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Lithium solid-state composite electrolytes (LiSCEs) provide the opportunity for long life spans, low self-discharge, high reliability, high energy density, and safety. Additionally, this class of electrolytes can be used in electrolytically formed solid-state batteries (EFBs), which may promote reductions in cell manufacturing costs due to their simplicity of design and permit the formation of batteries with diverse architectures. Herein, we provide a discussion of LiSCEs, highlight some of the recent progress in EFB development, and present a forward outlook.
Solid state batteries are an emerging alternative to traditional liquid electrolyte cells that provide potential for safe and high-energy density power sources. This report describes a self-forming, solid state battery based on the Li/I2 couple using an LiI-rich LiI(3-hydroxypropionitrile)2 electrolyte (LiI–LiI(HPN)2). As the negative and positive active materials are generated in situ, the solid electrolyte–current collector interfaces play a critical role in determining the electrochemical response of the battery. Herein, we report the investigation of solid electrolyte–current collector interfaces with a self-forming LiI–LiI(HPN)2 solid electrolyte and the role of varying interface design in reducing resistance during cycling.
Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences.
A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models.
PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45–2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19–1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21–1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys.
Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.
Digitaria exilis is an important indigenous cereal in West Africa. The first fonio reference transcriptome was released and became a key tool for developing new molecular markers contributing to a better understanding of its genetic diversity. A total of 126 new putative primer pairs were successfully designed in 37,327 unigenes from the D. exilis transcriptome. Thirty-seven primer pairs were randomly selected and tested for their ability to cross-amplify to related species. Clear amplification patterns were observed on 24 primer pairs. Of these, 71, 74 and 35% showed polymorphism in three species: D. exilis, D. longiflora and D. iburua. The transferability from D. exilis was 96% to D. longiflora and 71% to D. iburua. The new SSR markers confirmed the close genetic proximity of D. exilis with D. longiflora and its stronger genetic difference of D. exilis from D. iburua. These markers will be valuable for completing future knowledge on Digitaria evolutionary history, and for testing gene flows between related species.
Introduction: Safe and efficient handovers between emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners and emergency nurses are vital as poor transitions may lead to loss of information and place patients at risk for adverse events. We conducted a mixed methods systematic review to a) examine factors that disrupt or improve handovers from EMS practitioners to emergency department nurses, and b) investigate the effectiveness of interventional strategies that lead to improvements in communication and fewer adverse events. Methods: We searched electronic databases (DARE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP; Communication Abstracts); grey literature (grey literature databases, organization websites, querying experts in emergency medicine); and reference lists of the included studies. Citation tracking was conducted for the included studies. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full-texts for inclusion and methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critic Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. Narrative and thematic synthesis were conducted to integrate and explore relationships within the data. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in this review from the 6150 records initially retrieved. Our analysis suggests that qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research approaches have been utilized to explore handovers. Studies (n=11) have predominantly explored existing patterns of handovers focusing on barriers and facilitators. Interventions (e.g. multimedia transmission of pre-hospital information, tailored e-learning program) were investigated in five studies. Results suggest that lack of formal handover training, workflow interruptions, workload, and strained working relationships between EMS and nursing are perceived threats to optimal handovers. Conclusion: The findings from this review can inform the development of handover interventions and contribute to a more rigorous approach to researching handovers between EMS practitioners and emergency nurses. Furthermore, there is a need for studies in which specific interventions to optimize handovers are examined.
In battery systems, a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed through electrolyte reaction on an electrode surface. The formation of SEI can have both positive and negative effects on electrochemistry. The initial formation of the layer protects the electrode from further reactivity, which can improve both shelf and cycle life. However, if the layer continues to form, it can impede charge transfer, which increases cell resistance and limits cycle life. The role of SEI is particularly important when studying conversion electrodes, since phase transformations which unveil new electroactive surfaces during reduction/oxidation can facilitate electrolyte decomposition. This manuscript highlights recent developments in the understanding and control of SEI formation for magnetite (Fe3O4) conversion electrodes through electrolyte and electrode modification.
The equine passport legislation is a comparatively new scheme that requires all horses to have a passport by 28th February 2005 (Defra, 2004). The equine passport is thought to have had a major impact on the industry in the United Kingdom, however the extent of this is, as yet, unknown due to the lack of current research. The UK Government hopes that the passport scheme will monitor horses that have been treated with medication and guarantee that they are not slaughtered for human consumption (Frank, 2003, Defra, 2004). Whilst the scheme originated from European food safety legislation (Ellis, 2003), the UK Government believes that there are other benefits attached to the equine passport, such as gaining comprehensive records about the equine population in the UK, which is crucial information required for epidemiological reasons (Mellor et al., 1999). The information will provide a denominator for the assessment of disease rates, and which areas of the country may be under threat.
