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Community characteristics, such as collective efficacy, a measure of community strength, can affect behavioral responses following disasters. We measured collective efficacy 1 month before multiple hurricanes in 2005, and assessed its association to preparedness 9 months following the hurricane season.
Participants were 631 Florida Department of Health workers who responded to multiple hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. They completed questionnaires that were distributed electronically approximately 1 month before (6.2005-T1) and 9 months after (6.2006-T2) several storms over the 2005 hurricane season. Collective efficacy, preparedness behaviors, and socio-demographics were assessed at T1, and preparedness behaviors and hurricane-related characteristics (injury, community-related damage) were assessed at T2. Participant ages ranged from 21-72 (M(SD) = 48.50 (10.15)), and the majority were female (78%).
In linear regression models, univariate analyses indicated that being older (B = 0.01, SE = 0.003, P < 0.001), White (B = 0.22, SE = 0.08, P < 0.01), and married (B = 0.05, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) was associated with preparedness following the 2005 hurricanes. Multivariate analyses, adjusting for socio-demographics, preparedness (T1), and hurricane-related characteristics (T2), found that higher collective efficacy (T1) was associated with preparedness after the hurricanes (B = 0.10, SE = 0.03, P < 0.01; and B = 0.47, SE = 0.04, P < 0.001 respectively).
Programs enhancing collective efficacy may be a significant part of prevention practices and promote preparedness efforts before disasters.
Functional family therapy (FFT) is an integrated model that combines family systems and cognitive behavioural theories into a coherent relationship-based approach for working with young persons with externalizing problems and their families. FFT is an evidence-based model that has been supported in numerous controlled research studies and community-based evaluations. In-session process research has also shed light on the clinical interior of treatment, and findings from this research have helped shape the articulation of the core principles and techniques of the model. FFT proceeds through five distinct phases of treatment: engagement, motivation, relational assessment, behaviour change and generalization. Each phase has specific goals, focus, activities and skills. The principles of FFT are consistent with many of the features of core competencies approaches in cognitive behavioural therapy. In this chapter, we describe research on FFT that has led to the inclusion of elements that are considered core competencies. A detailed overview of the FFT clinical model is provided, as are specific examples of techniques or clinical focus that are consistent with a core competencies framework.
To develop a fully automated algorithm using data from the Veterans’ Affairs (VA) electrical medical record (EMR) to identify deep-incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiac surgeries and total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) to be used for research studies.
Retrospective cohort study.
This study was conducted in 11 VA hospitals.
Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement between January 1, 2010, and March 31, 2018 (cardiac cohort) and patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2018 (TJA cohort).
Relevant clinical information and administrative code data were extracted from the EMR. The outcomes of interest were mediastinitis, endocarditis, or deep-incisional or organ-space SSI within 30 days after surgery. Multiple logistic regression analysis with a repeated regular bootstrap procedure was used to select variables and to assign points in the models. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values were calculated with comparison to outcomes collected by the Veterans’ Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP).
Overall, 49 (0.5%) of the 13,341 cardiac surgeries were classified as mediastinitis or endocarditis, and 83 (0.6%) of the 12,992 TJAs were classified as deep-incisional or organ-space SSIs. With at least 60% sensitivity, the PPVs of the SSI detection algorithms after cardiac surgeries and TJAs were 52.5% and 62.0%, respectively.
Considering the low prevalence rate of SSIs, our algorithms were successful in identifying a majority of patients with a true SSI while simultaneously reducing false-positive cases. As a next step, validation of these algorithms in different hospital systems with EMR will be needed.
Dobrovolskyite, Na4Ca(SO4)3, is a new sulfate mineral from the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. It occurs as aggregates of tabular crystals up to 1–2 mm in maximum dimension, with abundant gas inclusions. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of O = 12 is (Na3.90K0.10)Σ4(Ca0.45Mg0.16Cu0.12Na0.10)Σ0.83S3.08O12. The crystal structure of dobrovolskyite was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as: trigonal, R3, a = 15.7223(2), c = 22.0160(5) Å, V = 4713.1(2) Å3, Z = 18 and R1 = 0.072. The Mohs’ hardness is 3.5. The mineral is uniaxial (+), with ω = 1.489(2) and ɛ = 1.491(2) (λ = 589 nm). The seven strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %)(hkl)] are: 11.58(40)(101); 5.79(22)(202); 4.54(18)(030); 3.86(88)(033); 3.67(32)(006); 2.855(50)(306); and 2.682(100)(330). The mineral is named in honour of Prof. Dr. Vladimir Vitalievich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (1927–2009), one of the leading Russian scientists in the field of petrology, crystal optics and crystal chemistry. The crystal structure of dobrovolskyite can be described as composed of three symmetrically independent rods running parallel to the c axis. The rods consist of six octahedral–tetrahedral [Na(SO4)6]11– or [Ca(SO4)6]10– clusters of central octahedra sharing common corners with six adjacent SO4 tetrahedra. Alternatively, the crystal structure of the mineral can be described as a 12-layer ABACABACABAC eutactic array of Na+ and Ca2+ cations, and vacancies with disordered (SO4) tetrahedra in interstices. Dobrovolskyite and similar minerals probably formed upon cooling of a high-temperature phase with disordered cation and anion arrangements.
