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The penetration depth of 1-12 keV electrons in most materials is less than one micron and the characteristic soft x-rays that are produced can be used to identify the elements present in the surface. Varying the energy of the incident electron beam enables the depth of analysis to be controlled.
Soft x-rays often exhibit large 'chemical effects' (changes in peak profile and peak position) which can he correlated with chemical changes. A study of such effects for each element present in the sample surface, as a function of electron-beam energy, can in some cases, permit changes in the chemical state (valency - coordination number-spin state etc.) to be determined as a function of depth.
Such analyses can be carried out either in a conventional x-ray spectrometer in which the x-ray tube has been replaced by a gas-discharge source, or in a spectrometer in which the sample is bombarded with electrons from a normal electron gun. In this paper these techniques are outlined and some applications reviewed:- the analysis of oxide layers on aluminium and steel, the analysis of aluminium-nitride layers produced by MOCVD on gallium arsenide, the analysis of silica fiims (with added boron and phosphorus oxides) on silicon and the analysis of zinc-oxide films on glass.
The mechanical alloying process continually deforms, cold welds, and breaks apart metal powder particles. During the process of mechanical alloying elemental crystalline powders can produce an amorphous alloyed powder. Consolidation of these powders by powder metallurgy techniques can produce amorphous bulk metals.
Two Alloys 62.24 Zr-10.89 Ti-9.71 Ni-13.14 Cu-4.02 B and 64.84 Zr-11.35 Ti-11.12 Nt-13.69 Cu weight percent were mechanically alloyed for 45 hours by a SPEX 800 high energy ball-mill. The changes in structure were monitored by X-ray diffraction after every 5 hours of milling. Both powder compositions became amorphous after 15 hours of milling. New compounds began to form during milling to 35 hours. Milling for longer times produced no further structure changes. The milled samples were annealed at 950°C for 1 hour which produced a complex set of crystalline materials. The crystalline phases containing boron have larger lattice parameters and less tendency for grain growth.
Cyber Operational Risk: Cyber risk is routinely cited as one of the most important sources of operational risks facing organisations today, in various publications and surveys. Further, in recent years, cyber risk has entered the public conscience through highly publicised events involving affected UK organisations such as TalkTalk, Morrisons and the NHS. Regulators and legislators are increasing their focus on this topic, with General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) a notable example of this. Risk actuaries and other risk management professionals at insurance companies therefore need to have a robust assessment of the potential losses stemming from cyber risk that their organisations may face. They should be able to do this as part of an overall risk management framework and be able to demonstrate this to stakeholders such as regulators and shareholders. Given that cyber risks are still very much new territory for insurers and there is no commonly accepted practice, this paper describes a proposed framework in which to perform such an assessment. As part of this, we leverage two existing frameworks – the Chief Risk Officer (“CRO”) Forum cyber incident taxonomy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) framework – to describe the taxonomy of a cyber incident, and the relevant cyber security and risk mitigation items for the incident in question, respectively.Summary of Results: Three detailed scenarios have been investigated by the working party:
∙Employee leaks data at a general (non-life) insurer: Internal attack through social engineering, causing large compensation costs and regulatory fines, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £210.5m (c. 2% of annual revenue).
∙Cyber extortion at a life insurer: External attack through social engineering, causing large business interruption and reputational damage, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £179.5m (c. 6% of annual revenue).
∙Motor insurer telematics device hack: External attack through software vulnerabilities, causing large remediation / device replacement costs, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £70.0m (c. 18% of annual revenue).
Limitations: The following sets out key limitations of the work set out in this paper:
∙While the presented scenarios are deemed material at this point in time, the threat landscape moves fast and could render specific narratives and calibrations obsolete within a short-time frame.
∙There is a lack of historical data to base certain scenarios on and therefore a high level of subjectivity is used to calibrate them.
∙No attempt has been made to make an allowance for seasonality of renewals (a cyber event coinciding with peak renewal season could exacerbate cost impacts)
∙No consideration has been given to the impact of the event on the share price of the company.
∙Correlation with other risk types has not been explicitly considered.
