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Thought about abstract concepts is grounded in more concrete physical experiences. Applying this grounded cognition perspective to Boyer & Petersen's (B&P's) folk-economic beliefs, we highlight its implications for the activation, application, cultural acceptance, and context sensitivity of folk-economic beliefs.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Data are scarce regarding combined high Se and Mn supplementation in livestock diets, however, as Se and Mn are functionally related as cofactors of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively, beneficial synergistic effects on oxidative stability of tissues may result. This experiment evaluated the effect of an oversupply of Se and Mn within European legal limits compared with recommendations on performance, oxidative stability of the organism and meat quality in a randomised complete block design. A total of 60 crossbred gilts were fed maize–barley–soya bean meal diets formulated in a 2×2 factorial approach with inorganic Se (0.2 v. 0.5 mg/kg Se dry matter (DM)) or inorganic Mn (20 v. 150 mg/kg Mn DM) from 31 to 116 kg BW. Se supplementation reduced feed intake, whereas high Mn diets impaired average daily gain (P<0.05). Qualitative carcass characteristics were impaired by Se and Mn predominantly in the semimembranosus muscle. Activity of GPx in liver was increased by high Se diets (P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased catalase (CAT) activity in liver, GPx in plasma and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) in muscle, whereas it decreased CAT activity in plasma (P<0.05). Cu/Zn-SOD in muscle showed higher activity in high-Se-low-Mn diets but lower activity when both high Se and Mn were combined (Se×Mn P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased Mn concentration in longissimus thoracis et lumborum, but simultaneously reduced Se concentration (P<0.05). Upon retail display, Mn increased lipid oxidation more pronouncedly (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; P<0.05) than Se (P<0.10). Despite some positive effects (Mn increased TAC, Se increased GPx, Se and Mn increased tenderness), no synergistic effects of high Se and Mn diets or an overall beneficial impact on meat quality, especially during storage, could be observed. Including the negative effects on performance, feeding Se and Mn up to the maximum legal level cannot be recommended.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Sakurai's object is thought to be undergoing a final thermal pulse or shell flash. It is the first example of this type of object to be studied using modern instrumentation and will be useful and unique for the time being for placing theoretical models of these transient events on a firm observational footing. The only other definite candidate is V605 Aql – now the WC central star of the planetary nebula Abell 58 – which is thought to have undergone a final thermal pulse around 1918.
New observations of the Magellanic Stream were made in December 1976 with the 64-m radio telescope at the Parkes Observatory of CSIRO. The ridges of H I emission of the Stream were traced from near its tip at ℓ = 90°, b = -40° to the Magellanic Clouds. This was the first time that the total length of the Stream was observed with the one system (only possible from the southern hemisphere) and with high spatial (15’ of arc) and velocity (4 km s-1) resolution. The results of this survey are presented in Figures 1 and 2 and the main features are listed below.
Multiwavelength observations of polars are essential for developing the big picture of these systems, particularly to gain understanding of the relevant accretion-induced heating and cooling processes. Eclipsing polars are prime targets for such studies since different radiation processes can be disentangled by observations with high-time resolution. We present a preliminary combined analysis of space-based observations (XMM-Newton, ROSAT, HST) with ground-based high-speed photometry (MCCP, OPTIMA, ULTRACAM) of DP Leo, HU Aqr and UZ For. We determine the location and extent of different emission components and find secular and short-term changes in the accretion geometries. We find displaced optical and X-ray emission regions in DP Leo and HU Aqr as well as mini-bursts and accretion arcs of variable size in HU Aqr. We report marked changes in the X-ray eclipse length of UZ For between high and low states.
The Magellanic Stream is an arc of neutral hydrogen which nearly follows a great circle and which contains the Magellanic Clouds - hence its name (Mathewson, Cleary and Murray 1974). This great circle passes within a few degrees of the south galactic pole and lies close to the supergalactic plane. Mathewson and Schwarz (1976) argued that this indicates that the Magellanic Stream and Magellanic Clouds are not bound to the Galaxy. To reinforce this argument, they pointed out that around the supergalactic plane there is a similar systematic variation in the velocities of the Local Group and those of the Stream which may be due to the reflection of the motion of the galactic center if the velocity of rotatior of the Sun is 225 km s−1; if it is 290 km s−1 then the grounds for this argument would disappear.
Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants’ performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test–retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r=.717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance. (JINS, 2015, 22, 1–8)
We discuss the properties of semiconducting iron silicides, grown epitaxially on Si(001) and Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth on Si (111) involves phase transitions from epitaxially stabilized metallic phases, leading to larger epitaxial β-FeSi2 grains than most other deposition procedures. The structural and electric properties of β-FeSi2/Si(001) are improved considerably for growth temperatures above 650 °C. Hall mobilities of p—conducting films reach values up to 600 cm2/Vsec at 100 K, at carrier densities below 1017 cm−3. Despite of the high majority carrier mobility and low carrier density, the photoelectric response of p-β-FeSi2/n-Si(001) diodes does not yield any significant contribution from the silicide, however, in accordance with the expected band structure diagram.
Phase equilibria along the CoGa-CoAs join were determined by DTA and metallography. On the basis of these data and the phase diagram of Co-Ga-As at 600 °C, thermodynamic values for the various phases along the GaAs-Co join were estimated. The Gibbs energy of the amorphous phase is approximated to be that of the supercooled liquid phase. These data were used to rationalize the amorphization process.
Phase Formation kinetics in the reaction of Nb/Al multilaycred thin films were investigated using scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The first phase to form upon annealing the Nb/Al layered structure is the NbAl3 intermetallic. Its formation is clearly identified by the calorimetry to be a two stage process, which has been modeled as the nucleation and three-dimensional growth to coalescence of the product phase in the plane of the initial interface, followed by the thickening of the product layer by one-dimensional growth perpendicular to the interface plane. For the initial reaction stage the reaction front velocity is higher than can be supported by diffusional transport within the lattice adjacent to the moving interface. Thus diffusion along nonequilibrium interfaces must be the growth mechanism. The large volume fraction consumed during the initial reaction stage indicates a lower nucleation site density than expected at a Nb/Al interface at local equilibrium, suggesting that the interface transport is reducing the driving force for nucleation.
This study examined whether Ascaridia galli infection can be controlled by dietary non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in chickens. One-day-old chicks were fed either a basal diet (CON) or CON plus insoluble NSP (I-NSP), or CON plus soluble NSP (S-NSP) for 11 weeks. Three weeks later, birds from half of each feeding group were inoculated with 250 embryonated eggs of A. galli, and slaughtered 8 weeks post-infection to determine worm counts. Both NSP diets, particularly S-NSP, increased prevalence of infection (P<0·05) and worm burden (roughly +50%) of the birds (P<0·001). A. galli infection caused a less efficient (P=0·013) feed utilization for body weight gain (BWG) resulting in lower body weights (P<0·001) irrespective of type of diet consumed. NSP-fed birds, particularly those on I-NSP, consumed more (+8%) feed per unit BWG and showed retarded (P<0·001) BW development compared to CON-fed birds. Intracaecal pH was lowered by S-NSP (P<0·05). Both NSP diets increased the volatile fatty acids pool size in caeca (P<0·001) with S-NSP exerting a greater effect (+46%) than I-NSP (+24%). It is concluded that both NSPs supplemented diets alter gastrointestinal environment in favour of the nematode establishment, and thus have no potential for controlling A. galli infection in chickens.
Somatic cell count (SCC) is generally regarded as an indicator of udder health. A cut-off value of 100×103 cells/ml is currently used in Germany to differentiate between normal and abnormal secretion of quarters. In addition to SCC, differential cell counts (DCC) can be applied for a more detailed analysis of the udder health status. The aim of this study was to differentiate somatic cells in foremilk samples of udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100×103 cells/ml. Twenty cows were selected and 72 normal secreting udder quarters were compared with a control group of six diseased quarters (SCC >100×103 cells/ml). In two severely diseased quarters of the control group (SCC of 967×103 cells/ml and 1824×103 cells/ml) Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected. DCC patterns of milk samples (n=25) with very low SCC values of ⩽6·25×103 cells/ml revealed high lymphocyte proportions of up to 92%. Milk cell populations in samples (n=41) with SCC values of (>6·25 to ⩽25)×103 cells/ml were also dominated by lymphocytes (mean value 47%), whereas DCC patterns of milk from udder quarters (n=6) with SCC values (>25 to ⩽100)×103 cells/ml changed. While in samples (n=3) with SCC values of (27–33)×103 cells/ml macrophages were predominant (35–40%), three milk samples with (43–45)×103 cells/ml indicated already inflammatory reactions based on the predominance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) (54–63%). In milk samples of diseased quarters PMN were categorically found as dominant cell population with proportions of ⩾65%. Macrophages were the second predominant cell population in almost all samples tested in relationship to lymphocytes and PMN. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating cell populations in low SCC milk in detail. Udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100×103 cells/ml revealed already inflammatory processes based on DCC.
Mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is an attractive renewable source of energy for various applications. Prior research was solely based on lead-containing materials which are detrimental to the environment and health. Therefore, lead-free materials are becoming more attractive for harvesting applications. The present work is focused on the development of lead-free piezoelectric materials based on solid solution having composition (KNa)NbO3-xABO3, (where A = Li, and B = Nb; x = 0, 5, 5.5, 6, and 6.5 wt%). The solid solutions of the above ceramics were prepared by using solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited single phase formation and good crystallinity with LiNbO3 addition up to x = 6.5 wt%. Dielectric studies reveal that the composition with LiNbO3 = 6.5 wt% exhibits superior properties suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting applications. The nanoscale piezoelectric data obtained with piezoresponse force microscopy provide a direct evidence of strong piezoelectricity with LN doping. The best piezoelectric properties are obtained for the composition K0.5Na0.5NbO3 – 6.5%LiNbO3.
Films of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends, as well as dPS and PMMA and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (PEP) blends have been spin-cast from toluene solution and annealed at temperatures above their glass transition temperatures for up to 72 hours. Surface topography of the cast and annealed films was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study microphase segregation of the polymer films. A series of two-dimensional (2D) images of the films were acquired during sample sputtering. A reconstruction of the sample three-dimensional (3D) structure from 2D data was performed. Spatial distributions of H, D, C, O, and higher mass fragments revealed microphases with dimensions on the order of a few microns. We describe the method that corrects height distortion to 3D SIMS images. After sputtering, AFM is used to produce a topographic image of the area analyzed by SIMS. The surface height variation array from SIMS data was compared with that observed by AFM. A limitation of the correction method is discussed.
Recently we have proposed a new layer-by-layer method for deposition of group-III nitrides from elemental precursors (Ga, N2). This technique is based on a two-step cyclic process, which alternates Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and nitrogen plasma treatment. We have shown that such a process allows to control independently the structure and the N-content of the growing film. The objective of this work is to develop the cyclic process for achieving high quality GaN films. We explore the opportunities to grow stoichiometric epitaxial films on different substrates at relatively low temperatures (400°C to 600°C). This will gives us the possibility to use ZnO epitaxial layers as a buffer without thermal degradation. UV- Visible transmission spectra, X-ray diffraction scans and Atomic Force Microscopy are some of the tools used to characterise and compare the deposited films.
In this study we present investigation on the anelastic behavior of sputtered 1 [.proportional]m thin Cu films. Most of the literature that reports on the mechanical properties of thin metallic films is based on substrate curvature measurements. We have developed a new version of a bulge tester that combines the capacitive measurement of the bulge deflection of a membrane with a resonance frequency measurement of the residual stress in the membrane. A Cu membrane is plastically deformed to a pre-determined strain by controlled gas-pressure bulging of the membrane. After the bulging stress is removed, the residual tensile stress, which has been decreased by the plastic deformation, is then determined by measuring the resonant frequency as a function of time. Immediately after plastic straining, the residual (tensile) stress of membranes was observed to increase. At room temperature a maximum stress was typically reached in the order of an hour. At still longer times the stress decreased again as a result of creep. The transient increase in stress following plastic straining grew larger as the amount of plastic strain produced by bulging was increased. With higher temperatures the transient became both faster and larger. A model is presented that based on the mechanism of thermally activated glide separates the microstructure in a class of “soft” and “hard” grains solving the issue of an “apparent” increase in strain energy as a function of time after deformation.