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Many ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are powered by quasars hidden in the center, but many are also powered by starbursts. A simply diagnostic diagram is proposed that can identify obscured quasars in ULIRGs by their high-ionization emission lines ([O III]λ5007/Hβ ≳ 5), and “warm” IR color (f25/f60 ≳ 0.25).
We present Faint Object Camera (FOC) ultraviolet images of the central 14 x 14″ of Messier 31 and Messier 32. The hot stellar population detected in the composite UV spectra of these galaxies is partially resolved into stars, and we measure their colors and apparent magnitudes. We detect 433 stars in M31 and 138 stars in M32, down to limits of mF275W = 25.5 mag and mF175W = 24.5 mag. We investigate the luminosity functions of the sources, their spatial distribution, their color-magnitude diagrams, and their total integrated far-UV flux. Although M32 has a weaker UV upturn than M31, the luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams of M31 and M32 are surprisingly similar, and are inconsistent with a majority contribution from any of the following: post-AGB stars more massive than 0.56 M⊙, main sequence stars, or blue stragglers. The luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams are consistent with a dominant population of stars evolving from the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) along tracks of mass 0.47–0.53 M⊙. These stars are well below the detection limits of our images while on the zero-age EHB, but become detectable while in the more luminous (but shorter) post-HB phases. Our observations require that only a very small fraction of the main sequence population (2% in M31 and 0.5% in M32) in these two galaxies evolve though the EHB and post-EHB phases, with the remainder rapidly evolving through bright post-AGB evolution with few resolved stars expected in the small field of view covered by the FOC.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade contains many provisions dealing with non-Tariff barriers to international trade, but the most significant obligations imposed upon the contracting parties to the General Agreement are those set out in Part I, namely, the obligation to extend most-favoured-nation treatment to other contracting parties and the obligation to apply to imports from other contracting parties treatment “no less favourable than that provided for in the appropriate Part of the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement” (Art. II :I (a)). There is annexed to the General Agreement a Schedule in respect of each contracting party, recording the tariff concessions which that party is obliged by Article II to extend to its GATT trading partners. These concessions are constantly being modified, however, and if the General Agreement is to record accurately the tariff obligations of the parties, the Schedules must keep up-to-date with these modifications. Unhappily, in the years following the provisional entry into force of the General Agreement, the Schedules became hopelessly outdated, caught up in a tangle of amending “protocols” and “certifications” to the point where they ceased to be useful either to the contracting parties or to the commercial community as a record of the tariff obligations of the parties. The present note describes the origin of the GATT schedule problem and the steps taken by the contracting partieas to resolve it and restore the Schedules to a useful function, an interesting exercise in the application of treaty law and procedures to the rather unusual amendment provisions of the General Agreement.
This report describes Neolithic pottery dated 2730 bc and Beaker pottery found in apparently domestic contexts; and many Bronze Age funerary features. The latter begin with two food-vessel cremations and include two barrows about one of which were ten cremation graves. Close by were another 140 cremation graves, many yielding Deverel-Rimbury pottery. Carbon-14 dates indicate the use of this cemetery between 1556 bc and 762 bc.
Currently, there are over 90 companies that offer HPLC hardware and accessories, and more than 30 that offer complete systems. Given the myriad choices available in the marketplace, the discerning chromatographer needs to approach equipment purchases with a critical mindset and a clear understanding of what they require from an HPLC system or component. This appendix covers some of the features available in HPLC autosamplers, pumps, detectors and ovens. It is not meant to be a definitive catalog of available HPLC hardware components and design elements. Instead, it is designed to call attention to some of the features available in specific HPLC hardware that the authors of this appendix have researched in the context of how these decisions can affect one's ability to produce consistent, high quality pigment results. A thorough review of the basics and advancements in HPLC hardware is covered in the third edition of Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatography (Snyder et al., 2010).
To make informed decisions regarding one's needs in HPLC hardware, one must understand the component design (and software control thereof) from the perspective of its contribution to combined uncertainty. Uncertainties in pigment results related to hardware characteristics are most often associated with injectors and detectors, and to a lesser extent, column oven design and pump capabilities. The uncertainties of the latter are often related to implementation of a method (e.g. baseline disturbance).
Carbon nanotubes nanocomposites with unique opto-mechanical properties have been developed as smart coatings. Remote polarized Raman spectroscopy has been used to monitor optical strain sensitivity of deformed coatings and determine local strains on the micron scale directly from stress/strain induced Raman band shifts.
Chemically engineered carbon nanotubes and polymer matrices have been developed in order to overcome the limitations highlighted in previous reports. They have proved to be of significance importance in the optimization of the stress transfer between the nanotubes and the polyurethane matrix.
Social dysfunction is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia which commonly precedes the onset of psychosis. It is unclear if social symptoms in clinical high-risk patients reflect depressive symptoms or are a manifestation of negative symptoms.
We compared social function scores on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report between 56 young people (aged 13–27 years) at clinical high risk for psychosis and 22 healthy controls. The cases were also assessed for depressive and ‘prodromal’ symptoms (subthreshold positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms).
