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The evaporation of sessile droplets is analysed when the influence of the thermal properties of the system is strong. We obtain asymptotic solutions for the evolution, and hence explicit expressions for the lifetimes, of droplets when the substrate has a high thermal resistance relative to the droplet and when the saturation concentration of the vapour depends strongly on temperature. In both situations we find that the lifetimes of the droplets are significantly extended relative to those when thermal effects are weak.
Knowledge of ENT is important for many doctors, but undergraduate time is limited. This study aimed to identify what is thought about ENT knowledge amongst non-ENT doctors, and the key topics that the curriculum should focus on.
Doctors were interviewed about their views of ENT knowledge amongst non-ENT doctors, and asked to identify key topics. These topics were then used to devise a questionnaire, which was distributed to multiple stakeholders in order to identify the key topics.
ENT knowledge was generally thought to be poor amongst doctors, and it was recommended that undergraduate ENT topics be kept simple. The highest rated topics were: clinical examination; when to refer; acute otitis media; common emergencies; tonsillitis and quinsy; management of ENT problems by non-ENT doctors; stridor and stertor; otitis externa; and otitis media with effusion.
This study identified a number of key ENT topics, and will help to inform future development of ENT curricula.
Clinical audit is an important component of safe and ethical practice but many clinicians cite barriers to engagement in audit.
A total of 81 basic specialist trainees in psychiatry were surveyed in terms of their basic demographic details and their knowledge, direct experience and attitudes in relation to clinical audit.
Among the 49 (60.5%) who responded, 57.1% had received formal training in audit, but only 20.4% had received more than four hours of training in their whole career. The median positivity score was 30 out of a possible 54 (range 12–40), suggesting that participating trainees were barely more than ‘undecided’ overall when it comes to positive attitudes to clinical audit. Age, nationality and specific training did not predict attitudes to clinical audit. Gender, years of clinical experience and direct experience of clinical audit did not significantly predict attitudes to clinical audit, but these findings are at odds with some previous research.
Much work is needed in improving postgraduate trainees’ attitudes to clinical audit, given that clinical audit is essential for good medical practice. Ours is an initial study of this area of training limited by sample size and the narrowness of the group tested. Further study of other specialities, higher trainees and consultant trainers would further enhance our understanding.
It has been observed that mental disorders, such as psychosis, are more common for people in some ethnic groups in areas where their ethnic group is less common. We set out to test whether this ethnic density effect reflects minority status in general, by looking at three situations where individual characteristics differ from what is usual in a locality.
Using data from the South East London Community Health study (n = 1698) we investigated associations between minority status (defined by: ethnicity, household status and occupational social class) and risk of psychotic experiences, common mental disorders and parasuicide. We used a multilevel logistic model to examine cross-level interactions between minority status at individual and neighbourhood levels.
Being Black in an area where this was less common (10%) was associated with higher odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 1.34 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.67], and attempted suicide (OR 1.84 95% CI 1.19–2.85). Living alone where this was less usual (10% less) was associated with increased odds of psychotic experiences (OR 2.18 95% CI 0.91–5.26), while being in a disadvantaged social class where this was less usual (10% less) was associated with increased odds of attempted suicide (OR 1.33 95% CI 1.03–1.71). We found no evidence for an association with common mental disorders.
The relationship between minority status and mental distress was most apparent when defined in terms of broad ethnic group but was also observed for individual household status and occupational social class.
Studies have linked ethnic differences in depression rates with neighbourhood ethnic density although results have not been conclusive. We looked at this using a novel approach analysing whole population data covering just over one million GP patients in four London boroughs.
Using a dataset of GP records for all patients registered in Lambeth, Hackney, Tower Hamlets and Newham in 2013 we investigated new diagnoses of depression and antidepressant use for: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black Caribbean and black African patients. Neighbourhood effects were assessed independently of GP practice using a cross-classified multilevel model.