Conclusions: Cyber risk is a very real threat and should not be ignored or treated lightly in operational risk frameworks, as it has the potential to threaten the ongoing viability of an organisation. Risk managers and capital actuaries should be aware of the various sources of cyber risk and the potential impacts to ensure that the business is sufficiently prepared for such an event. When it comes to quantifying the impact of cyber risk on the operations of an insurer there are significant challenges. Not least that the threat landscape is ever changing and there is a lack of historical experience to base assumptions off. Given this uncertainty, this paper sets out a framework upon which readers can bring consistency to the way scenarios are developed over time. It provides a common taxonomy to ensure that key aspects of cyber risk are considered and sets out examples of how to implement the framework. It is critical that insurers endeavour to understand cyber risk better and look to refine assumptions over time as new information is received. In addition to ensuring that sufficient capital is being held for key operational risks, the investment in understanding cyber risk now will help to educate senior management and could have benefits through influencing internal cyber security capabilities.
Feeding greatly affects milk yield and composition. The research is highlighting the potential of genetic polymorphism at some loci to affect milk yield and quality traits. These loci can be up/down regulated depending on the production environment; therefore, we hypothesized that milk yield and composition could differ when cows with different genotype at SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 loci are reared in different feeding systems. The polymorphisms of SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes were investigated in Modicana breed. In all, three polymorphic sites, responsible for the genetic variation of quantitative trait loci and therefore defined quantitative trait nucleotides, were genotyped: the transition g.10329C>T in 5th exon determines a substitution p.A293V in the SCD, the dinucleotide mutation g.10433-10434AA>GC in 8th exon responsible for p.K232A substitution in the DGAT1 and the transition g.62569A>C in the 14th exon responsible for p.Y581S substitution in the ABCG2 gene. In the sample of 165 Modicana cows, SCD and DGAT1 genes resulted polymorphic; the alleles g.10329T and g.10433-10434GC were the most frequent in SCD and DGAT1 (0.73 and 0.91) respectively, whereas ABCG2 locus was monomorphic for allele A (p.581Y). Sequencing analysis was carried out on 14 samples with different genotypes to confirm the results of the PCR-RFLP protocols. Based on the genotypes at SCD locus, 47 Modicana cows were selected for the nutritional trial: 24 cows in a semi-intensive farm, with 2 h/day grazing on natural pasture, and 23 cows in an extensive farm, with 8 h/day grazing on natural pasture. Monthly, milk yield and composition were evaluated and individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. No differences in milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, casein and urea were associated to SCD genotype. Feeding systems affected milk yield and composition. No significant genotype×feeding system interaction was observed for milk yield and composition. Fatty acids composition was significantly affected only by the feeding system. Significant interactions were found between SCD genotype and feeding system for six fatty acids: 4:0, 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0 and t11 18:1. We concluded that the feeding system was the factor that mostly affected milk production and composition; moreover, our results do not confirm what reported in literature as regard the effect of the SCD polymorphism on milk fatty acid composition. The high amount of pasture seemed to have resized the SCD polymorphism effects because of the different fatty acids composition of the diet.
Spectral densities of plasma fluctuations are calculated for the thermal case using classical molecular dynamics (MD) assuming Coulomb interactions and a short-range cutoff radius. The aim of the calculation is to verify limits and performances of such calculations in the light of possible generalizations, e.g. collisional or non-ideal plasmas. Results are presented for ideal, collisionless, fully ionized thermal plasmas. Comparison with the analytical theory reveals a generally satisfactory agreement with possibility for improvement when more strict numerical parameters are used albeit with a strong increase in computational cost. The largest deviations have been observed in the vicinity of the weakly damped eigenmodes. The agreement is strong in other parts of the spectrum, where Landau damping is prominent, and overcomes the effects stemming from the excess collisionality and coupling as well as from the exclusion of short-range collisions.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
High-precision response of the surrogate model is desired in the process of optimisation. An excessive number of sampling points will increase the cost of the calculation. The appropriate number of sampling points cannot only guarantee the accuracy of the surrogate model but also save the calculation cost. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the eventuality of using an adaptive surrogate model for optimisation problems. The adaptive surrogate model is built on an adaptive sampling approach and an extended radial basis function (ERBF). The adaptive sampling is an approach that new sampling points are placed in the blank area and all the sampling points are uniformly distributed in the design region using Multi-Island GA. The precision of the ERBF surrogate model is checked using standard error measure to determine whether the surrogate model should be updated or not. This adaptive surrogate model is used to optimise a cruise missile head shape. Aerodynamic and stealthy performance of the cruise missile head shape are considered in this research. Different global objective function and different weight factor are used to research the aerodynamic and stealthy performance in this optimisation process. The results show that the drag is reduced with a slender head shape and the radar-cross section (RCS) value is reduced with a short head shape.
