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Depressive symptoms show different trajectories throughout childhood and adolescence that may have different consequences for adult outcomes.
To examine trajectories of childhood depressive symptoms and their association with education and employment outcomes in early adulthood.
We estimated latent trajectory classes from participants with repeated measures of self-reported depressive symptoms between 11 and 24 years of age and examined their association with two distal outcomes: university degree and those not in employment, education or training at age 24.
Our main analyses (n = 9399) yielded five heterogenous trajectories of depressive symptoms. The largest group found (70.5% of participants) had a stable trajectory of low depressive symptoms (stable–low). The other four groups had symptom profiles that reached full-threshold levels at different developmental stages and for different durations. We identified the following groups: childhood–limited (5.1% of participants) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 11–13; childhood–persistent (3.5%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 13–24; adolescent onset (9.4%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 17–19; and early-adult onset (11.6%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 22–24. Relative to the majority ‘stable–low’ group, the other four groups all exhibited higher risks of one or both adult outcomes.
Accurate identification of depressive symptom trajectories requires data spanning the period from early adolescence to early adulthood. Consideration of changes in, as well as levels of, depressive symptoms could improve the targeting of preventative interventions in early-to-mid adolescence.
There is strong public belief that polyunsaturated fats protect against and ameliorate depression and anxiety.
To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6 or total polyunsaturated fat on prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms.
We searched widely (Central, Medline and EMBASE to April 2017, trial registers to September 2016, ongoing trials updated to August 2019), including trials of adults with or without depression or anxiety, randomised to increased omega-3, omega-6 or total polyunsaturated fat for ≥24 weeks, excluding multifactorial interventions. Inclusion, data extraction and risk of bias were assessed independently in duplicate, and authors contacted for further data. We used random-effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analyses, subgrouping and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) assessment.
We included 31 trials assessing effects of long-chain omega-3 (n = 41 470), one of alpha-linolenic acid (n = 4837), one of total polyunsaturated fat (n = 4997) and none of omega-6. Meta-analysis suggested that increasing long-chain omega-3 probably has little or no effect on risk of depression symptoms (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.92–1.10, I2 = 0%, median dose 0.95 g/d, duration 12 months) or anxiety symptoms (standardised mean difference 0.15, 95% CI 0.05–0.26, I2 = 0%, median dose 1.1 g/d, duration 6 months; both moderate-quality evidence). Evidence of effects on depression severity and remission in existing depression were unclear (very-low-quality evidence). Results did not differ by risk of bias, omega-3 dose, duration or nutrients replaced. Increasing alpha-linolenic acid by 2 g/d may increase risk of depression symptoms very slightly over 40 months (number needed to harm, 1000).
Long-chain omega-3 supplementation probably has little or no effect in preventing depression or anxiety symptoms.
Declaration of interest
L.H. and A.A. were funded to attend the World Health Organization Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group (NUGAG) Subgroup on Diet and Health meetings and present review results. The authors report no other conflicts of interest.
The dysfunctional cognitive and reasoning biases which underpin psychotic symptoms are likely to present prior to the onset of a diagnosable disorder and should therefore be detectable along the psychosis continuum in individuals with schizotypal traits. Two reasoning biases, Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) and Jumping to Conclusions (JTC), describe how information is selected and weighed under conditions of uncertainty during decision making. It is likely that states such as elevated stress exacerbates JTC and BADE in individuals with high schizotypal traits vulnerable to displaying these information gathering styles. Therefore, we evaluated whether stress and schizotypy interacted to predict these reasoning biases using separate samples from the US (JTC) and England (BADE). Generally speaking, schizotypal traits and stress were not independently associated with dysfunctional reasoning biases. However, across both studies, the interaction between schizotypy traits and stress significantly predicted reasoning biases such that increased stress was associated with increased reasoning biases, but only for individuals low in schizotypal traits. These patterns were observed for positive schizotypal traits (in both samples), for negative traits (in the England sample only), but not for disorganization traits. For both samples, our findings suggest that the presence of states such as stress is associated with, though not necessarily dysfunctional, reasoning biases in individuals with low schizotypy. These reasoning biases seemed, in some ways, relatively immutable to stress in individuals endorsing high levels of positive schizotypal traits.
Sponges are important components of intertidal marine communities. There is a lack of information about intertidal marine sponge diversity in the western coast of Portugal (North-east Atlantic). In the present work we identified the most common intertidal sponges of the western coast of Portugal, and made a comprehensive list of the intertidal species described so far for this region. Sponges belonging to the Classes Calcarea and Demospongiae were identified, the former class for the first time at these locations. Demospongiae are the most common intertidal sponges, present in all sampling locations. We used an integrative approach for Demospongiae identification, using both morphological and molecular characters. Molecular identification, using a CO1 marker proved to be helpful in the identification to the genus level, despite some limitations, such as difficulty in amplification experienced for sponges as well as non-target organisms. A total of 170 specimens were collected. Seven specimens (five species) belonged to the Class Calcarea and 163 specimens (23 species) to the Class Demospongiae. The demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis was present at all sample locations. Calcarean species were primarily found in samples taken along the south-western coast.
In politically contested health debates, stakeholders on both sides present arguments and evidence to influence public opinion and the political agenda. The present study aimed to examine whether stakeholders in the Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) debate sought to establish or undermine the acceptability of this policy through the news media and how this compared with similar policy debates in relation to tobacco and alcohol industries.
Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles discussing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation published in eleven UK newspapers between 1 April 2015 and 30 November 2016, identified through the Nexis database. Direct stakeholder citations were entered in NVivo to allow inductive thematic analysis and comparison with an established typology of industry stakeholder arguments used by the alcohol and tobacco industries.