Black and minority ethnic groups are up to four times less likely to be newly diagnosed with depression or prescribed antidepressants compared to white British patients. We found an inverse relationship between neighbourhood ethnic density and new depression diagnosis for some groups, where an increase of 10% own-ethnic density was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduced odds of depression for Pakistani [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.93], Indian (OR 0.88, CI 0.81–0.95), African (OR 0.88, CI 0.78–0.99) and Bangladeshi (OR 0.94, CI 0.90–0.99) patients. Black Caribbean patients, however, showed the opposite effect (OR 1.26, CI 1.09–1.46). The results for antidepressant use were very similar although the corresponding effect for black Caribbeans was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.07).
New depression diagnosis and antidepressant use was shown to be less likely in areas of higher own-ethnic density for some, but not all, ethnic groups.
To establish how people with psoriasis in the United Kingdom today experience living with their condition including diagnosis, treatment, healthcare provision and impact on daily life.
Psoriasis is a debilitating long-term inflammatory skin disease which can result in severe itching, discomfort and soreness, and may be associated with problems beyond the specific symptoms related to the skin. For many it is accompanied by difficult-to-manage treatment regimes, emotional distress and a negative impact on their quality of life and psychosocial functioning. To date there is little published information about the health experiences of people in the United Kingdom with psoriasis.
A postal self-administered questionnaire was completed by members of the Psoriasis Association and the responses analysed (n=1564).
The findings suggest some similarities to surveys in other nations, but specifically highlighted that patients feel under-informed and are dissatisfied with current treatment regimes. Responses provided an insight into aspects of the condition that treatments should be targeting. Specific areas of negative impact on psychosocial functioning were identified, including the lack of available support for those experiencing emotional distress. The research provides important information about how the care of patients with psoriasis can be improved, especially at primary care level. This includes: improved training in psoriasis knowledge and awareness at general practitioner level and greater use of dermatology specialist nurses in primary care settings; more effective and manageable treatment regimes that target visible areas and general well-being; greater support for emotional distress and psychosocial functioning.
Vitrification is used for the immobilization and conditioning of high-level waste (HLW) arising from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the UK. Vitrification is also under consideration for the immobilization of certain intermediate-level wastes (ILW), where there may be advantages of volume reduction and removal of uncertainties in long-term waste behaviour, compared to encapsulation in a cement grout. This paper gives an overview of recent work into the chemical durability of UK vitrified wasteforms to inform the technical specification for the disposal facilities for these waste products and the treatment of their long-term behaviour in post-closure performance assessment. This has included: (1) measurements of the initial glass dissolution rates of a simulated HLW Magnox waste glass in a range of groundwater types representative of potential UK host geologies and in simulated high pH near-field porewaters relevant to potential disposal concepts, using Product Consistency Test type-B (PCT-B) at 40°C; and (2) durability testing of three simulant ILW glasses in a saturated calcium hydroxide buffered solution to simulate conditions in cement-based disposal vaults, using PCT-B tests at 50°C.
The experimentally defined initial rate of HLW Magnox waste glass dissolution in a range of simulated groundwater compositions appears to be similar regardless of the ionic strength and major element composition of the solution. The release of caesium from HLW Magnox waste glass appears to be sensitive to solution composition. Caesium is selectively retained in the glass compared to other soluble components in the two low ionic strength solutions, but is released at similar rates to other soluble components in the three groundwaters and Ca(OH)2 solution. Whether this change in caesium retention is an ionic strength effect or is related to changes in the nature of the surface alteration layer formed on the glass, has yet to be established. For HLW Magnox waste glass, dissolution is accelerated at high pH in NaOH solution, however, the presence of calcium acts to mitigate the effects of high pH, at least initially. In Ca(OH)2 solution, calcium is found to react with all the glasses studied leading to the formation of calcium-containing alteration products. The initial dissolution behaviour in Ca(OH)2 solution varies with glass composition and in particular appears to be sensitive to the boron content.