Poor social function was related to both depressive and negative symptoms, as well as to disorganized and general symptoms. The symptoms were highly intercorrelated but linear regression analysis demonstrated that poor social function was primarily explained by negative symptoms within this cohort, particularly in ethnic minority patients.
Although this study demonstrated a relationship between social dysfunction and depressive symptoms in clinical high-risk cases, this association was primarily explained by the relationship of each of these to negative symptoms. In individuals at heightened risk for psychosis, affective changes may be related to a progressive decrease in social interaction and loss of reinforcement of social behaviors. These findings have relevance for potential treatment strategies for social dysfunction in schizophrenia and its risk states and predict that antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioral therapy and/or social skills training may be effective.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of desert conditions on the pattern of delayed hypersensitivity to mycobacteria in school children aged 6–10 and 11–18 years. A new range of tuberculins prepared from ultrasonic lysates of living mycobacteria belonging to 12 different species was employed. Three centres were chosen for study, a sea port and two desert towns differing greatly from each other. The results obtained were compared with those of a previous study using the same reagents in Kenya.
As expected both the range of mycobacterial species to which the children reacted, the rate of acquisition of specific hypersensitivity with age and the total percentage of children reacting to individual reagents differed from centre to centre. The harsh desert conditions of Ajdabia produced the least, and the proximity of the people's dwellings to those of their farm animals in Kufra produced the most positive reactors to essentially environmental species. The greatest number of reactors to our Tuberculin were found in Benghazi where the cosmopolitan urban conditions probably lead to a high contact with open cases of tuberculosis. As assessed by skin test reactivity, immunization with BCG in Libya was much less effective than in Kenya. The interpretation of the differences between the results from the different test centres and between those for Libya and Kenya are discussed.
Captive, healthy, adult badgers have blood containing haemoglobin at 13·3 g/dl, and 8·4×1012/l red cells with an MCV of 46·2 f1 and an MCH of 15·6 pg. They have 5·1×109 white cells/1 of which 3·29×109 are polymorphs, 1·49×109 are lymphocytes, 0·26×109 are monocytes, 0·07×109 are eosinophils and 0·01×109 are basophils. These values are somewhat less in adult animals just trapped from the wild, and are lower still in wild cubs.
Changes associated with tuberculosis are a rise, and then a fall in red blood count and white blood count, an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and momocytes and a fall in lymphocytes late in the disease. This picture is similar to that seen in widespread, disseminated, tuberculin negative, tuberculosis in humans, a type of disease similar to that occurring in many badgers.
BCG vaccination of badgers did not produce any measurable change in the blood picture.
Impairments in executive cognitive control, including a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent responses, have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These deficits may underlie patterns of repetitive behaviors associated with the disorder.
Eighteen individuals with ASD and 15 age- and IQ-matched healthy individuals performed an antisaccade task and a visually guided saccade control task, each with gap and overlap conditions. Measures of repetitive behaviors were obtained using the Autism Diagnostic Inventory – Revised (ADI-R) and examined in relation to neurocognitive task performance.
Individuals with an ASD showed increased rates of prosaccade errors (failures to inhibit prepotent responses) on the antisaccade task regardless of task condition (gap/overlap). Prosaccade error rates were associated with the level of higher-order (e.g. compulsions, preoccupations) but not sensorimotor repetitive behaviors in ASD.
Neurocognitive disturbances in voluntary behavioral control suggest that alterations in frontostriatal systems contribute to higher-order repetitive behaviors in ASD.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
Using the 2dF multi-fibre instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, moderate resolution spectra have been obtained for a large sample of stars on the main sequence and at the turnoff in the unusual globular cluster ω Cen. We investigate the behaviour of CH, CN and SrII line strength indices as a function of overall abundance for the main sequence sample. A number of stars do not follow the relations defined by the majority. These anomalous objects can be categorized into (at least) three types. (1) Carbon enhanced stars, which represent about 5% of the sample, and which are found at all metallicities. Spectrum synthesis calculations show that the atmospheres of these stars are typically enhanced in carbon by factors of between 3 and 10. (2) Nitrogen enhanced stars, revealed for [Fe/H] [ges ]–1.3 by strong CN indices, which make up ∼40% of the cluster main sequence population above this metallicity. The stars are enhanced in nitrogen by factors of up to 100. Our data, however, provide no constraints on their relative numbers at lower [Fe/H]. (3) Stars with enhancements of the s-process element Sr by factors of 30 to 60. The possible origins for these abundance anomalies are discussed.
