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A dual-step cylinder is a canonical geometry commonly encountered in many practical flows. It consists of a large diameter cylinder (
) attached coaxially to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (
). This work provides a comprehensive description of the flow development, classifies common wake regimes and considers the associated structural loading on a dual-step cylinder. The influence of the aspect ratio of the large diameter cylinder (
) and diameter ratio (
) is studied experimentally for a Reynolds number of
$Re_D = 2100$
$1.33\leq D/d \leq 4$
$0.2\leq L/D \leq 5$
. The flow evolution and structural loading are quantified via a combination of flow visualization, Laser Doppler velocimetry, particle image velocimetry measurements and multi-component force balance measurements. Through a detailed analysis of the results, six distinct flow regimes are identified based on observed changes in the flow development downstream of the large diameter cylinder. The findings are distilled into a map of flow regimes that provides a framework for analysis of the dual-step cylinder wakes and incorporates limiting cases of this geometry, namely, uniform circular cylinders, cantilevered cylinders, cylinders with two free ends, coin-like cylinders and single-step cylinders. The identified flow regimes are also related to changes in structural loading.
We report key learning from the public health management of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified in the UK. The first case imported, and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Contact tracing was complex and fast-moving. Potential exposures for both cases were reviewed, and 52 contacts were identified. No further confirmed COVID-19 cases have been linked epidemiologically to these two cases. As steps are made to enhance contact tracing across the UK, the lessons learned from earlier contact tracing during the country's containment phase are particularly important and timely.
Abuse of vulnerable adults in institutional settings has been reported from various countries; however, there has been no systematic description of the characteristics of the victims and their abusers. Our aim was to identify and synthesize the literature on victims and perpetrators of abuse in institutions in order to inform interventions to prevent such abuse.
Search of MEDLINE(OVID), CINHAL(EBSCO), EMBASE(OVID) and PsychINFO(OVID) databases identified 4279 references. After screening of titles and abstracts, 123 citations merited closer inspection. Applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 articles were included in the review.
The review suggested that the evidence available on risk factors is not extensive but some conclusions can be drawn. Patient, staff, institution and environment factors may play a role in increasing the risk of abuse. Cases of abuse may be often underreported.
Patients who are considered to be at higher risk need closer monitoring. Patients and staff may often lack the awareness and knowledge to identify and report abuse. Institutions should take proactive steps to monitor patients, train staff and devise systems that would be able to identify and report incidents of abuse and take steps to prevent such incidents from recurring. There should be well advertised policies for staff of all ranks to be aware of and report when they suspect or identify abuse. There is need for further research into the association between the individual factors and abuse. Such information may be useful in quantifying risk to individual patients and planning their care.
Frozen raw breaded chicken products (FRBCP) have been identified as a risk factor for Salmonella infection in Canada. In 2017, Canada implemented whole genome sequencing (WGS) for clinical and non-clinical Salmonella isolates, which increased understanding of the relatedness of Salmonella isolates, resulting in an increased number of Salmonella outbreak investigations. A total of 18 outbreaks and 584 laboratory-confirmed cases have been associated with FRBCP or chicken since 2017. The introduction of WGS provided the evidence needed to support a new requirement to control the risk of Salmonella in FRBCP produced for retail sale.
Exposure to prenatal hypoxia in rats leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), decreases fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and increases the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. The tumor necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) induces cardiomyocyte proliferation through activation of the fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn-14) receptor. The TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway becomes quiescent shortly after birth, however, it becomes upregulated with CVD; suggesting that it could be a link between the increased susceptibility to CVD in pregnancies complicated by hypoxia/IUGR. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia will exhibit reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation due to reduced Fn-14 expression and that the TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway will be expressed in those adult offspring. We exposed pregnant Sprague Dawley rats to control (21% oxygen) or hypoxic (11% oxygen) conditions from gestational days 15 to 21. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from male and female, control and hypoxic offspring at postnatal day 1. Proliferation was assessed in the presence or absence of r-TWEAK (72 h, 100 ng/ml). Prenatal hypoxia was not associated with differences in Fn-14 protein expression in either male or female offspring. Cardiomyocytes from prenatal hypoxic male, but not female, offspring had decreased proliferation compared with controls. Addition of r-TWEAK increased cardiomyocyte proliferation in all offspring. In adult offspring of all groups, the TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway was not detectable. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was reduced in only male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia but this was not due to changes in the Fn-14 pathway. Studies addressing other pathways associated with CVD and prenatal hypoxia are needed.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
How do animals communicate using sounds? How did animal vocal communication arise and evolve? Exploring a new way to conceptualize animal communication, this new edition moves beyond an earlier emphasis on the role of senders in managing receiver behaviour, to examine how receivers' responses influence signalling. It demonstrates the importance of the perceiver role in driving the evolution of communication, for instance in mimicry, and thus shifts the emphasis from a linguistic to a form/function approach to communication. Covering a wide range of animals from frogs to humans, this new edition includes new sections on human prosodic elements in speech, the vocal origins of smiles and laughter and deliberately irritating sounds and is ideal for researchers and students of animal behaviour and in fields such as sensory biology, neuroscience and evolutionary biology.
Abuse of vulnerable adults in institutional settings has been reported from various countries; however, there has been no systematic review of the characteristics of the victims and their abusers. Our aim was to identify and synthesise the literature on victims, perpetrators and institutions where abuse occured in order to inform interventions to prevent such abuse.
Searches of MEDLINE (OVID), CINHAL (EBSCO), EMBASE (OVID) and PsychINFO (OVID) databases identified 4279 references. After screening of titles and abstracts, 123 citations merited closer inspection. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 articles were included in the review.
Our review suggested that the evidence available on risk factors is not extensive but some conclusions can be drawn. Clients, staff, institutional and environmental factors appear to play a role in increasing the risk of abuse.
Vulnerable clients need closer monitoring. Clients and staff may lack the awareness and knowledge to identify and report abuse. Institutions should take proactive steps to monitor clients, train staff and devise systems that allow for the identification and prevention of incidents of abuse.There is a need for further research into the associations between the individual client, staff, institutional characteristics and abuse.