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There are strong wishes to be slender not only in the western country but also in Japan. The young women's BMI doesn't show a normal distribution. Almost of that is under BMI 24.2 (normal). Obesity is not good for metabolic syndrome. But being too thin is not good for health especially motherhood. And that influences not only physical health but also mental health. It is thought young women's energies lose in eating or saving meals.
Self-administered questionnaire about wishes to be slender, eating behaviour and General Health Questionnaire were used. Objects were 180 adolescent women in the nutrition course (80) and nursing school (100).
About 95% or more of Japanese objects have wishes to be slender. Their physical BMI is about 20.7. But in order to estimate their wish to be slender, we asked three weights. One is the weight they think most healthy (we call “healthy weight”). The second is more beautiful (“beautiful weight”). The third is they actually aim to be (“aiming weight”).
In Japan general speaking physical weight is heaviest, the second is “healthy weight”, the third is “aiming weight” and lightest is “beautiful weight”. But some parts of them aim to be under BMI 17.5 (ICD-10 classified “Anorexia nervosa”). Weight order is now confusing.
The four BMI in Indonesian women are physical BMI is 19.7, healthy is 19.2, aiming is 19.1, beautiful is 18.9.
Compared to Japanese, Indonesian women's wishes are still sound. But taking precautions about health and eating behaviour is important.
To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
We report the results of abundance analysis for high-resolution spectra of eight extremely metal-poor turn-off stars selected from SDSS/SEGUE. Based on differential analysis adopting stellar parameters from Balmer line profiles, we obtain the following results: i) Statistically significant scatter is found in [X/Fe] (X=Na, Mg, Cr, Ti, Sr and Ba), among which [Na/Fe] shows an apparent bimodal distribution, ii) Li abundances are ~0.3 dex lower in [Fe/H]<−3.5 than the Spite plateau value without significant scatter.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
We prepared silicon hyperdoped with sulfur by ion-implantation followed by pulsed laser melting. Effects of laser fluence during pulsed laser melting and of post-annealing on the silicon hyperdoped with sulfur are investigated. The structure of hyperdoped layer changes from poly-to mono-crystal with increasing laser fluence. Interface between sulfur-implanted-layer and single-crystal substrate disappear above 1.1 J/cm2. The spectral intensity of mid-infrared (MIR) optical absorption increases with crystallinity and spectral shape depends on whether the melt depth during pulsed laser melting reaches interface between implanted layer and single-crystal silicon substrate or not. The MIR absorption intensity rapidly decreases with thermal annealing temperature and almost disappears at 750 °C. The activation energy of conductivity decreases with increasing laser fluence and further decreases with increasing post thermal-annealing temperature. The insulator-metal transition is observed for the sample annealed at 750 °C. These results indicate that there is no direct correlation between MIR optical absorption band and insulator-metal transition.
K. Aoki, B. F. Windley, S. Maruyama & S. Omori reply: First, we thank Viete, Oliver & Wilde for their interesting and thought-provoking comments on the timing of the high-pressure granulite facies (HGR) metamorphism recorded in metamorphic rocks at Cairn Leuchan, Scotland, published by Aoki et al. (2013). Based on new metamorphic data of garnetites and garnet-amphibolites at Cairn Leuchan and new zircon U–Pb ages of amphibolitized eclogite at Tomatin, we suggested in our publication that the HGR metamorphism was retrograde after eclogite facies before the c. 470 Ma ‘Barrovian metamorphism’. Viete, Oliver & Wilde however speculate that the HGR metamorphism at Cairn Leuchan may have occurred at c. 1000 Ma, as a result of their new U–Pb zircon age of the Cowhythe Gneiss at Portsoy and from previous studies of the geological structure and geochronology. We are grateful for this opportunity to describe, albeit in a preliminary manner, our new understanding and tectonic model of the Caledonian orogen in Scotland and western Ireland of which the Barrovian metamorphism is a key component. A reply to a comment is not the correct place to propose an entirely new paradigm for such a classic orogen, but we will present our model more fully in a future publication.
