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We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
Patient assessment is a fundamental feature of community paramedicine, but the absence of a recognized standard for assessment practices contributes to uncertainty about what drives care planning and treatment decisions. Our objective was to summarize the content of assessment instruments and describe the state of current practice in community paramedicine home visit programs.
We performed an environmental scan of all community paramedicine programs in Ontario, Canada, and used content analysis to describe current assessment practices in home visit programs. The International Classification on Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was used to categorize and compare assessments. Each item within each assessment form was classified according to the ICF taxonomy.
A total of 43 of 52 paramedic services in Ontario, Canada, participated in the environmental scan with 24 being eligible for further investigation through content analysis of intake assessment forms. Among the 24 services, 16 met inclusion criteria for content analysis. Assessment forms contained between 13 and 252 assessment items (median 116.5, IQR 134.5). Most assessments included some content from each of the domains outlined in the ICF. At the subdomain level, only assessment of impairments of the functions of the cardiovascular, hematological, immunological, and respiratory systems appeared in all assessments.
Although community paramedicine home visit programs may differ in design and aim, all complete multi-domain assessments as part of patient intake. If community paramedicine home visit programs share similar characteristics but assess patients differently, it is difficult to expect that the resulting referrals, care planning, treatments, or interventions will be similar.
Natural structural materials (NSMs) such as nacre, teeth, bones and crustacean exoskeleton are usually made of weak biomaterials arranged in specific structural design imparting them remarkable mechanical characteristics. Such hierarchical structural layouts found in nature encourage designing of mechanically desirable synthetic structural materials (SSMs). Among variety of natural hierarchical layouts, this paper specifically focuses on helicoidal architectural design found in the tough dactyl club of mantis shrimp. We first decode the mechanics behind helicoidal microstructural design and document the development of impact resistant macroscale helicoidal architectured synthetic structural materials (HA-SSMs). Next, near-field electrospinning technique (NFES)- both melt (polycaprolactone) and solution (polyvinylidene fluoride) type has been discussed in detail, as a novel method for developing lab scale 3D biomimetic HA-SSMs in micro-nanoscale. Further, the effect of the helical arrangement, size of substructures and surface treatment on strength and toughness of NFES fabricated HA-SSMs samples is analysed.
Introduction: Patient assessment is a fundamental feature of non-emergency community paramedicine (CP) home visit programs. In the absence of a recognized standard for CP assessment, current assessment practices in CP programs are unknown. Without knowing what community paramedics are assessing, it is difficult to ascertain what should be included in patient care plans, whether interventions are beneficial, or whether paramedics are meeting program objectives. Our objective was to summarize the content of assessment instruments used in CP programs in order to describe the state of current practice. Methods: We performed an environmental scan of all CP programs in Ontario, Canada, and employed content analysis to describe current assessment practices in CP home visit programs. The International Classification on Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was used to categorize and compare assessments. Each item within each assessment form was classified according to the ICF taxonomy. Findings were compared at the domain and sub-domain of the ICF. Results: Of 54 paramedic services in Ontario, 43 responded to our request for information. Of 24 services with CP home visit programs, 18 provided their intake assessment forms for content analysis. Assessment forms contained between 13 and 252 assessment items (median 116.5, IQR 134.5). Overall, most assessments included some content from each of the domains outlined in the ICF, including: Impairments of Body Functions, Impairments of Body Structures, Activity Limitation and Participation, and Environmental Factors. At the sub-domain level, only assessment of Impairments of the Functions of the Cardiovascular, Haematological, Immunological and Respiratory systems appeared in all assessments. Few CP home visit program assessments covered most ICF sub-domain categories and many items classified to specific categories were included in only a few assessments. Conclusion: CP home visit programs complete multi-domain assessments as part of patient intake. The content of CP assessments varied across Ontario, which suggests that care planning and resources may not be consistent. Current work on practice guidelines and paramedic training can build from descriptions of assessment practices to improve quality of care and patient safety. By identifying what community paramedics assess, evaluation of the quality of CP home visit programs and their ability to meet program objectives can be improved and benchmarks in patient care can be established.