We assessed long-term incidence and prevalence trends of dementia and parkinsonism across major ethnic and immigrant groups in Ontario.
Linking administrative databases, we established two cohorts (dementia 2001–2014 and parkinsonism 2001–2015) of all residents aged 20 to 100 years with incident diagnosis of dementia (N = 387,937) or parkinsonism (N = 59,617). We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism by immigrant status and ethnic groups (Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population). We assessed incidence and prevalence trends using Poisson regression and Cochran–Armitage trend tests.
Across selected ethnic groups, dementia incidence and prevalence were higher in long-term residents than recent or longer-term immigrants from 2001 to 2014. During this period, age- and sex-standardized incidence of dementia in Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population increased, respectively, among longer-term immigrants (by 41%, 58%, and 42%) and long-term residents (28%, 7%, and 4%), and to a lesser degree among recent immigrants. The small number of cases precluded us from assessing parkinsonism incidence trends. For Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population, respectively, prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism modestly increased over time among recent immigrants but significantly increased among longer-term immigrants (dementia: 134%, 217%, and 117%; parkinsonism: 55%, 54%, and 43%) and long-term residents (dementia: 97%, 132%, and 71%; parkinsonism: 18%, 30%, and 29%). Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appear to explain incidence trends, except for stroke and coronary artery disease as potential drivers of dementia incidence.
Recent immigrants across major ethnic groups in Ontario had considerably lower rates of dementia and parkinsonism than long-term residents, but this difference diminished with longer-term immigrants.
It is a long-standing open question whether every Polish group that is not locally compact admits a Borel action on a standard Borel space whose associated orbit equivalence relation is not essentially countable. We answer this question positively for the class of all Polish groups that embed in the isometry group of a locally compact metric space. This class contains all non-archimedean Polish groups, for which we provide an alternative proof based on a new criterion for non-essential countability. Finally, we provide the following variant of a theorem of Solecki: every infinite-dimensional Banach space has a continuous action whose orbit equivalence relation is Borel but not essentially countable.
Adequate dietary intake is critical to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. India has a high burden of maternal and child morbidity and mortality, but there is a lack of adequate tools to assess dietary intake. We validate an FFQ, New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH), among pregnant women living with and without HIV in Pune, India. Women were selected from a cohort study investigating immune responses to HIV and latent tuberculosis during pregnancy. The FFQ was administered during the third trimester and validated against multiple 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) collected in second and third trimesters. Data for analysis were available from fifty-eight women out of seventy enrolled into this sub-study, after excluding those with incomplete data or implausible energy intake. The median (Q1, Q3) age of study participants was 23 (20, 25) years. Median (Q1, Q3) daily energy intakes were 10 552 (8000, 11 958) and 10 673 (8510, 13 962) kJ by 24-HDR and FFQ, respectively, with FFQ overestimating nutrient intake. Pearson correlations between log-transformed estimates from FFQ and 24-HDR for energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, Fe and Zn were 0·47, 0·48, 0·45, 0·33, 0·4 and 0·54, respectively. Energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0·41 (saturated fat) to 0·73 (Na). The highest misclassification into extreme tertiles was observed for fat (22 %), saturated fat (21 %) and Na (21 %). Bias existed at higher intake levels as observed by Bland–Altman plots. In conclusion, NINA-DISH is a valid and feasible tool for estimating dietary intakes among urban pregnant women in Western India.
Growing interest to Tibetan medicine among the Russian scientific community and popularisation of its practices in the Russian Empire metropolitan areas in the second half of the nineteenth century to early twentieth century concurred with on-going changes in perception of the Orient by Russian society, establishment of its positive image, increased interest to the elements of oriental culture and practices within the framework of the Silver Age values, and the development of the natural science and experimental medicine, both of which caused an improvement in the healthcare system in Russia. At the turn of the twentieth century, Russian society manifested an ambivalent attitude towards Tibetan medicine. On the one hand, there was an increasing interest to theoretical foundations, a desire for scientific understanding, and spread of the Tibetan medicine practical component in the sociocultural environment of the metropolitan society, previously unfamiliar with oriental traditions and beliefs. On the other hand, an issue of the possibilities and principles of Tibetan medical treatment had opposed Western scientific medicine, which produced many discussions and critical reviews. The controversy was repeatedly caused by the negative attitude towards principal metropolitan specialist in Tibetan medicine – Peter Badmaev and distrust to his activities, as opposed to the medical skills of actual lamas. Despite the fact that it was virtually impossible to integrate Tibetan medicine into the Russian healthcare system, interest in it became a factor of attraction to the East and the oriental culture in Russian society at the turn of the twentieth century.