The metamorphic P–T conditions and associated relationships of the Barrovian zones near Glen Muick were re-examined by focusing on the petrology and thermodynamics of rocks at Cairn Leuchan, where garnetite lenses and layers occur in surrounding garnet amphibolite in the highest-grade sillimanite zone. The representative mineral assemblages in the garnet-rich lenses and garnet amphibolite are garnet + quartz + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole ± epidote, and garnet + amphibole + quartz + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± epidote, respectively. The chemical compositions of constituent minerals are the same in both garnetite and garnet amphibolite. The metamorphic P–T conditions of these rocks were estimated by thermodynamic calculations. The results show that the rocks underwent high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism at P = c. 1.2–1.4 GPa and T = c. 770–800°C followed by amphibolite facies metamorphism at P = c. 0.5–0.8 GPa and T = c. 580–700°C. Integration of our new results with previously published data suggests that the retrograde P–T trajectory of the highest-grade Barrovian metamorphic rocks marks a temperature decrease during decompression from a crustal depth of the high-pressure granulite facies, which is much deeper than previously considered.
We use LVDSMC (low-variance deviational Monte Carlo) simulations to calculate, under linearized conditions, the second-order temperature jump coefficient for a dilute gas whose temperature is governed by the Poisson equation with a constant forcing term, as in the case of homogeneous volumetric heating. Both the hard-sphere gas and the BGK model of the Boltzmann equation, for which slip/jump coefficients are not functions of temperature, are considered. The temperature jump relation and jump coefficient determined here are closely linked to the general jump relations for time-dependent problems that have yet to be systematically treated in the literature; as a result, they are different from those corresponding to the well-known linear and steady case where the temperature is governed by the homogeneous heat conduction (Laplace) equation.
The significance of the potential impacts of microbial activity on the transport properties of host rocks for geological repositories is an area of active research. Most recent work has focused on granitic environments. This paper describes pilot studies investigating changes in transport properties that are produced by microbial activity in sedimentary rock environments in northern Japan. For the first time, these short experiments (39 days maximum) have shown that the denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas denitrificans, can survive and thrive when injected into flow-through column experiments containing fractured diatomaceous mudstone and synthetic groundwater under pressurized conditions. Although there were few significant changes in the fluid chemistry, changes in the permeability of the biotic column, which can be explained by the observed biofilm formation, were quantitatively monitored. These same methodologies could also be adapted to obtain information from cores originating from a variety of geological environments including oil reservoirs, aquifers and toxic waste disposal sites to provide an understanding of the impact of microbial activity on the transport of a range of solutes, such as groundwater contaminants and gases (e.g. injected carbon dioxide).
Studying a multi-dimensional structure of supernovae (SNe) gives important constraints on the mechanism of the SN explosion. Polarization measurement is one of the most powerful methods to study the explosion geometry of extragalactic SNe. Especially, Type Ib/c SNe are the ideal targets because the core of the explosion is bare. We have performed spectropolarimetric observations of Type Ib/c SNe with the Subaru telescope. We detect a rotation of the polarization angle across the line, which is seen as a loop in the Q - U plane. This indicates that axisymmetry is broken in the SN ejecta. Adding our new data to the sample of stripped-envelope SNe with high-quality spectropolarimetric data, five SNe out of six show a loop in the Q - U plane. This implies that the SN explosion commonly has a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional geometry.
The antibody responses of 194 volunteers were studied for up to 3 years after primary immunization with one, two or three doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine, administered either in 0·1 ml volumes intradermally (i.d.) or as 1·0 ml intramuscularly (i.m.). Sero-conversion occurred in 95% of subjects after the first injection and in 100% after the second. The highest titres and most durable antibody responses were induced by three injections of vaccine.
Booster doses were administered either by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or i.d. route, after 6, 12 or 24 months to randomly grouped volunteers; these induced responses ≥ 5·0 i.u. per ml in 95% of subjects. The responses were rapid and were neither influenced by the primary regimen nor by the timing and route of the booster dose.
Antibody titres after i.d. immunization were only two-fold lower than those induced by the larger volume of vaccine. The findings suggest that the i.d. route is both effective and economic.