Innovation Concept: Competence in procedural skills is vital within the emergency department. Challenging procedures such as cricothyroidotomy are difficult to master as they are rare and hard to train for. Additionally, common procedures such as chest tube insertions require practice to become sufficiently competent. Opportunities to hone these skills are essential in residency training. This project aimed to create instructional video modules for specific emergency medicine (EM) procedures and to gauge its utility as an adjunctive resource for procedural learning in the EM residency curriculum. Methods: Tutorial videos for clamshell thoracotomy, cricothyroidotomy, and chest tube insertion were filmed within a cadaver lab with step-by-step instructions. The footage was edited and overlaid with a prepared audio narration using Camtasia®/Apple® Video Editing software. These videos were embedded within modules that included foundational knowledge relevant to the procedures including anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology. The modules were peer-edited by licensed EM staff physicians and distributed to EM residents and staff physicians for analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis relied upon participants’ answers to questions and a Modified Task Value Scale (measures the value of a module for overall learning), respectively. Curriculum, Tool or Material: Ten participants were included in the analysis, including EM residents (n = 6) and staff emergency physicians (n = 4). Qualitative feedback suggested that positive aspects of the modules included visuals, content, narration, and review of anatomy. Negative aspects included the lack of indications for procedures, technical details, real patient examples, and a speed up function. Quantitative feedback resulted in scores of 4 and above out of 5 (1 = lowest value, 5 = highest value) on the Motivated Task Value Scale across all aspects for all the modules. Furthermore, analysis revealed an average score of 3.9/5 for inclination to access more modules such as these, and a score of 4.4/5 for overall perception of the modules. Conclusion: Participants found the video modules valuable to their learning, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This study was limited by a small sample size of modules and a low number of participants. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis with further measures, including self-efficacy and self-confidence, would yield more comprehensive conclusions. However, video modules provide an effective and easily accessible adjunctive tool to acquire skill and confidence with EM procedures, for medical learners and staff physicians.
To propose a new classification of inner-ear anomalies that is more clinically oriented and surgically relevant: the SMS (Sawai Man Singh) classification of cochleovestibular malformations.
A retrospective multicentric study was conducted of 436 cochlear implantations carried out in 3 Indian tertiary care institutes. Patients with anomalous anatomy were included and classified, as per the new SMS classification, into cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, based on cochlear morphology, modiolus and lamina cribrosa.
There were 19, 23, 8 and 4 patients with cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, respectively. Two-year post-operative Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores were statistically analysed.
This new classification for inner-ear anomalies is a simpler, more practical, outcome-oriented classification that can be used to better plan the surgery. These merits make it a more uniform classification for recording results.
Introduction: Competence in procedural skills is vital within the emergency department. Challenging procedures such as cricothyroidotomy are difficult to master as they are rare and hard to train for. Additionally, common procedures such as chest tube insertions require practice to become sufficiently competent. Opportunities to hone these skills are essential in residency training. This project aimed to create instructional video modules for specific emergency medicine (EM) procedures and gauge their utility as adjunctive resources for procedural learning in the EM residency curriculum. Methods: Tutorial videos for clamshell thoracotomy, cricothyroidotomy, and chest tube insertion were filmed within a cadaver lab with step-by-step instructions. The footage was edited and overlaid with a pre-prepared audio narration using Camtasia®/Apple® Video Editing software. These videos were embedded within modules that included foundational knowledge relevant to the procedures, including anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology. The modules were peer-edited by licensed EM staff physicians and distributed to EM residents and staff physicians for analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis relied upon participants’ answers to questions and a Modified Task Value Scale, respectively. Results: Ten participants were included in the analysis, including EM residents (n = 6) and staff emergency physicians (n = 4). Qualitative feedback suggested that positive aspects of the modules included visuals, content, narration, and review of anatomy. Negative aspects included the lack of indications for procedures, technical details, real patient examples, and a speed up function. Quantitative feedback resulted in scores of 4 and above out of 5 on the Motivated Task Value Scale across all aspects for all the modules. Furthermore, analysis revealed an average score of 3.9 for inclination to access more modules such as these, and a score of 4.4 for overall perception of the modules. Conclusion: Participants found the video modules valuable to their learning, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This study was limited by a small sample size of modules and a low number of participants. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis with further measures, including self-efficacy and self-confidence, would yield more comprehensive conclusions. However, video-based modules provide an effective and easily accessible adjunctive tool to acquire skill and confidence with EM procedures, for medical learners and staff physicians.
