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Euclid is the ESA M2 mission and a milestone in the understanding of the geometry of the Universe. In total Euclid will produce up to 26 PB per year of observations. The Science Archive Systems (SAS) belongs to the Euclid Archive System (EAS) that sits in the core of the Euclid Science Ground Segment (SGS). The SAS is being built at the ESAC Science Data Centre (ESDC), which is responsible for the development and operations of the scientific archives for the Astronomy, Planetary and Heliophysics missions of ESA. The SAS is focused on the needs of the scientific community and is intended to provide access to the most valuable scientific metadata from the Euclid mission. In this paper we describe the architectural design of the system, implementation progress and the main challenges from the data management point of view in the building of the SAS.
Although human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Italy, there is evidence that the actual number of cases is far higher than that notified. A programme for active surveillance of VL in the 14 Italian endemic regions was launched by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. We report data collected during a 3-year period of active surveillance in Campania, a south Tyrrhenian region covering 4·5% of the Italian territory. Out of 120 clinically suspected cases referred to medical and diagnostic references centres, there were 52 confirmed VL cases (17·3/year), i.e. 10-fold more than previously notified. Most of the infection sites were in rural areas or peripheral districts of towns in hilly parts of Naples province. An epidemic cluster of 10 cases was identified in a microfocus of Caserta province. The biochemical analysis of 23 Leishmania stocks showed a zymodeme composition indicating Campania as an old and well-established focus of VL. The data obtained emphasize that the present notification system for VL in Italy is inadequate.
We report results on solar prominences from our observations of the November 3, 1994 total solar eclipse from the North Chile alteplano. From the military base at Putre, we used our transportable CCD camera and telescope, as well as support photographic digitised observations from Putre and Parinacota volcano. The variation of density and equivalent temperature were derived in coronal holes (plumes and interplumes) and in equatorial streamers. We obtained images from the inner to the outer corona, as well as low-resolution spectra of prominences and of the inner corona. We present the analysis of images and spectra of prominences in the Balmer, He I and Ca II lines, and in the Thomson scattered continuum.
Cassava intercropped with cowpea in Colombia had lower numbers of Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar and Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) per leaf and per plant than did monoculture cassava. These differences persisted for up to six months after harvest of the cowpea. These results are examined in light of the natural enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies may be favoured in diversified systems, thereby reducting herbivore load. In this regard, the effects of different cropping systems on the whitefly predator Delphastus pusillus (Le Conte) and on the combined action of the parasitoids Amitus aleurodinus Haldeman and Eretmocerus aleyrodiphaga (Risbec) are discussed. D. pusillus displayed a functional responce and was more abundant in monocultures than in intercrops. Predator:prey ratios were similar between treatments and so low that predation appeared to have little impact on whitefly numbers. Parasitism levels of Aleurotrachelus socialis were not affected by crop combinations. The data suggest that the activity of the natural enemies does not explain cropping system effects on cassava whitefly populations.
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