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The prime focus of this work is to estimate stability and control derivatives of an airship in a completely nonlinear environment. A complete six degrees of freedom airship model has its aerodynamic model as nonlinear functions of angle of attack. Estimating the parameters of aerodynamic model in a nonlinear environment is challenging as it demands an exhaustive dataset that could cover the entire regime of operation of airship. In this work, data generation is achieved by simulating the mathematical model of airship for different trim conditions obtained from continuation analysis. The mathematical model is simulated using predicted parameter values obtained using DATCOM methodology. A modular neural network is then trained using back-propagation and Adam optimisation algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients separately. The estimated nonlinear airship parameters are found to be consistent with the DATCOM parameter values which were used for open-loop simulation. This validates the proposed methodology and could be extended to estimate airship parameters from real flight data.
Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals).
Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD−AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10−10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD−AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10−14) and MD (rgMD−AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10−7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD−AC frequency = −0.17, P = 1.5 × 10−10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10−6). There was no evidence for reverse causation.
This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.
Gambling disorder (GD), recognized in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version 5 (DSM-5) as a behavioral addiction, is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. However, there has been little research on the genetic and environmental influences on the development of this disorder. This study reports results from the largest twin study of GD conducted to date.
Replication and combined analyses were based on samples of 3292 (mean age 31.8, born 1972–79) and 4764 (mean age 37.7, born 1964–71) male, female, and unlike-sex twin pairs from the Australian Twin Registry. Univariate biometric twin models estimated the proportion of variation in the latent GD liability that could be attributed to genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors, and whether these differed quantitatively or qualitatively for men and women.
In the replication study, when using a lower GD threshold, there was evidence for significant genetic (60%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 45–76%) and unique environmental (40%; 95% CI 24–56%), but not shared environmental contributions (0%; 95% CI 0–0%) to GD liability; this did not significantly differ from the original study. In the combined analysis, higher GD thresholds (such as one consistent with DSM-5 GD) and a multiple threshold definitions of GD yielded similar results. There was no evidence for quantitative or qualitative sex differences in the liability for GD.
Twin studies of GD are few in number but they tell a remarkably similar story: substantial genetic and unique environmental influences, with no evidence for shared environmental contributions or sex differences in GD liability.
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest/death in young athletes in the United States of America. Limited data are available regarding family history in this patient population.
Patients were evaluated prospectively from 12/2012 to 02/2017 in the Coronary Anomalies Program at Texas Children’s Hospital. Relevant family history included the presence of CHD, sudden cardiac arrest/death, arrhythmia/pacemaker use, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease before the age of 50 years. The presence of one or more of these in 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives was considered significant.
Of 168 unrelated probands (171 patients total) included, 36 (21%) had significant family history involving 19 (53%) 1st-degree and 17 (47%) 2nd-degree relatives. Positive family history led to cardiology referral in nine (5%) patients and the presence of abnormal tests/symptoms in the remaining patients. Coronary anomalies in probands with positive family history were anomalous right (27), anomalous left (five), single right coronary artery (two), myocardial bridge (one), and anomalous circumflex coronary artery (one). Conditions present in their family members included sudden cardiac arrest/death (15, 42%), atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (14, 39%), cardiomyopathy (12, 33%), CHD (11, 31%), coronary anomalies (3, 8%), myocardial bridge (1, 3%), long-QT syndrome (2, 6%), and Wolff–Parkinson–White (1, 3%).
In patients with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery and/or myocardial bridges, there appears to be familial clustering of cardiac diseases in approximately 20% of patients, half of these with early occurrence of sudden cardiac arrest/death in the family.
We describe the case of a 52-day-old child who was diagnosed with a rare combination of corrected transposition of great vessels – hypoplastic right ventricle with supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.
Prior research has documented shared heritable contributions to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) as well as NSSI and suicide attempt (SA). In addition, trauma exposure has been implicated in risk for NSSI and suicide. Genetically informative studies are needed to determine common sources of liability to all three self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, and to clarify the nature of their associations with traumatic experiences.
Multivariate biometric modeling was conducted using data from 9526 twins [59% female, mean age = 31.7 years (range 24–42)] from two cohorts of the Australian Twin Registry, some of whom also participated in the Childhood Trauma Study and the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Project.
The prevalences of high-risk trauma exposure (HRT), NSSI, SI, and SA were 24.4, 5.6, 27.1, and 4.6%, respectively. All phenotypes were moderately to highly correlated. Genetic influences on self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and HRT were significant and highly correlated among men [rG = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.37–0.81)] and women [rG = 0.56 (0.49–0.63)]. Unique environmental influences were modestly correlated in women [rE = 0.23 (0.01–0.45)], suggesting that high-risk trauma may confer some direct risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among females.