Recent work has implicated one type of horizontal strabismus (exotropia) as a risk factor for schizophrenia. This new insight raises questions about a potential common developmental origin of the two diseases. Seasonality of births is well established for schizophrenia. Seasonal factors such as light exposure affect eye growth and can cause vision abnormalities, but little is known about seasonality of births in strabismus. We examined birth seasonality in people with horizontal strabismus in a retrospective study in Washoe County, Nevada, and re-examined similar previously obtained data from Osaka, Japan. We then compared seasonal patterns of births between strabismus, refractive error, schizophrenia and congenital toxoplasmosis. Patients with esotropia had a significant seasonality of births, with a deficit in March, then increasing to an excess in September, while patients with exotropia had a distinctly different pattern, with an excess of births in July, gradually decreasing to a deficit in November. These seasonalities were statistically significant with either χ2 or Kolmogorov–Smirnov-type statistics. The birth seasonality of esotropia resembled that for hyperopia, with an increase in amplitude, while the seasonality for myopia involved a phase-shift. There was no correlation between seasonality of births between strabismus and congenital toxoplasmosis. The pattern of an excess of summer births for people with exotropia was remarkably similar to the well-established birth seasonality of one schizophrenia subtype, the deficit syndrome, but not schizophrenia as a whole. This suggests a testable hypothesis: that exotropia may be a risk factor primarily for the deficit type of schizophrenia.
The aim of this study is to identify the types of community paramedicine programs and the training for each.
A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, grey literature, and bibliographies followed a search strategy using common community paramedicine terms. All studies published in English up to January 22, 2018, were captured. Screening and extraction were completed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess studies’ methodological quality (full methodology on PROSPERO: CRD42017051774).
From 3,004 papers, there were 64 papers identified (58 unique community paramedicine programs). Of the papers with an appraisable study design (40.6%), the median MMAT score was 3 of 4 criteria met, suggesting moderate quality. Programs most often served frequent 911 callers (48.3%) and individuals at risk for emergency department admission, readmission, or hospitalization (41.4%); and 70.7% of programs were preventive home visits. Common services provided were home assessment (29.5%), medication management (39.7%), and referral and/or transport to community services (37.9%); and 77.6% of programs involved interprofessional collaboration. Community paramedicine training was described by 57% of programs and expanded upon traditional paramedicine training and emphasized technical skills. Study heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis.
Community paramedicine programs and training were diverse and allowed community paramedics to address a spectrum of population health and social needs. Training was poorly described. Enabling more programs to assess and report on program and training outcomes would support community paramedicine growth and the development of formalized training or education frameworks.
A nonparaxial investigation for propagation characteristics of q-Gaussian laser beam in rippled density plasma is studied by considering the relativistic nonlinearity. The field distribution in the medium is expressed in terms of q parameter and beam width parameter f. Nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the evolution of complex envelope in slowly varying approximation is solved in a modulated density profile. Analytical theory of self-focusing including higher order terms in the expansion of dielectric function up to fourth order is developed and the variation of beam width parameter f with the distance of propagation for different parameters is studied. One may note that increased value of density ripple, laser intensity and depth of modulation, increases self-focusing whereas a lower value of q shows strong self-focusing. A comparative study between paraxial and nonparaxial study has also conducted. This study is useful for research in high energy density physics.
Recent observations demonstrate a significant ameliorative effect of add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. Of the many SNPs, NRG1 rs35753505 and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphisms have shown to have a strong association with neuroplasticity effect in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia patients (n=32) with treatment resistant auditory hallucinations were administered with an add-on tDCS. The COMT (rs4680) and NRG1 (rs35753505) genotypes were determined. The COMT genotypes were categorised into Val group (GG; n=15) and Met group (GG/AG; n=17) and NRG1 genotypes were categorised into AA group (n=12) and AG/GG group (n=20).
The reduction in auditory hallucination sub-scale score was significantly affected by COMT-GG genotype [Time×COMT interaction: F(1,28)=10.55, p=0.003, ɳ2=0.27]. Further, COMT-GG effect was epistatically influenced by the co-occurrence of NRG1-AA genotype [Time×COMT×NRG1 interaction: F(1,28)=8.09, p=0.008, ɳ2=0.22]. Irrespective of genotype, females showed better tDCS response than males [Time×Sex interaction: F(1,21)=4.67, p=0.04, ɳ2=0.18].
