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Frozen raw breaded chicken products (FRBCP) have been identified as a risk factor for Salmonella infection in Canada. In 2017, Canada implemented whole genome sequencing (WGS) for clinical and non-clinical Salmonella isolates, which increased understanding of the relatedness of Salmonella isolates, resulting in an increased number of Salmonella outbreak investigations. A total of 18 outbreaks and 584 laboratory-confirmed cases have been associated with FRBCP or chicken since 2017. The introduction of WGS provided the evidence needed to support a new requirement to control the risk of Salmonella in FRBCP produced for retail sale.
Exposure to prenatal hypoxia in rats leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), decreases fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and increases the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. The tumor necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) induces cardiomyocyte proliferation through activation of the fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn-14) receptor. The TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway becomes quiescent shortly after birth, however, it becomes upregulated with CVD; suggesting that it could be a link between the increased susceptibility to CVD in pregnancies complicated by hypoxia/IUGR. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia will exhibit reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation due to reduced Fn-14 expression and that the TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway will be expressed in those adult offspring. We exposed pregnant Sprague Dawley rats to control (21% oxygen) or hypoxic (11% oxygen) conditions from gestational days 15 to 21. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from male and female, control and hypoxic offspring at postnatal day 1. Proliferation was assessed in the presence or absence of r-TWEAK (72 h, 100 ng/ml). Prenatal hypoxia was not associated with differences in Fn-14 protein expression in either male or female offspring. Cardiomyocytes from prenatal hypoxic male, but not female, offspring had decreased proliferation compared with controls. Addition of r-TWEAK increased cardiomyocyte proliferation in all offspring. In adult offspring of all groups, the TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway was not detectable. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was reduced in only male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia but this was not due to changes in the Fn-14 pathway. Studies addressing other pathways associated with CVD and prenatal hypoxia are needed.
In Africa, the animal trypanosomiases kill about 3 million cattle each year with related annual losses in animal productivity of ∼£3 billion. 32 of the 36 affected countries have per capita incomes of less than US$1 per day. The most effective method of combating the trypanosomiases is to eradicate their vectors, the tsetse. Up to the early 1980s, responsibility for vector control in Africa was largely taken by government agencies, using techniques such as large-scale aerial and ground spraying. Following economic crises, structural adjustment and decline or privatisation of veterinary services, much of the onus for controlling tsetse has fallen on livestock keepers themselves (Eisler et al. 2003), but partly as a consequence of trypanosomiasis, many are too poor to afford the cost. Treating cattle with synthetic pyrethroids may provide a way of breaking this cycle of poverty and disease.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
How do animals communicate using sounds? How did animal vocal communication arise and evolve? Exploring a new way to conceptualize animal communication, this new edition moves beyond an earlier emphasis on the role of senders in managing receiver behaviour, to examine how receivers' responses influence signalling. It demonstrates the importance of the perceiver role in driving the evolution of communication, for instance in mimicry, and thus shifts the emphasis from a linguistic to a form/function approach to communication. Covering a wide range of animals from frogs to humans, this new edition includes new sections on human prosodic elements in speech, the vocal origins of smiles and laughter and deliberately irritating sounds and is ideal for researchers and students of animal behaviour and in fields such as sensory biology, neuroscience and evolutionary biology.
The luminosity of a spiral arm is believed to originate primarily in the very young, newly forming stars; and the spiral arm itself to be a spiral wave which is capable of triggering the formation of the young stars selectively along the wave crest. A semi-empirical study of the density wave patterns predicted in the density wave models of twenty-five external galaxies has been made and one result of this study is presented here. It is found that those galaxies of the sample whose models predict the possibility of strong shock waves are also the galaxies which exhibit long, well-developed spiral arms; and those galaxies whose models predict weak shock waves are also the galaxies which exhibit less-developed spiral structure. This trend is seen through a correlation between w⊥0, the velocity component of basic rotation normal to a spiral arm, which is an important parameter in determining the shock strength on the one hand, and luminosity class, which is a measure of the degree of development of spiral structure on the other.
“Is there any point to which you would wish to draw my attention?”
“To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time.”
“The dog did nothing in the night-time.”
“That was the curious incident,” remarked Sherlock Holmes.
Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes
The source for intracluster matter is seen in various mass loss processes ongoing within clusters and is supported by the theoretical need for mass loss to explain the morphology of cluster colormagnitude diagrams. A variety of techniques ranging from X-ray to radio wavelengths have been employed to search for such matter but with few exceptions has not been found. The amount of material expected to collect between cleansing passages through the galactic plane has variously been estimated at between ∼ 102 and ∼ 103 M⊙. In contrast, observed upper limits for many clusters are well below these values, often > 1 M⊙. The few detections are at levels of ≲10−2 M⊙.
We present an analysis of wide-field, far-ultraviolet images of the LMC and SMC obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. The photometric catalog of over 37,000 stars allows us to make large-scale, statistical studies of massive star formation in OB associations and in the field population. Our results show that: (1) the most probable slope for the initial mass function (IMF) of field stars is Γ = −1.80, slightly steeper than the Salpeter slope; and (2) there doesn't seem to be a single, unique IMF slope for stars in OB associations, with a range of values from Γ = −1.0 to −2.0. We also analyze the stellar vs. diffuse UV flux, and the population of OB star candidates in the field.