This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
A “stone in the pond” strategy is a practical approach to investigating large-scale nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) exposures. Here, we describe such a risk-stratified approach to contact tracing after a TB exposure that occurred over 5 months in a pediatric inpatient ward in a country with a moderate TB burden.
In this contribution, we have made use of the contemporary equation of states (EOSs) for the complete neutron star structure, and confronted them with one particular glitch constrain for the crustal moment of inertia (MOI). We find that with these EOSs, the radii of three millisecond pulsars selected by NICER: PSR J0437-4715, PSR J1614-2230, PSR J0751+1807, are all around 12.5 km. Also, a star with M ≲ 1.55M⊙ would fulfill the MOI calculation for glitch constrain with the latest neutron superfluidity density, and the glitch crisis might not be present.
The objectives of this study were to compare the quality-of-life scores of Malaysian children with CHD and their healthy siblings, to determine the level of agreement between proxy-reports and child self-reports, and to examine variables that have an impact on quality of life in those with CHD.
Parental-proxy scores of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 core scales were obtained for 179 children with CHD and 172 siblings. Intra-class coefficients were derived to determine the levels of proxy–child agreement in 66 children aged 8–18 years. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors that impacted Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores.
Proxy scores were lower in children with CHD than siblings for all scales except physical health. Maximum differences were noted in children aged 5–7 years, whereas there were no significant differences in the 2–4 and 13–18 years age groups. Good levels of proxy–child agreement were found in children aged 8–12 years for total, psychosocial health, social, and school functioning scales (correlation coefficients 0.7–0.8). In children aged 13–18 years, the level of agreement was poor to fair for emotional and social functioning. The need for future surgery and severity of symptoms were associated with lower scores.
Differences in proxy perception of quality of life appear to be age related. The level of proxy–child agreement was higher compared with other reported studies, with lower levels of agreement in teenagers. Facilitating access to surgery and optimising control of symptoms may improve quality of life in this group of children.
An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole dried citrus pulp (DCP) on the antioxidant status of lamb tissues. In total, 17 lambs were divided into two groups and fed for 56 days: a barley-based concentrate diet (CON – eight animals), or a concentrate-based diet including 35% DCP to partially replace barley (CIT – nine animals). The CIT diet contained a double concentration of phenolic compounds than the CON diet (7.9 v. 4.0 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively), but had no effect (P>0.05) on the overall antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic fraction of blood plasma, liver and muscle. The CIT diet contained clearly more α-tocopherol than the CON diet (45.7 v. 10.3 mg/kg DM), which could explain the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in liver, plasma and muscle (P<0.05). The dietary treatment had no effect on the extent of lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances assay (TBARS values) in the faeces, small intestine, liver, plasma and muscle. Nevertheless, when muscle homogenates were incubated in the presence of Fe3+/ascorbate to induce lipid peroxidation, the muscle from lambs fed DCP displayed lower TBARS values (P<0.01), which negatively correlated with the concentration of α-tocopherol in muscle. These results showed that feeding whole DCP to ruminants increases the antioxidant status of muscle through an increase in the deposition of α-tocopherol.
The effect of the finite probe size in plasma fluctuation measurements is revisited for dusty plasmas, where it has been argued that dust leads to a significant low-frequency enhancement in the spectral densities of ion density fluctuations, which can constitute the physical basis of a dust diagnostic technique. Theoretical predictions for the spectral modifications are presented and the dust acoustic mode contribution is analysed. The finite probe size effect is treated within the volume average approach, which introduces geometry dependent form factors that are calculated for spherical and cylindrical probes. The volume average approach is compared with the typically employed cutoff wavenumber approximation for various dust and plasma parameters. The contribution of temperature fluctuations to the spectral density of current fluctuations is also evaluated.
