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Mass gathering events can substantially impact public safety. Analyzing patient presentation and transport rates at various mass gathering events can help inform staffing models and improve preparedness.
A retrospective review of all patients seeking medical attention across a variety of event types at a single venue with a capacity of 68,756 from January 2010 through September 2015.
We examined 232 events with a total of 8,260,349 attendees generating 8157 medical contacts. Rates were 10 presentations and 1.6 transports per 10,000 attendees with a non-significant trend towards increased rates in postseason National Football League games. Concerts had significantly higher rates of presentation and transport than all other event types. Presenting concern varied significantly by event type and gender, and transport rate increased predictably with age. For cold weather events, transport rates increased at colder temperatures. Overall, on-site physicians did not impact rates.
At a single venue hosting a variety of events across a 6-year period, we demonstrated significant variations in presentation and transport rates. Weather, gender, event type, and age all play important roles. Our analysis, while representative only of our specific venue, may be useful in developing response plans and staffing models for similar mass gathering venues. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:752-758).
Surveillance systems for varicella in Europe are highly heterogeneous or completely absent. We estimated the varicella incidence based on seroprevalence data, as these data are largely available and not biased by under-reporting or underascertainment. We conducted a systematic literature search for varicella serological data in Europe prior to introduction of universal varicella immunization. Age-specific serological data were pooled by country and serological profiles estimated using the catalytic model with piecewise constant force of infection. From the estimated profiles, we derived the annual incidence of varicella infection (/100·000) for six age groups (<5, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–39 and 40–65 years). In total, 43 studies from 16 countries were identified. By the age of 15 years, over 90% of the population has been infected by varicella in all countries except for Greece (86·6%) and Italy (85·3%). Substantial variability across countries exists in the age-specific annual incidence of varicella primary infection among the <5 years old (from 7052 to 16 122 per 100 000) and 5–9 years old (from 3292 to 11 798 per 100 000). The apparent validity and robustness of our estimates highlight the importance of serological data for the characterization of varicella epidemiology, even in the absence of sampling or assay standardization.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
The surface quality of a heat treatable Al-Si-Mg alloy by means compression tests at 450°C was evaluated. Samples were obtained from an ingot with unidirectional solidification in order to obtain a microstructural gradient influenced by the cooling and solidification rate. The samples were heat treated by homogenization at 520°C for 4 hours prior to deformation by compression. Inverted optical and scanning electron microscopes were used to assess the surface damage of deformed samples.
Analysis of deformed surface indicates a greater influence of microstructural refinement on hardening rate. It was found that the samples solidified at high cooling rates showed no defects, but at low cooling rates produced growth of grain size and intermetallic phases and thereby the high incidence of cracks in the surface.
To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.
In this contribution talk we summarize the results of our ongoing project of detailed analysis of the chemical content (chemical tagging) as a promising powerful method to provide clear constraints on the membership of FGK kinematic candidates to stellar kinematic groups of different ages that can be used as an alternative or complementary to the methods that use kinematics, photometry or age indicators. This membership information is very important to better understand the star formation history in the solar neighborhood discerning between field-like stars (associated with dynamical resonances (bar) or spiral structure) and real physical structures of coeval stars with a common origin (debris of star-forming aggregates in the disk). We have already applied the chemical tagging method to constrain the membership of FGK candidate stars to the Hyades supercluster and the Ursa Major moving group and in this contribution we present the preliminary results of our study of the Castor moving group.
We present a detailed study of the kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) input catalog. We have selected all M dwarfs with known parallactic distance or a good photometric distance estimation, precise proper motion in the literature or as determined by us, and radial velocity measurements. Using these parameters, we computed the M dwarfs galactic space motions (U, V, W). For the stars with U and V velocity components inside or near the boundaries that determine the young disk population, we have analyzed the possible membership in the classical moving groups and nearby loose associations with ages between 10 and 600 Myr. For the candidate members, we have compiled information available in the literature in order to constrain their membership by applying other age-dating methods.
The effective incorporation of dopant species into ZnO host structure should induce changes in its physical and chemical properties enabling the establishment of novel multi-functional properties. Doping with transition metal ions and the subsequent exchange interaction between available spins of the magnetic species are expected to induce a ferromagnetic behavior. This ferromagnetic functionality will enable the application of this material in data storage and spintronics-based devices. The present research addresses the study of the effect of the oxidationstate of Fe species and the influence of the annealing atmosphere on the structural and functional properties of nanocrystalline ZnO-based powders.
The present work addresses the systematic evaluation of the influence of the incorporation of dopant species (Ca+2, Ag+1) on the structural and functional properties of bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanocrystalline powders and films. Pure and doped BFO powders and thin films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The concentration of the doping species varied from 0 up to 7 at %. The development of the host BFO structure was confirmed by XRD analyses of samples annealed at 700°C for one hour in air and nitrogen atmosphere. Thicknesses of films varied between 80 and 200 nm, depending on the concentration of Ca+2 species. Doped BFO exhibited a magnetic behavior that turned from paramagnetic into ferrimagnetic with the increase of Ca+2 concentrations.
The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is considered to be an important site of abnormality in major depressive disorder. However, structural alterations in this region have not been a consistent finding and functional imaging studies have also implicated additional areas.
A total of 32 patients with major depressive disorder, currently depressed, and 64 controls underwent structural imaging with MRI. Also, 26 patients and 52 controls were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the n-back working memory task. Structural and functional changes were evaluated using whole-brain, voxel-based methods.
The depressed patients showed volume reductions in the sgACC and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, plus in both temporal poles and the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus on the left. Functional imaging revealed task-related hypoactivation in the left lateral prefrontal cortex and other regions, as well as failure of deactivation in a subcallosal medial frontal cortical area which included the sgACC.
Whole-brain, voxel-based analysis finds evidence of both structural and functional abnormality in the sgACC in major depressive disorder. The fact that the functional changes in this area took the form of failure of deactivation adds to previous findings of default mode network dysfunction in the disorder.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many ‘end-of-pipe’ measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another.
Bismuth has been used as an antimicrobial agent for treating gastrointestinal disorders, and has been used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of different Bi compounds against opportunistic pathogens. Ten bismuth compounds were tested with three different concentrations (60, 30 and 10%), against pure cultures of the following bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results show that Bismuth subsalicylate, Bismuth trioxide and Bismuth subgallate had a good antibacterial activity however, Bismuth subsalicylate was the most effective in the inhibition of the four bacterial strains tested. In this study we confirm the antibacterial properties of Bi-based compounds for other bacteria than H. pylori.
The purpose of this study was to examine global epidemiological trends in human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks by transmission route and setting, and describe relationships between these characteristics, viral attack rates, and the occurrence of genogroup I (GI) or genogroup II (GII) strains in outbreaks. We analysed data from 902 reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, human NoV outbreaks abstracted from a systematic review of articles published from 1993 to 2011 and indexed under the terms ‘norovirus’ and ‘outbreak’. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that foodservice and winter outbreaks were significantly associated with higher attack rates. Foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were associated with multiple strains (GI+GII). Waterborne outbreaks were significantly associated with GI strains, while healthcare-related and winter outbreaks were associated with GII strains. These results identify important trends for epidemic NoV detection, prevention, and control.