was the main cause of infection in Argentina, B. melitensis was responsible for most infections in the other countries. In Argentina in the later years, B. melitensis and B. suis were observed more frequently than in the first period while isolation of B. abortus decreased. Of 145 B. melitensis human isolates, eight gave susceptibility patterns to dyes and penicillin and two were B. melitensis biovar 3, which has never been reported in animals. Forty-six percent of B. suis isolated were resistant to dyes which is an atypical feature in this species.
Corona charge deposition methods in combination with spatially resolved surface potential measurements have become a standard tool for Si oxide quality monitoring. Based on this technique oxide-semiconductor interface parameters such as surface barrier height, oxide thickness and oxide charge density can now be monitored in-line with commercially available devices. The ongoing downscaling of integrated circuits into the sub-100 nm regime makes the development of high resolution oxide screening methods increasingly important.
However, currently available commercial devices are limited in their spatial resolution since they employ the traditional vibrating Kelvin probe technique, restricting their lateral resolution to several μm. In order to increase the lateral resolution of this measurement method we have combined the corona-charge deposition technique with Kelvin Probe AFM. We present initial results of this novel measurement technique and demonstrate its feasibility by measurements on lithographically prepared oxide patterns on Si wafers with different oxide thicknesses.
Cattle in the tropics mostly depend on pastures. During dry periods the forage available is usually mature, constraining both intake and digestion. These constraints need to be understood, for intake and digestibility define productivity. Intake depends on the rumen space made available by fermentation and outflow. Markers such as PEG (liquid phase), and chromium mordanted fibre (solid phase) can be used to measure rumen volume and outflow, but have limitations. The objective of this experiment was to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen kinetics of cattle fed ad libitum forages with very different degradation characteristics, and also to compare rumen volumes measured with markers with those obtained by manual emptying.