A method for synthesizing and structuring 2D-MoS2/rGO (molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite-based electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) that has a slower discharge rate and higher energy density than rGO-based EDLC (RG-EDLC) is reported. The rGO electrode and the nanocomposite were characterized using powder XRD and SEM for their physical and structural properties. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of the EDLCs. A maximum current density at which the MoS2/rGO nanocomposite-based EDLC (MRG-EDLC) can charge and discharge was 2.5 A/g, while it was 1A/g for the RG-EDLC. The specific capacitance of the MRG-EDLC was 14.52 F/g at 0.5 A/g with an energy density of 8.06 Wh/kg.
Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) were the major enteroviruses causing nationwide hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in Singapore in the last decade. We estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) of these enteroviruses to obtain a better understanding of their transmission dynamics. We merged records of cases from HFMD outbreaks reported between 2007 and 2012 with laboratory results from virological surveillance. R0 was estimated based on the cumulative number of reported cases in the initial growth phase of each outbreak associated with the particular enterovirus type. A total of 33 HFMD outbreaks were selected based on the inclusion criteria specified for our study, of which five were associated with CV-A6, 13 with CV-A16, and 15 with EV-A71. The median R0 was estimated to be 5·04 [interquartile range (IQR) 3·57–5·16] for CV-A6, 2·42 (IQR 1·85–3·36) for CV-A16, and 3·50 (IQR 2·36–4·53) for EV-A71. R0 was not significantly associated with number of infected children (P = 0·86), number of exposed children (P = 0·94), and duration of the outbreak (P = 0·05). These enterovirus-specific R0 estimates will be helpful in providing insights into the potential growth of future HFMD epidemics and outbreaks for timely implementation of disease control measures, together with disease dynamics such as severity of the cases.
How does trust affect business contracting at the firm level? We analyze the case of foreign high-tech companies investing in China, where the risk of expropriation of their intellectual property is high. We find that firms mitigate this type of risk by taking local trustworthiness into account when making investment decisions. Firms prefer to invest in regions where local partners and employees are considered more trustworthy; they are also more likely to establish joint ventures and to make greater research and development investments. We employ instrumental variable regressions and dynamic panel generalized method of moments estimators to alleviate endogeneity concerns and control for time-invariant heterogeneity.
According to the Planning Act of 28th June 2006, Andra is in charge of ensuring the sustainable management of all radioactive waste generated in France, especially the high-level and long-lived vitrified waste produced from spent fuel recycling.
Since 2006, all the studies and research related to the components of HLW cells have been incorporated into a broader R&D program which aims at characterizing and modeling (i) the glass matrix dissolution, (ii) the corrosion of the overpack and the lining, and (iii) the claystone evolution in the near field, considering all the interactions between these surrounding materials. This program, coordinated by Andra, has involved up to eighteen laboratories.
After closure of disposal cells and overpack failure, glass alteration is expected to begin in partially saturated conditions due to hydrogen production resulting from carbon steel corrosion in anoxic conditions. Therefore, the glass should at least partially be hydrated by water vapor during thousands of years until complete saturation. A part of the studies aimed to determine the glass behavior in such conditions, the influence of the main parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and consequences of vapor hydration on subsequent radionuclides release by water leaching.
In addition, the major part of the work focused on the influence of the environment on glass alteration. The effect of clay pore water on glass alteration rates (initial rate, rate drop and residual rate) was determined and particularly that of pH and magnesium. The nature of steel corrosion products and their interactions with glass alteration were also investigated. All these studies relied on experiments in surface laboratories, in Andra’s underground laboratory, together with natural or archeological analogs and modeling studies.
The development of high-intensity lasers has opened the field of nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particles. One possible application is the production of aneutronic fusion reactions for clean fusion energy production. We propose an innovative scheme based on the use of two targets and present the first results obtained with the ELFIE facility (at the LULI Laboratory) for the proton–boron-11 (p–11B) fusion reaction. A proton beam, accelerated by the Target Normal Sheat Acceleration mechanism using a short laser pulse (12 J, 350 fs, 1.056 µm, 1019 W cm−2), is sent onto a boron target to initiate fusion reactions. The number of reactions is measured with particle diagnostics such as CR39 track-detectors, active nuclear diagnostic, Thomson Parabola, magnetic spectrometer, and time-of-flight detectors that collect the fusion products: the α-particles. Our experiment shows promising results for this scheme. In the present paper, we discuss its principle and advantages compared with another scheme that uses a single target and heating mechanisms directly with photons to initiate the same p–11B fusion reaction.