Silver nanoparticles coated by a layer of gold (Ag@Au) have received much attention because of their potential application as ultra sensitive probes for the detection of biologically important molecules such as DNA, proteins, amino acids and many others. However, the ability to control the size, shape, and monodispersity of the Ag@Au structure has met with limited success. In our own research we have addressed this challenge by creating an aqueous wet chemical synthesis technique towards size and shape controllable Ag@Au nanoparticles. These materials are highly interesting because of the tunable silver core size, and the tunable gold shell thickness, opening many avenues to the modification of the particle properties in terms of bio-molecular sensing. The resulting nanoparticle probes were functionalized with two complementary stranded DNA oligonucleotides. When combined, the complementary strands hybridized, causing the Ag@Au nanoparticles to assemble into large nano-structures. The presence of the oligonucleotide was confirmed through a series of techniques including UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, as well as TEM, XPS, DLS, and many others. The results reflect the role that the nanoparticle physical properties play in the detection of the bio-molecules, as well as elucidate the characteristics of the bio-molecule/nanoparticle interaction.
We consider Markov bases arising from regular fractional factorial designs with three-level factors. They are used in a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to estimate p-values for various conditional tests. For designed experiments with a single observation for each run, we formulate a generalised linear model and consider a sample space with the same values of that sufficient statistic for the parameters under the null model as for the observed data. Each model is characterised by a covariate matrix, which is constructed from the main and the interaction effects. We investigate fractional factorial designs with 3p−q runs and underline a correspondence with models for 3p−q contingency tables.
In the past decade, a new application of computational algebraic techniques to statistics has been developed rapidly. On one hand, (Diaconis and Sturmfels 1998) introduced the notion of Markov basis and presented a procedure for sampling from discrete conditional distributions by constructing a connected, aperiodic and reversible Markov chain on a given sample space. Since then, many works have been published on the topic of the Markov basis by both algebraists and statisticians. Contributions of the present authors on Markov bases can be found in (Aoki et al. 2008, Aoki and Takemura 2003, Aoki and Takemura 2005, Aoki and Takemura 2006, Aoki and Takemura 2008a, Aoki and Takemura 2008b Aoki et al. 2008, Hara et al. 2009, Takemura and Aoki 2004) and (Takemura and Aoki 2005).
Tb-doped AlBNO (AlBNO:Tb) films with various composition ratios are investigated for luminescence layers of inorganic electroluminescence(EL) devices. Luminescence layers with a wide bandgap and a low dielectric constant are required to realize high performance of EL devices. The ultraviolet-visible radiation absorption measurement and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement show that the AlBNO:Tb films have wider bandgap and lower dielectric constant than ZnS which is put to practical use as the host material of the luminescence layer. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement indicates that PL intensity increases with increasing B composition ratio in the range of 5 % - 10 %. Moreover, the suppression factor of the PL intensity can be understood through the annealing experiment. The PL intensity of the film with 800 °C annealing is about 10 times larger than that of the film without annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement suggests that Tb4+ ions decrease compared with Tb3+ ions after annealing treatment. O atoms in the AlBNO:Tb film are dissociated from Tb and bonded to B atoms by annealing treatment. This suggests that decrease of Tb4+ ions is related to increase of the PL intensity.
The development of the wireless transmission monitoring in the geological disposal repository, the underground laboratories, the test facilities and the demonstration area, will present an opportunity to provide greater flexibility and robustness to the confirmation of the barrier performance and therefore safety of repository . So as to realize the wireless transmission monitoring especially in the betonite barrier, RWMC has been researching and developing the wireless data transmission system which uses the very low frequency (VLF: around 1 kHz) electromagnetic wave. In this system, transmitting and receiving is conducted through loop coil antennas. The overall transmission system is digitized and maximum 19 sensors can be connected to one transmitter. Transmission distance can be selected from several meters to several hundred meters.
This paper firstly presents the behavior of VLF electromagnetic wave propagation in the rock mass and the underground facility revealed by the in-situ transmission experiment and the analytical method evaluating the behavior of the VLF electromagnetic field in various environments. Development results of the transmitting antenna and the improvement of the transmission performance are secondly shown. The technical feasibility and the future R&D plan of the wireless monitoring in the repository are also explained.