To compare the dosimetric outcomes of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) techniques—static conformal field (SCF), static conformal arc (SCA) and dynamic conformal arc (DCA), for treating pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma.
Materials and methods
Computer image sets of 20 patients with pituitary adenoma or craniopharyngioma and treated with post-operative SRT were selected for this study. For each dataset, three SRT plans, with SCF, SCA and DCA techniques were generated using Brain LAB, iPlan RT V.4.5.3, TPS software. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), quality of coverage of the target, dose–volume histograms for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and the time taken to deliver treatment was compared across three sets of plan.
There were 12 patients with pituitary adenoma and eight with craniopharyngioma. The CI and HI were comparable across three techniques. The quality of coverage was superior in DCA technique. OARs were better spared in SCF and DCA techniques. Time taken to deliver treatment was least in SCF technique.
The linac-based SRT techniques SCF, SCA and DCA are efficient in delivering highly conformal and homogenous dose to the target in pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma. Among these three techniques, SCF and DCA had acceptable quality of coverage. The dose received by OARs was least in the SCF technique.
A ring with a cross-section that has a blunt inner and sharper outer edge can attain an equilibrium orientation in a Newtonian fluid subject to a low Reynolds number simple shear flow. This may be contrasted with the continuous rotation exhibited by most rigid bodies. Such rings align along an orientation when the rotation due to fluid vorticity balances the counter-rotation due to the extensional component of the simple shear flow. While the viscous stress on the particle tries to rotate it, the pressure can generate a counter-vorticity torque that aligns the particle. Using boundary integral computations, we demonstrate ways to effectively control this pressure by altering the geometry of the ring cross-section, thus leading to alignment at moderate particle aspect ratios. Aligning rings that lack fore–aft symmetry can migrate indefinitely along the gradient direction. This differs from the periodic spatial trajectories of fore–aft asymmetric axisymmetric particles that rotate in periodic orbits. The mechanism for migration of aligned rings along the gradient direction is elucidated in this work. The migration speed can be controlled by varying the cross-sectional shape and size of the ring. Our results provide new insights into controlling motion of individual particles and thereby open new pathways towards manipulating macroscopic properties of a suspension.
Pixelated vision or visual snow has been associated with schizophrenia (Silverstein 2011). The impact of viewing a 3D motion picture on such a visualphenomenon has not heretofore been described.
Case Study: A 28 year old right handed single male three years prior to presentation noticed that all his vision was pixelated. The pixelated vision is panoramic, involving the entire visual field. The pixels are characterized by 10,000 flat white and gray dots measuring 1mm x 1mm. No changes in color, shape, or size were noted in high and low intensity light. White, dark, gray, or multicolored backgrounds had no effect on his vision. The visual distortions are not impacted by head movements, emotions, degree of tiredness, driving, or his hedonic perception of the object being visualized. The pixels were noted to disappear upon closure of both eyes but persisted during monocular vision with either eye. These visual hallucinations were sporadic during the first year and became continuous over the following two years. Two weeks after onset ofpixelated vision he developed auditory hallucinations and hyperacusis. These increased in intensity and frequency to 500-600 times per day. He denied palinopsia, migraines, tinnitus, and photophobia. These hallucinations persisted despite treatment with aripiprazole, paliperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, clozapine, ziprasidone, benztropine, bupropion, lamotrigine, modafinil, trazodone, atomoxetine, and amphetamine.
Abnormalities in Examination: Hypoverbal, blunted affect, impaired concentration, preoccupied with racing thoughts. Admitted to actively having auditory and visualhallucinations, without suicidal or homicidal ideations. Memory testing: Able to recall 2 out of 4 objects in 3 minutes and 3 out of 4 with reinforcement. Similarities interpreted concretely. Visual Acuity: 20/20 OU. Retinal examination: Normal. Intraocular Pressure: 19 mm OD, 20 mm OS (normal). Automotive Perimetry Testing: Normal. Cover/Uncover: Normal. Near Convergence: 3 inches (normal). Lens or filtered prism have no effect on visual snow. MRI of his brain, EEG, BAER, liver function tests, CBC, vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid function tests were normal. MRA: mild hypoplasia of distal right vertebral artery.
Visual snow has been anecdotally described as static, continuous, and independent of the specific visual environment (McKendrick, 2017). However, thepersistence of visual snow in the presence of 3D movies has never been reported. The visual snow paralleled auditory hallucinations and hyperacusis in frequency and intensity, which suggests there may be generalized hyperexcitability of the brain inducing both auditory and visual hallucinations. Agents that reduce cortical hyperexcitability (i.e., anticonvulsants, anxiolytics) may have efficacy. Treatment with these agents has been described (Ghannam, 2017), warrants further investigation.
