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Much of the global population lacks access to basic public sanitation, energy and fertilizers. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion presents an opportunity for low-cost decentralized waste management that creates valuable co-products of renewable energy and organic fertilizer. However, field-based assessments of system performance and clearly articulated guidelines for digestate management and field application are needed. Feedstocks and effluent from seven digesters in Kampala, Uganda were monitored for standard wastewater and fertilizer metrics including indicator organisms (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorous (TP), heavy metals, pH, temperature and total solids (TS) over 2 yr. Results reveal that digester effluent does not meet standards for wastewater discharge or international safety standards for field application. Data indicate that digestate could be a suitable source of fertilizer (TKN = 1467 mg L−1, TP = 214 mg L−1) but poses issues for water quality if not managed properly (TS = 26,091 mg L−1, COD = 3471 mg L−1 and BOD5 = 246 mg L−1). While effluent from the digester contained pathogen indicator organisms (fecal coliform = 8.13 × 105 CFU/100 ml, E. coli = 3.27 × 105 CFU/100 ml), they were lower than the influent concentrations, and lower than reported concentrations in drainage canals. All digestate samples contained little to no heavy metals suggesting effective source separation. Data suggest that micro-scale biogas systems have potential to improve waste handling and meet standards associated with fertilizer application with proper post-digestion treatment.
Scientific societies recommend early interaction between oncologic and supportive care, but there is still a lack of systematic evaluations regarding symptoms from the perspective of oncologists.
Patients and methods
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the PERSONS score, in both “simultaneous care” and “supportive care” settings using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) as a comparator.
From November 2017 to April 2018, 67 and 110 consecutive patients were enrolled in outpatient and home care cohorts, respectively. The final study population comprised 163 patients. There were no significant changes over time in the total PERSONS scores and total ESAS scale. The intra-interviewer reliability (ICC2,1) and inter-interviewer reliability (ICC2,k) showed good reproducibility (test-retest) in each group of patients: 0.60 (0.49–0.70) and 0.82 (0.75–0.87), respectively, for the home care patients and 0.73 (0.62–0.81) and 0.89 (0.83–0.93), respectively, for the outpatient cohort. There were high correlations between PERSONS and ESAS, both at the baseline and final assessments. The mean PERSONS and ESAS scores between the home care patients and outpatients were not different at the baseline and final assessments. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for the PERSONS total score revealed good diagnostic ability. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.825 and 0.805 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.
The PERSONS score is an easy to apply tool for symptom assessment. Importantly, the PERSONS score showed high concordance with the established ESAS scale and, therefore, provides an alternative for everyday use in supportive care assessment.
Scholars have recently investigated the efficacy of applying globalisation models to ancient cultures such as the fourth-millennium BC Mesopotamian Uruk system. Embedded within globalisation models is the ‘complex connectivity‘ that brings disparate regions together into a singular world. In the fourth millennium BC, the site of Çadır Höyük on the north-central Anatolian plateau experienced dramatic changes in its material culture and architectural assemblages, which in turn reflect new socio-economic, sociopolitical and ritual patterns at this rural agro-pastoral settlement. This study examines the complex connectivities of the ancient Uruk system, encompassing settlements in more consistent contact with the Uruk system such as Arslantepe in southeastern Anatolia, and how these may have fostered exchange networks that reached far beyond the Uruk ‘global world‘ and onto the Anatolian plateau.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
In the current data-driven science era, it is needed that data analysis techniques has to quickly evolve to face with data whose dimensions has increased up to the Petabyte scale. In particular, being modern astrophysics based on multi-wavelength data organized into large catalogues, it is crucial that the astronomical catalog cross-matching methods, strongly dependant from the catalogues size, must ensure efficiency, reliability and scalability. Furthermore, multi-band data are archived and reduced in different ways, so that the resulting catalogues may differ each other in formats, resolution, data structure, etc, thus requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features. We present C3 (Command-line Catalogue Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogues from modern surveys. Conceived as a stand-alone command-line process or a module within generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, it provides the maximum flexibility, in terms of portability, configuration, coordinates and cross-matching types, ensuring high performance capabilities by using a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and a sky partitioning algorithm.
The VIALACTEA project brings to a common forum the major new-generation surveys of the Milky Way Galactic Plane from 1μm to the radio, both in thermal continuum and in atomic and molecular lines, to attack in a systematic way the characterization of the Milky Way as a star formation engine. Images, catalogues, spectroscopic datacubes and radiative transfer models of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of sites of star formation have been incorporated and indexed in the VIALACTEA Knowledge Base (VLKB). The VLKB consists of a combination of a relational database where the VIALACTEA data and metadata are homogenised and stored, and a filesystem-based stored information. This infrastructure allowed, among others, the generation of extensive catalogue for compact sources and extended structures in the Galactic Plane, the implementation of data-mining algorithms for the band-merging of multiwavelength data and expert systems for the automated analysis of molecular line surveys to extract critical kinematical information and derive distances using Galaxy rotation curves and new 3D extinction maps. A new VIALACTEA 3D Visual Analytics interface has been developed that provides integrated access and analysis of continuum and spectroscopic images together with catalogue data directly interfacing with the VLKB.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places “separation anxiety disorder” within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which “separation anxiety” may be apparent.