Individuals engaging in NSSI are at increased risk for suicide, and common heritable factors contribute to these associations. Preventing trauma exposure may help to mitigate risk for self-harm and suicide, either directly or indirectly via reductions in liability to psychopathology more broadly. In addition, targeting pre-existing vulnerability factors could significantly reduce risk for life-threatening behaviors among those who have experienced trauma.
The rheological behavior of composites made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and chitosan was studied. Composites were prepared by melt processing in a laboratory internal mixer. Maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (PE-g-MA) was used as compatibilizer to enhance the dispersion of chitosan in the HDPE matrix. Different percentages of chitosan and compatibilizer (up to a maximum of 25 phr) were added into HDPE to prepare composites. Characterization of the composites with parallel plate rheometer and laboratory internal mixer revealed that the presence of chitosan increases the complex viscosity, loss modulus, storage modulus and the torque (i.e., melt viscosity), and the combination chitosan/compatibilizer has a similar, if slighter, effect. At higher filler levels it is clear that the PE-g-MA affected the microstructure of the compounds, possibly increasing matrix–filler interactions and acting as an effective compatibilizer.
The fish host (Wallago attu) and monogenoid parasite (Thaparocleidus sp.) have been recorded during 2 years (2011 and 2012) to investigate intra/interspecific interactions among query species (T. sudhakari (Gusev, 1976) Lim, 1996; T. indicus (Kulkarni, 1969) Lim, 1996; T. gomtius (Jain, 1952) Lim, 1996; T. yogendraii Agrawal, 1981 and T. wallagonius Jain, 1952) in the light of parasitic worm burden, morphological and molecular data. Each species is highly host specific (oioxenous), with a specialized functional niche. Being niche specialists, they exhibit niche overlapping along with co-existence due to reproductive barrier. Furthermore, a molecular marker, affirming clear-cut genetic variation in spite of structural entities, provides evidence for infra-speciation as well as co-speciation.
The C14 dates given below are in years b.p. calculated on the basis of τ1/2 = 5568 years. For converting to a.d./b.c scale, 1950 was used as reference year. Ninety-five per cent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as a modern standard.
In this paper are reported C14 dates of archaeologic samples from the Neolithic, Harappan and Early Historic sites of India. C14 activity was counted in an Oeschger-Houtermans’ gas proportional counter. The counting gas, acetylene, was synthesized using the technique described earlier (Kusumgar and others, 1963). The dates presented here are based on 5568 yr for the half-life of C14. The conversion to A.D./B.C. scale has been made using a.d. 1950 as the reference year.
We continue to give dates based on the half-life of 5568 years according to the decision of the Sixth Pullman Conference (Internatl. Conf., Pullman, 1965). The year 1950 has been used as a reference year for converting the dates to A.D./B.C. scale. A value corresponding to 95% net counting rate of the NBS oxalic acid has been used as the modern reference standard.
The C14 dates presented here have been obtained by counting acetylene, synthesised from the sample, in an Oeschger-Houtermans’ gas proportional counter. The chemical and counting procedures have been described in some detail (Kusumgar et al., 1963a).
Dates are based on the C14 half-life value of 5568 yr. For conversion of b.p. dates to a.d./b.c. scale, a.d. 1950 has been taken as the reference yr. Ninety-five % activity of NBS oxalic acid has been adopted as the value for the pre-1900 age-corrected wood.
All samples were treated with dilute HCl. Whenever NaOH pretreatment was possible, it has been mentioned in the date list. In the case of bones, only the inorganic fraction has been dated.
We have made observations of the black hole binary Cyg X-1 with the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE). Observations made with time resolution ranging from 0.4 ms to 1 s showed variations and flaring activity on sub-sec and longer time scales. Results on time variability on different time scales and flaring characteristics in the two states of Cyg X-1 are presented.
We have made photometric observations of the galactic superluminal jet source GRS 1915+105 in the energy bands of 2-6 and 6-18 keV during 1997 June 12-29 and August 8-10. During our observations, different types of very intense, quasi-regular X-ray bursts have been observed from this source. We present here the light curves and the power density spectra of our observation of this source in its bright state.
This study examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment of reconstructed buffalo embryos, produced by hand-made cloning using somatic cells isolated from over a decade old frozen–thawed semen, on their in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, quality and epigenetic status. Following treatment of reconstructed embryos with TSA (0, 50 or 75 nM) for 10 h prior to culture, the cleavage (100.0 ± 0, 94.5 ± 2.3 and 96.1 ± 1.2%, respectively) and blastocyst rate (50.6 ± 2.3, 48.4 ± 2.7 and 48.1 ± 2.6%, respectively), total cell number (275 ± 17.4, 289 ± 30.1 and 317 ± 24.2, respectively) and apoptotic index (5.6 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 4.5 ± 1.4, respectively) were not significantly different among the three groups. However, TSA treatment increased (P < 0.05) the global level of H4K5ac and decreased (P < 0.05) that of H3K27me3 in blastocysts whereas the global level of H3K18ac was not affected significantly. Transfer of embryos treated with 75 nM TSA (n = 10) to recipients resulted in two pregnancies (20%), one out of which was aborted in the second and the other in the third trimester whereas transfer of control embryos (n = 20) or those treated with 50 nM TSA (n = 12) did not result in any pregnancy. In conclusion, these results suggest that TSA treatment of cloned buffalo embryos produced using somatic cells isolated from frozen–thawed semen improved their epigenetic status but not the in vitro developmental potential and offspring rate.