COMT-GG and NRG1-AA genotypes aid the tDCS-induced improvement in AVHs in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary observations need replication and further systematic research to understand the neuroplastic gene determinants that modulate the effect of tDCS.
Here, we present initial results from the ALFABURST radio transient survey, which is currently running in a commensal mode with the ALFA receiver at the Arecibo telescope. We observed for a total of 1400 hours and have detected single pulses from known pulsars but did not detect any FRBs. The non-detection of FRBs is consistent with the current FRB sky rates.
In this paper, we prove some new reverse dynamic inequalities of Renaud- and Bennett-type on time scales. The results are established using the time scales Fubini theorem, the reverse Hölder inequality and a time scales chain rule.
A s-polarized short-pulse laser impinged obliquely on an overdense plasma slab is shown to produce very significant second harmonic in the direction of specular reflection and transmission. The laser induces a non-linear current on electrons, which is curl free. However, with sharp plasma boundary, it gives rise to electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic. Our formalism includes multiple reflections of the incident and second-harmonic waves from both the front and rear surfaces. The present work includes finiteness of the slab. The normalized second-harmonic amplitude acquires a sharp peak at some specific angle of incidence for a particular set of parameters dependent on thickness of the slab and plasma density.
Soybean is a leading oilseed crop in India, which contains about 40% of protein and 20% of oil. Core collection will accelerate the management and utilization of soybean genetic resources in breeding programmes. In the present study, eight agromorphological traits of 3443 soybean germplasm were analysed for the development of core collection using the principal component score (PCS) strategy and the power core method. The PCS strategy yielded core collection (CC1) of 576 accessions, which accounted for 16.72% of the entire collection (EC). The analysis based on the power core programme resulted in CC2 of 402 accessions, which accounted for 11.67% of the EC. Statistical analysis showed similar trends for the mean and range estimated in both core collections and EC. In addition, the variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variance were in general higher in core collections than in the EC. The correlations observed in the EC in general were preserved in core collections. A total of 311 and 137 unique accessions were found in CC1 and CC2 in addition to 265 accessions that were found to be common in both core collections. These 265 common accessions were the most diverse core sets, which accounted for 7.64% of the EC. We proposed to constitute an integrated core collection (ICC) by integrating both common and unique accessions. The ICC comprised 713 accessions, which accounted for about 20.62% of the EC. Statistical analysis indicated that the ICC captured maximum variation than CC1 and CC2. Therefore, the ICC can be extensively evaluated for a large number of economically important traits for the identification of desirable genotypes and for the development of mini core collection in soybean.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of ear diseases in children from Delhi, India.
A population-based cross-sectional door-to-door survey was carried out in two districts of Delhi, and involved children of all demographic sections of the region. A total of 4626 children aged between 18 days and 15 years underwent examinations including otoscopy, impedance audiometry and hearing screening.
In all, 14.8 per cent of the study sample was diagnosed with one or more ear morbidities, the most common being cerumen impaction (7.5 per cent) and chronic suppurative otitis media (3.6 per cent). There was clinical evidence of otitis media with effusion in 2 per cent of children, and 0.96 per cent had otitis externa (bacterial and fungal). The point prevalence of acute suppurative otitis media was 0.39 per cent. In all, 0.45 per cent of children were found to have an undiagnosed foreign body within the ear canal.
The high prevalence of ear disease poses a significant public health problem in Delhi.
To study the presence of bacterial biofilm on the sinus mucosa of healthy individuals (controls) and patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis.
An analytical, prospective and observational study was conducted. Tissue samples were obtained from the sinus mucosa. The bacteria were isolated and typified, and the material was examined for biofilm formation using tissue culture plate, Congo red agar detection and tube methods.
A total of 100 cases were analysed for the presence of biofilm. Bacterial biofilm was present in 26 of 50 disease group cases (52 per cent) and in 4 of 50 control group cases (8 per cent) (p < 0.01).
The presence of biofilm on the mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis patients offers a possible cause for the persistent inflammation, and for antibiotics resistance and antimicrobial therapy failure. These findings could change the approach to treatment.