We show that on-off intermittency in solar and stellar cycles is a result of amplitude-phase synchronization in multiscale interactions in solar/stellar dynamos or magnetorotational instability which leads to the formation of kinematic and magnetic coherent structures, and the novel techniques of Lagrangian coherent structures can detect transport barriers and vortices such as magnetic flux tubes/ropes in solar and stellar turbulence with high accuracy.
We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged <5 years in Thi-Qar Governorate, south-eastern Iraq, in order to examine the prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance associated with gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4–12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of Salmonella infection in children from households supplied by pipe water was 4·7 (95% CI 1·6–13·9) times higher compared with those supplied with reverse osmosis treated water. Similarly, children from households with domestic animals were found to have a higher odds (OR 10·5; 95% CI 3·8–28·4) of being Salmonella stool culture-positive. The likelihood of Salmonella infection was higher (OR 3·9; 95% CI 1·0–6·4) among children belonging to caregiver with primary vs. tertiary education levels. Lower odds (OR 0·4; 95% CI 0·1–0·9) of Salmonella infection were associated with children exclusively breast fed as compared with those exclusively bottle fed. Salmonella infection was three times lower (95% CI 0·1–0·7) in children belonging to caregiver who reported always washing hands after cleaning children following defecation, vs. those belonging to caregivers who did not wash hands. The antimicrobial resistance profile by disc diffusion revealed that non-susceptibility to tetracycline (78·8%), azithromycin (66·7%) and ciprofloxacin (57·6%) were the most commonly seen, and 84·9% of Salmonella isolates were classified as multi-drug resistant. This is the first study on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella infection among children in this setting. This work provides specific epidemiological data which are crucial to understand and combat paediatric diarrhoea in Iraq.
We have spectra, colours and morphologies from the CFHT for 240 cluster members and 80 field galaxies over a 7 × 46 arcmin field. The cluster galaxies show strong radial gradients in colour, morphology, and spectrum. The central group has only red early-type galaxies of high central concentration, which must have formed at least 5 Gy ago. The population becomes bluer and shows an increasing fraction of disk morphology and recent star-formation with clustocentric radius, and eventually blends into the field. However, the fraction of blue galaxies is significantly lower than in Butcher-Oemler clusters, and there are only two starburst galaxies (one of which is the cluster cD). Fitting of line measures with stellar population models indicates that star-formation has been truncated in the 15-20% of the cluster galaxies that have strong Hδ absorption, and that these galaxies are not all blue. There is evidence that cluster galaxies are dusty compared with the field. The morphology gradient can be fit with models of disk fading. However, there is a small fraction of interacting and merging galaxies, which must play a part in the population evolution. The cluster is accreting from the field in a non-violent way, including some distinct subgroups. This is different from what is seen at both higher and lower redshift, and if generally true, suggests a high Omega universe.
These results are being published in detail elsewhere.
We present NH3(J,K) = (1,1) observations toward CS(2,1) sources in the southern hemisphere, obtained with the Itapetinga Radio Telescope, that exhibit departure from LTE conditions. The mechanism of selective trapping in the hyperfine transitions of NH3(J, K) =(2,1)-(1,1) is invoked to explain the non-thermal population in the NH3(J, K) = (1,1) hyperfine states. This effect is relevant only when the width of the hyperfine lines lie between 0.3 and 0.6 km s−1. Due to this restriction, the assumption that the molecular cloud is formed by clumps, which produce spectra within this line-width interval seems to be a natural explanation for the non-thermal population. The observed spectra can be the result of the superposition of individual clump spectra with different central velocities. This model was applied to determine the physical conditions of the observed regions, providing satisfactory results for most of them. However, for some sources the model is not adequate to reproduce the observations, indicating that some other effects should be included, such as IR continuum, that was neglected in the radiative transfer calculations.
The high signal-to-noise ratio of the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) spectra from NGC 6334 have allowed at a first time a detailed study of departures from LTE conditions in this molecular cloud. Differences in the line shapes have shown that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources in different stages of star formation. Comparison between physical parameters of NGC 6334 derived from LTE and non-LTE conditions are presented and discussed here.
Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011). In Study 1, the links between child abuse and neglect and young adult smoking and marijuana use were mediated by increases in adolescent impulsivity. In Study 2, indirect links between child abuse and neglect and substance use were evidenced via delayed reward discounting and impulsivity traits. Among impulsivity subcomponents, robust indirect effects connecting childhood experiences to cigarette use emerged for negative urgency. Negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking mediated the effect of child abuse and neglect on cannabis and alcohol use. Results suggest that child abuse and neglect increases risk for substance use in part, due to effects on impulsivity. Individuals with adverse childhood experiences may benefit from substance use preventive intervention programs that target impulsive behaviors.