Minimum health requirements exist for entry into the UK armed forces. Both pre-existing and iatrogenic ENT conditions may impact on an individual's medical fitness and their ability to enter the forces.
The relevant literature was examined and military otolaryngology advisors were interviewed in order to define the ENT-specific conditions that restrict an individual joining the armed forces.
The ENT diseases and disabilities that inhibit an individual's ability to join the forces are described. Treatments that may facilitate or restrict recruitment are also discussed.
Members of the armed forces operate in arduous environments and are required to pass a screening medical assessment before joining. Personnel may be isolated away from specialist care and therefore cannot be dependent on specialist devices or medicines. This paper aims to arm ENT specialists with occupational knowledge to enable them to correctly counsel patients and offer appropriate treatment.
In this paper we report on our observations of hard X-rays from several X-ray sources in the energy range 20–120 keV. The results were obtained from the data collected during two balloon flights made from Hyderabad, India (latitude 17.6°N, longitude 78.5°E). The first flight was made on April 28, 1968, and the balloon reached a ceiling of about 5.3 g cm−2 residual atmosphere and floated from 0230 to 0800 hrs. IST (Indian Standard Time). The second balloon was launched on December 22, 1968 and floated at about 7.5 g cm−2 of residual air from 1000 to 1130 hrs. IST.
In this paper we present observations of the diffuse background X-rays in the energy range 20–120 keV, based on two balloon experiments carried out from Hyderabad (latitude 17.6°N, longitude 78.5°E), India. The flights were made on April 28, 1968 and December 22, 1968. The detector used was a NaI(Tl) crystal of effective area 97.3 cm2 and thickness 4 mm. The crystal was surrounded both by active and passive collimators. The passive collimator was a cylindrical graded shield of lead, tin, and copper, and the active collimator was a plastic scintillator surrounding the shield. The FWHM of the telescope was 18.6° and the geometrical factor for isotropic radiation 13.2 cm2 sr. The pulses from the NaI crystal were sorted into ten contiguous channels extending from 17 to 124 keV. An Am241 source came into the field of view of the telescope periodically and provided in-flight calibration of the detector. All the information was recorded on photographic film.
In this note we wish to report briefly the observation of sudden changes in the intensity of Sco X-1 by a factor of about 3 recorded in the energy interval 29.9–52.3 keV on December 22, 1968 between 04 h 27 m and 05 h 53 m UT. The observation was made with an X-ray telescope flown in a balloon from Hyderabad, India. The balloon was launched at 0200 hr UT and reached the ceiling of 7.5 g/cm2 of residual atmosphere at 0435 hr UT. The X-ray telescope consisted of a NaI(T1) crystal with an area of 97.3 cm2 and thickness 4 mm, surrounded by both active and passive collimators. The telescope was mounted on an oriented platform which was programmed to look in four specified directions successively, of azimuths, Φ=0°, 110°, 180° and 310° (Φ=0° being North and Φ=90°, West), spending about 4 min in each direction during a cycle of period of about 16 min. The axis of the telescope was inclined at an angle of 32° with respect to the zenith. A pair of crossed flux gate magnetometers provided information every 8.2 sec on the azimuth of the telescope. The pulse heights from the X-ray detector were sorted into several channels extending from 10 to 120 keV. An Am241 source came into the field of view of the telescope once in 15 min for about 30 sec to provide in-flight calibration of the detector. The meridian transit of Sco X-1 was at 0454 hr UT. Just before the balloon reached the ceiling Sco X-1 was in the field of view of the telescope for 3 min and 41 sec. After the balloon reached ceiling, Sco X-1 was in the field of view of the telescope on five occasions between 0443 and 0553 hr UT. During the last observation, however, the balloon had lost altitude by about 1 g/cm2. The excess counts due to Sco X-1 were obtained by subtracting the counting rates corresponding to the North direction which did not include any known X-ray sources. The observation on Sco X-1 in the 1st cycle was made while the balloon was still ascending and consequently the interposed grammage was changing from 10.5 to 9.7 g/cm2. However, for the energy range under consideration, the change in the background counting rate was not significant and there cannot be any doubt regarding the genuineness of the excess counts recorded.