Supersoft X-ray sources exhibit spectra that are remarkably steep, in that the ratio of low-to-high energy X rays is much larger than is characteristic of the spectra associated with the previously known classes of luminous X-ray sources. The first supersoft sources were discovered during a survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the EINSTEIN Observatory (Long et al. 1981). The all-sky X-ray survey carried out with ROSAT has now established that luminous supersoft X-ray sources constitute a distinct astronomical class (see, e.g., Hasinger 1994). A number of the identified optical counterparts of the supersoft X-ray sources exhibit blue continua with emission lines of H and He II (Smale et al. 1988; Pakull et al. 1988; Cowley et al. 1990), which are characteristic of accretion disks. The X-ray emission of some sources is steady, while others exhibit significant time variability. Table 1 briefly summarizes what is known thus far about the numbers and characteristics of supersoft X-ray sources (see Hasinger 1994, and references therein).
In this paper the defects generated by ion implantation in 4H-SiC DIMOSFET (Double Implanted MOSFETs), and their evolution after annealing process, have been studied in detail. The point defects generated by the source or body implantation process have been detected by micro-photoluminescence (µPL) and the effect of these defects on the electrical characteristics of the DIMOSFET has been studied. The role of the annealing process has been carefully investigated by using different temperatures. It appears fundamental for the restoring of the crystal damage. The effect of the ion implantation dose has been investigated as well. By reducing the source ion implanted dose a large decrease of point defects has been detected and a considerable improvement of the electrical characteristic of the DIMOSFET has been observed.
The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure.
We reviewed the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in a series of 42 consecutive neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation, who received early hybrid palliation associated with a standardised feeding protocol.
The median age and birth weight at the time of surgery were 3 days (with a range from 1 to 10 days) and 3.07 kg (with a range from 1.5 to 4.5 kg), respectively. The median ICU length of stay was 7 days (1–70 days), and the median hospital length of stay was 16 days (6–70 days). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days. Hospital mortality was 16% (7/42). In the postoperative period, 26% of patients were subjected to early extubation, and all of them received treatment with systemic vasodilatory agents. Feeding was started 6 hours after extubation according to a dedicated feeding protocol. After treatment, none of our patients experienced any grade of necrotising enterocolitis or major gastrointestinal adverse events.
Our experience indicates that the combination of an “early hybrid approach”, systemic vasodilator therapy, and dedicated feeding protocol adherence could reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in this group of neonates. Fast weaning from ventilatory support, which represents a part of our treatment strategy, could be associated with low incidence of necrotising enterocolitis.
With the improvements of the observational technology for the new surveys the number of asteroid detections is rapidly increasing. For this reason we must use very efficient methods to compute orbits with these data. We have to identify observations taken in different nights as belonging to the same asteroid. If we do not have an efficient algorithm for that, the unidentified observation database can increase without control, and we risk to detect the same objects multiple times.
We consider the role of the dwarf planet Ceres on the secular dynamics of the asteroid main belt. Specifically, we examine the post impact evolution of asteroid families due to the interaction of their members with the linear nodal secular resonance with Ceres. First, we find the location of this resonance and identify which asteroid families are crossed by its path. Next, we summarize our results for three asteroid families, namely (1726) Hoffmeister, (1128) Astrid and (1521) Seinajoki which have irregular distributions of their members in the proper elements space, indicative of the effect of the resonance. We confirm this by performing a set of numerical simulations, showcasing that the perturbing action of Ceres through its linear nodal secular resonance is essential to reproduce the actual shape of the families.
Linear broadband polarimetry is used to characterize the objects of our solar system, and has also been proposed as a diagnostic tool for the atmospheres of exo-solar planets. Homochirality characterizes life as we know it and induces circular polarization in the diffuse reflectance spectra of biotic material. Hence it has been suggested that circular polarimetry may be used as a remote sensing tool for the search of extra-terrestrial life. With this motivation in mind we have decided to explore the potential of both linear and circular spectropolarimetry as a diagnostic tool for remote sensing of biotic material. We have used the calibration unit of the EFOSC2 instrument of the La Silla Observatory to obtain low resolution, but high signal to noise circular and linear spectropolarimetric measurements of a number of inorganic and organic materials. We then compare our “laboratory data” with spectropolarimetric observations of atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system and of Earthshine obtained with instruments very similar to that one used for our laboratory samples. We conclude that linear polarization measurements are more suitable than circular polarization measurements for the characterization of planetary surfaces and atmospheres, and for the search of extra-terrestrial life.
There are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, hence one can consider the case of Earth-like planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU from the star would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for about 8 Gyr. Polarisation due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 102 (104) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a powerful tool to detect close-in planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow one to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, even providing a first characterisation. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue. Preliminary habitability study show also that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on Earth-like planets orbiting CWDs and that the DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, hence white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life from the perspective of UV irradiation.
Recently Biscari, DiCarlo and Turzi [Anisotropic wave propagation in nematic liquid crystals, Soft Matter 10, 8296–8307.] proposed a theory for nematoacustics which models nematic liquid crystals as nematic elastomers with molecular relaxation. Here, we extend the analysis of this theory to account for the director motion possibly induced by the propagation of a sound wave. We find that the director vibration is related to the - usually small - anisotropy of the molecular distribution, thus providing a justification to the relative high ultrasonic intensities required to observe non-negligible acousto-optic responses.
The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ∼ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ∼ 0.75 and z ∼ 1, obtained from the ∼ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.