Despite the significant advancements being made in the neurogenetics for mental health, the identification and validation of potential endophenotype markers of risk and resilience remain to be confirmed. The TWIN-E study (The Twin study in Wellbeing using Integrative Neuroscience of Emotion) aims to validate endophenotype markers of mental health across cognitive, brain, and autonomic measures by testing the heritability, clinical plausibility, and reliability of each of these measures in a large adult twin cohort. The specific gene and environmental mechanisms that moderate prospective links between endophenotype-phenotype markers and the final outcome of wellbeing will also be identified. TWIN-E is a national prospective study with three phases: I) baseline testing on a battery of online questionnaires and cognitive tasks, and EEG, MRI, and autonomic testing; II) 12-month follow-up testing on the online assessments; and III) randomized controlled trial of brain training. Minimum target numbers include 1,500 male/female twins (18–65 years) for the online assessments (Phase I and II), 300 twins for the EEG testing component, and 244 twins for the MRI testing component. For Phase III, each twin out of the pair will be randomized to either the treatment or waitlist control group to test the effects of brain training on mental health over a 30-day period, and to confirm the gene–environment and endophenotype contributions to treatment response. Preliminary heritability results are provided for the first 50% of the MRI subgroup (n = 142) for the grey matter volume, thickness, and surface area measures, and white matter diffuse tensor imaging fractional anisotropy.
The Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) was recently initiated to investigate genetic and environmental factors and their associations and interactions in healthy brain ageing and ageing-related neurocognitive disorders. The study extends the classic MZ-DZ design to include one or two equivalently aged siblings for each twin pair and utilizes the rich resources of the Australian Twin Registry. The study has a number of distinguishing features including comprehensive psychiatric, neuropsychological, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neuroimaging assessments, a longitudinal design and links with a brain donor program. The study measures many behavioral and environmental factors, but in particular lifetime physical and mental activity, physical and psychological trauma, loss of parent early in life, later losses and life events, early-life socioeconomic environment, alcohol and drug use, occupational exposure, and nutrition. It also includes comprehensive cardiovascular assessment, blood biochemistry, genetics and proteomics. The socio-demographic and health data on the first 172 pairs of twins participating in this study are presented. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is 12.8% and of dementia 1.5% in the sample. The target sample size is 1000, with at least 400 pairs of twins aged 65–90 years. The cohort will be assessed every two years, with in-depth assessments being repeated. OATS offers an excellent opportunity for collaboration with other similar studies as well as researchers who share the same interests.
Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 16S rRNA (rrn) analysis (ribotyping). the in viro derivation of strains of Salmonella enteritidis PTs 9a and 7 from a strain of S. enteritidis PT 4 has been demonstrated. All strains were isolated from a single patient over a 6-week period. Further studies have demonstrated that in terms of pulsed-field profile and ribotype, the genotypes of the patient-derived strains differed from those of the reference strains of the respective phage types. It is concluded that when used in combination, these methods can provide evidence of phylogenetic relationships in apparently unrelated S. enteritidis phage types isolated during pathogenesis of disease.
Synchrotron based μ-XRF, μ-XAS and μ-XRD have made a major impact in the field of environmental science in the last ten years. One of the first seven ‘day one’ beamlines on the Diamond Light Source is a microfocus spectroscopy beamline, beamline I18. Here the current status of the beamline and the opportunities it presents in the field of environmental science are described, with results from two of the first experiments also included. The first is based on the use of bonemeal to remediate soil. We used Zn K-edge and Pb L3-edge spectroscopy to characterize the speciation of these two elements on a soil after bonemeal treatment. The results are compared with bulk measurements taken on the whole soil and standard materials. The second experiment described here is a study of the speciation and association of Ni in a laterite from Moa Bay, Cuba. Here the differences in the Ni speciation associated with Mn oxides are examined and compared with Fe oxides phases.