More than 36000 individuals living in rural Malawi were skin tested with antigens derived from 12 different species of environmental mycobacteria. Most were simultaneously tested with RT23 tuberculin, and all were followed up for both tuberculosis and leprosy incidence. Skin test results indicated widespread sensitivity to the environmental antigens, in particular to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare and one strain of M. fortuitum. Individuals with evidence of exposure to ‘fast growers’ (i.e. with induration to antigens from fast growers which exceeded their sensitivity to tuberculin), but not those exposed to ‘slow growers’, were at reduced risk of contracting both tuberculosis and leprosy, compared to individuals whose indurations to the environmental antigen were less than that to tuberculin. This evidence for cross protection from natural exposure to certain environmental mycobacteria may explain geographic distributions of mycobacterial disease and has important implications for the mechanisms and measurement of protection by mycobacterial vaccines.
Whether individual differences in cortisol contribute to subsequent major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown.
To determine whether premorbid levels of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were associated with subsequent MDD and how these related to psychosocial factors known to increase the risk for MDD.
Adult women (n=116) were recruited from general practices. None was currently depressed; 83 were ‘psychosocially vulnerable’ to MDD, 33 were not. Salivary steroids (cortisol and DHEA at 08.00 h and 20.00 h), recent life events, current mood and social support were assessed at entry. Onset of MDD was recorded during 13 months' follow-up.
There were no associations between salivary cortisol or DHEA and recent life events or vulnerability. Twenty-eight onsets of MDD occurred during the follow-up period. This was associated with: severe adverse life events and difficulties during the follow-up period; mean morning cortisol levels at entry; and the presence of any of three vulnerability factors.
Individual differences in morning salivary cortisol levels may represent an independent risk factor for subsequent MDD. The origin of these differences in cortisol is not yet understood.
Ocular disease is the commonest disabling consequence of toxoplasma infection. Incidence and
lifetime risk of ocular symptoms were determined by ascertaining affected patients in a
population-based, active reporting study involving ophthalmologists serving a population of 7·4
million. Eighty-seven symptomatic episodes were attributed to toxoplasma infection. Bilateral
visual acuity of 6/12 or less was found in seven episodes (8%) and was likely to have been
transient in most cases. Black people born in West Africa had a 100-fold higher incidence of
symptoms than white people born in Britain. Only two patients reported symptoms before 10
years of age. The estimated lifetime risk of symptoms in British born individuals (52% of all
episodes) was 18/100000 (95% confidence interval: 10·8–25·2). The low risk and mild
symptoms in an unscreened British population indicate limited potential benefits of prenatal or
postnatal screening. The late age at presentation suggests a mixed aetiology of postnatally
acquired and congenital infection for which primary prevention may be appropriate,
particularly among West Africans.
Video image analysis (VIA), carcass shape and colour data were collected for 1211 lambs of known gender, breed type and carcass weight over a 1-week period using the VIAscan® system developed by the Australian Meat Research Corporation. Classification data (thickness of soft tissue over the 12th rib (GR measurement) and subjective conformation scores on a five-point scale of the leg, loin and shoulder) were assessed by an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada grader after carcasses had chilled at 5°C for 3 to 6 h. Dissections into saleable meat yield (no. = 58) were performed after carcasses had chilled an additional 24 h. The timing of this study, which was dependent on availability of the VIA equipment, influenced the age and type of lambs available for analysis. The majority of lambs evaluated were wool-breed wethers, age > 10 months, of average GR (15·7 (s.d. 0·2) mm) and muscle conformation (3·0, s.d. 0·1). VIA improved the prediction of saleable meat yield (R2 = 0·71, residual s.d. = 14g/kg) compared with the current classification system (R2 = 0·52, residual s.d. = 18 g/kg). Although prediction ofGR measurement by VIA resulted in a large residual error (residual s.d. = 2·4 mm), the proportion of waste fat (perirenal and subcutaneous) and bone dissected from the carcass was accurately predicted (R2 = 0·62, residual s.d. = 11 g/kg). Proportions of leg (R2 = 0·71, residual s.d. = 7 g/kg) and shoulder (R2 = 0·62, residual s.d. = 9 g/kg) primals were also accurately predicted by VIA, although there were no significant predictors for the proportion of the loin (P > 0·15). VIA improved the prediction of saleable meat yield compared with the current classification system. However collection of additional data including some from extremely lean or well muscled animals would be required before VIA could be recommended to classify lamb carcasses
A number of localizations for the putative susceptibility gene(s)
have been identified for both
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In a genome wide scan, Hugot
et al. (1996) identified a region
on chromosome 16 which appeared to be responsible for the inheritance of
disease in a small proportion of families. Subsequent work has suggested
that this localization is
important for susceptibility to Crohn's disease rather than ulcerative
colitis (Ohmen et al. 1996;
Parkes et al. 1996). We investigated the contribution of this
localization to the inheritance of
inflammatory bowel disease in 54 multiplex Australian families, and confirmed
its importance in a
significant proportion of Crohn's disease families; we further refined
the localization to a region near
to D16S409, obtaining a maximum LOD score of 6.3 between D16S409 and D16S753.
The Mallophaga listed were collected from birds and mammals taken principally by the writer in various parts of Utah as indicated. The numbers found on the infested hosts varied from one or more to scores. The shore birds and jay were most heavily infested. The lice almost invariably came to the surface of the feathers or fur when the hosts became cold.
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