Rat offspring born to dams fed a high multivitamin diet (HV) are shown to have increased risks of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that a low-vitamin postweaning diet would enhance these characteristics in offspring born to HV dams. During pregnancy, Wistar rats were fed the AIN-93G diet with or without a 10-fold increase in vitamin content. In Experiment 1, at weaning, males were fed the recommended diet (RV) or a diet with 1/3 the vitamin content (1/3 RV) for 12 weeks. In Experiment 2, males and females were fed the RV diet or 1/6 RV diet for 35 weeks. Body weight was measured on a weekly basis, food intake on a daily basis, and for 1 h after an overnight fast following glucose gavage at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Blood glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load were measured at 30 weeks. Males from HV dams, compared with those from RV dams, gained more weight in Experiment 1 (+7%, P < 0.05) and Experiment 2 (+11%, P < 0.0001), along with higher glucose response (+33%, P < 0.05). The 1/6 RV pup diet led to lower weight gain in males (−16%, P < 0.0001) and females (−13%, P < 0.0005), and lower food intake in males (−9%, P < 0.01) independent of the gestational diet. Females on the 1/6 RV diet and from HV dams had higher 1 h food intake (+36%, P < 0.05) and lower insulin response (−25%, P < 0.05) compared with those from RV dams. Exposure of the offspring to low-vitamin diets did not amplify the expression of the metabolic syndrome observed in those born to dams fed an HV diet.