Background: This study applies the updated HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) diagnostic algorithm.
Methods: Participants were 210 HIV-infected-adults, classified using proposed HAND criteria: HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD), Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND), Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI).
Results: The algorithm yielded: normal = 32.8%, ANI = 21.4%, MND = 34.3%, and HAD = 11.4%. Normal participants performed superior to HAND-defined participants on cognition, and HAD participants performed more poorly on global cognition and executive functioning. Two distinct subgroups of interest emerged: (1) functional decline without cognitive impairment; (2) severe cognitive impairment and minimal functional compromise.
Conclusions: The algorithm discriminates between HIV-infected cognitively impaired individuals. Diagnosis yields two unique profiles requiring further investigation. Findings largely support the algorithm's utility for diagnosing HIV-cognitive-impairment, but suggest distinct subsets of individuals with discrepant cognitive/functional performances that may not be readily apparent by conventional application of HAND diagnosis.