The Campanian Beloe Ozero locality within the Rybushka Formation in Saratov Province, Russia, is one of the richest and most diverse Upper Cretaceous pterosaur localities in Europe. It produces identifiable remains of Pteranodontidae indet. and Azhdarchidae indet., as well as bones which can be attributed to either of these groups. The pteranodontid specimens from the Beloe Ozero locality described in this paper include a cervical III, distal scapula, humerus deltopectoral crest, proximal syncarpal, preaxial carpal and complete femur. Based on the femur and proximal syncarpal, the wingspan estimate for the Beloe Ozero pteranodontid varies from 5.2 to 6.5 m. Volgadraco bogolubovi, known from the neighbouring Shyrokii Karamysh locality of the same formation and attributed previously to the Azhdarchidae, is more likely pteranodontid than azhdarchid. The other putative records of the Pteranodontidae in the Late Cretaceous of North America, Europe and Asia are discussed. Pteranodontid pterosaurs had a much wider distribution on the northern continents in the Late Cretaceous than previously thought.
A number of ecological and geochemical transformations occurred during late Ediacaran and early Cambrian time, the effects of which are difficult to overestimate. However, the strong linkage of biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic methods with lithofacies makes the localization of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary and its correlation with lithologically contrasting sections highly debatable. We analyse the taxonomy and stratigraphic distribution of small skeletal fossils and trace fossils, the carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope composition, and U–Pb detrital zircon age in the Ediacaran–Cambrian transitional interval of the Irkutsk Cis–Sayans Uplift (southwestern Siberian Platform). This interval (Moty Group) comprises a transgressive succession with red-coloured alluvial to deltaic siliciclastic deposits (Shaman Formation) and overlying shallow-marine carbonates (Irkut Formation). The lower Irkut Formation hosts sporadic and poorly preserved tubular Cambrotubulus fossils, which are known from both the terminal Ediacaran Period (c. 550–541 Ma) and the Terreneuvian Epoch (541–521 Ma), and typical Fortunian trace fossils, including an index ichnotaxon of the Cambrian boundary Treptichnus pedum. The biostratigraphic and carbonate carbon isotope data and U–Pb concordia ages of 531.1 ± 5.2 Ma (mean weighted, 530.6 ± 5.3 Ma) of the five youngest zircon grains from the lower Irkut Formation indicate that at least the shallow-marine carbonates of the upper Moty Group correspond to the Cambrian Stage 2 (c. 529–521 Ma). In the Irkutsk Cis–Sayans Uplift, the Cambrian Period tentatively began before or during the accumulation of the alluvial to deltaic siliciclastic Khuzhir and Shaman formations, and this crucial divide remained unmarked in the palaeontological and isotopic records.
This paper raises methodological issues of radiocarbon (14C) dating of historical events based on data obtained during the excavations of the Russian medieval city of Yaroslavl. The city is of special interest to our study because of the precise time of its destruction by troops of Batu Khan mentioned in chronicles—the winter of 1238. To date in Yaroslavl, researchers have discovered 9 mass burials of citizens and domestic animals buried sometime after the massacre by the Mongols. Mass burials of people alongside animals in a common grave and outside of the cemetery, in violation of Christian traditions, are not typical of medieval Russia and are a sign of a military catastrophe. To test this hypothesis, we dated a total of 65 samples representing all 9 mass burials. A Bayesian chronological model of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates narrowed the interval to the range of 1197–1280 cal AD, with the mean age of 1239 AD, consistent with the hypothesis that the studied mass burials of citizens and livestock are related to the capture of the city by the army of Batu Khan.
How often do articles depend on suppression effects for their findings? How often do they disclose this fact? By suppression effects, we mean control-variable-induced increases in estimated effect sizes. Researchers generally scrutinize suppression effects as they want reassurance that authors have a strong explanation for them, especially when the statistical significance of the key finding depends on them. In a reanalysis of observational studies from a leading journal, we find that over 30% of articles depend on suppression effects for statistical significance. Although increases in key effect estimates from including control variables are of course potentially justifiable, none of the articles justify or disclose them. These findings may point to a hole in the review process: journals are accepting articles that depend on suppression effects without readers, reviewers, or editors being made aware.