Proponents and opponents of SSB tax/SDIL cited in UK newspapers.
Four hundred and ninety-one newspaper articles cited stakeholders’ (n 287) arguments in relation to SSB taxation (n 1761: 65 % supportive and 35 % opposing). Stakeholders’ positions broadly reflected their vested interests. Inconsistencies arose from: changes in ideological position; insufficient clarity on the nature of the problem to be solved; policy priorities; and consistency with academic rigour. Both opposing and supportive themes were comparable with the alcohol and tobacco industry typology.
Public health advocates were particularly prominent in the UK newspaper debate surrounding the SDIL. Advocates in future policy debates might benefit from seeking a similar level of prominence and avoiding inconsistencies by being clearer about the policy objective and mechanisms.
Icequakes at or near the bed of a glacier have the potential to allow us to investigate the interaction of ice with the underlying till or bedrock. Understanding this interaction is important for studying basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams, a critical process in ice dynamics models used to constrain future sea-level rise projections. However, seismic observations on glaciers can be dominated by seismic energy from surface crevassing. We present a method of automatically detecting basal icequakes and discriminating them from surface crevassing, comparing this method to a commonly used spectrum-based method of detecting icequakes. We use data from Skeidararjökull, an outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, South-East Iceland, to demonstrate that our method outperforms the commonly used spectrum-based method. Our method detects a higher number of basal icequakes, has a lower rate of incorrectly identifying crevassing as basal icequakes and detects an additional, spatially independent basal icequake cluster. We also show independently that the icequakes do not originate from near the glacier surface. We conclude that the method described here is more effective than currently implemented methods for detecting and discriminating basal icequakes from surface crevassing.
Introduction: The quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score was developed to provide clinicians with a quick assessment for patients with latent organ failure possibly consistent with sepsis at high-risk for mortality. With the clinical heterogeneity of patients presenting with sepsis, a Bayesian validation approach may provide a better understanding of its clinical utility. This study used a Bayesian analysis to assess the prediction of hospital mortality by the qSOFA score among patients with infection transported by paramedics. Methods: A one-year cohort of adult patients transported by paramedics in a large, provincial EMS system was linked to Emergency Department (ED) and hospital administrative databases, then restricted to those patients with an ED diagnosed infection. A Bayesian binomial regression model was constructed using Hamiltonian Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo sampling, normal priors for each parameter, the calculated score, age and sex as the predictors, and hospital mortality as the outcome. Discrimination was assessed using posterior predictions to calculate a “Bayesian” C statistic, and calibration was assessed with calibration plots of the observed and predicted probability distributions. The independent predictive ability of each measure was tested by including each component measure (respiratory rate, Glasgow Coma Scale, and systolic blood pressure) as continuous predictors in a second model. Results: A total of 9,920 patients with ED diagnosed infection were included. 264 (2.7%) patients were admitted directly to the ICU, and 955 (9.6%) patients died in-hospital. As independent predictors, the probability of mortality increased as each measure became more extreme, with the Glasgow Coma Scale predicting the greatest change in mortality risk from a high to low score; however, no dramatic change in the probability supporting a single decision threshold was seen for any measure. For the calculated score, the C statistic for predicting mortality was 0.728. The calibration curve had no overlap of predictions, with a probability of 0.5 (50% credible interval 0.47-0.53) for patients with a qSOFA score of 3. Conclusion: Although no single decision threshold was identified for each component measure, a calculated qSOFA score provides good prediction of mortality for patients with ED diagnosed infection. When validating clinical prediction scores, a Bayesian approach may be used to assess probabilities of interest for clinicians to support better clinical decision making. Character count 2494
We survey recent work on approximation algorithms for computing degree-constrained subgraphs in graphs and their applications in combinatorial scientific computing. The problems we consider include maximization versions of cardinality matching, edge-weighted matching, vertex-weighted matching and edge-weighted
-matching, and minimization versions of weighted edge cover and
-edge cover. Exact algorithms for these problems are impractical for massive graphs with several millions of edges. For each problem we discuss theoretical foundations, the design of several linear or near-linear time approximation algorithms, their implementations on serial and parallel computers, and applications. Our focus is on practical algorithms that yield good performance on modern computer architectures with multiple threads and interconnected processors. We also include information about the software available for these problems.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
We demonstrate a suspended graphene-(poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer angular displacement actuator enabled by variable elastic modulus of the perforated stacked structure. Azimuthal flexures support a central disc-shaped membrane, and compression of the membrane can be used to control the rotation of the entire structure. Irradiating the PMMA on graphene stack with 5 kV electrons in a convention scanning electron microscope reduces the elastic modulus of the PMMA and allows graphene’s built in strain to dominate and compress the flexures, thus rotating the actuator.
An emerging family of materials—metal halide perovskites (MHPs)—have made incredible achievements in optoelectronics in the past decade. Owing to its potential role in optoelectronic properties, the ferroic state of MHPs has been investigated by lots of researchers. Here, we review the literature regarding investigations into possible ferroic behaviors in MHPs. We summarize the recent discoveries of ferroic twin domains in MHPs. We examine the ferroelasticity and the ferroelectricity of these twin domains. Several properties relevant to the twin domains are critically analyzed, including crystallographic structure, mechanical variation, chemical variation, etc. Finally, we discussed the effects of these domains on materials’ optoelectronic properties and their potential roles in photovoltaic action.
TiO2 has been widely studied as a photocatalytic material due to its non-toxicity, chemical inertness, and high photocatalytic activity. Here, we explore the operational behavior of a novel TiO2 micropillars array being developed to use solar radiation to treat recycled wastewater in long-duration space missions. A Light Capture model was developed to model light absorption. The Lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate water flow, and the finite element method was used to model waste mass transfer.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.