To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Evidence suggests that sub-optimal maternal nutrition has implications for the developing offspring. We have previously shown that exposure to a low-protein diet during gestation was associated with upregulation of genes associated with cholesterol transport and packaging within the placenta. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of altering maternal dietary linoleic acid (LA; omega-6) to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; omega-6) ratios as well as total fat content on placental expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport. The potential for maternal body mass index (BMI) to be associated with expression of these genes in human placental samples was also evaluated. Placentas were collected from 24 Wistar rats at 20-day gestation (term = 21–22-day gestation) that had been fed one of four diets containing varying fatty acid compositions during pregnancy, and from 62 women at the time of delivery. Expression of 14 placental genes associated with cholesterol packaging and transfer was assessed in rodent and human samples by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In rats, placental mRNA expression of ApoA2, ApoC2, Cubn, Fgg, Mttp and Ttr was significantly elevated (3–30 fold) in animals fed a high LA (36% fat) diet, suggesting increased cholesterol transport across the placenta in this group. In women, maternal BMI was associated with fewer inconsistent alterations in gene expression. In summary, sub-optimal maternal nutrition is associated with alterations in the expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport in a rat model. This may contribute to altered fetal development and potentially programme disease risk in later life. Further investigation of human placenta in response to specific dietary interventions is required.
The paper presents the design and experimental testing of the control system used in a new morphing wing application with a full-scaled portion of a real wing. The morphing actuation system uses four similar miniature brushless DC (BLDC) motors placed inside the wing, which execute a direct actuation of the flexible upper surface of the wing made from composite materials. The control system of each actuator uses three control loops (current, speed and position) characterised by five control gains. To tune the control gains, the Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) method is used. The application of the PSO method supposed the development of a MATLAB/Simulink® software model for the controlled actuator, which worked together with a software sub-routine implementing the PSO algorithm to find the best values for the five control gains that minimise the cost function. Once the best values of the control gains are established, the software model of the controlled actuator is numerically simulated in order to evaluate the quality of the obtained control system. Finally, the designed control system is experimentally validated in bench tests and wind-tunnel tests for all four miniature actuators integrated in the morphing wing experimental model. The wind-tunnel testing treats the system as a whole and includes, besides the evaluation of the controlled actuation system, the testing of the integrated morphing wing experimental model and the evaluation of the aerodynamic benefits brought by the morphing technology on this project. From this last perspective, the airflow on the morphing upper surface of the experimental model is monitored by using various techniques based on pressure data collection with Kulite pressure sensors or on infrared thermography camera visualisations.
Refugees are confronted with the task of adapting to the long-term erosion of psychosocial systems and institutions that in stable societies support psychological well-being and mental health. We provide an overview of the theoretical principles and practical steps taken to develop a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Integrative Adapt Therapy (IAT), which aims to assist refugees to adapt to these changes. This paper offers the background informing ongoing trials of IAT amongst refugees from Myanmar.
A systematic process was followed in formulating the therapy and devising a treatment manual consistent with the principles of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The process of development and refinement was based on qualitative research amongst 70 refugees (ten from West Papua and 60 Rohingya from Myanmar). The therapeutic process was then piloted by trained interventionists amongst a purposively selected sample of 20 Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
The final formulation of IAT represented an integration of the principles of the ADAPT model and evidence-based techniques of modern therapies in the field, including a transdiagnostic approach and the selective use of cognitive behavioural treatment elements such as problem-solving and emotional regulation techniques. The steps outlined in refining the manual are outlined in relation to work amongst West Papuan refugees, and the process of cultural and contextual modifications described during early piloting with Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
IAT integrates universal principles of the ADAPT model with the particularities of the culture, history of conflict and living context of each refugee community; this synthesis of knowledge forms the basis for participants gaining insights into their personal patterns of psychosocial adaptation to the refugee experience. Participants then apply evidence-based techniques to improve their capacity to adapt to the serial psychosocial changes they have encountered in their lives as refugees. The overarching goal of IAT is to provide refugees with a coherent framework that assists in making sense of their experiences and their emotional and interpersonal reactions to the challenges they confront within the family and community context. As such, the principles of a general model (ADAPT) are used as a springboard for making concrete, manageable and meaningful life changes at the individual level, a potentially novel approach for psychosocial interventions in the field.
Background: Sotos syndrome is a genetic condition caused by NSD1 alterations, characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and learning disability. Approximately half of children with Sotos syndrome develop seizures. We investigated the spectrum of seizure phenotypes in these patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from clinics and referral from support groups. Those withclinical or genetic diagnosis of Sotos syndrome and seizures were included. Phenotyping data was collected via structured clinical interview and medical chart review. Results: 25 patients with typical Sotos syndrome features were included. Of 14 tested patients, 64% (n=9) had NSD1 alterations. Most had developmental impairment (80%, n=20) and neuropsychiatric comorbidities (68%, n=17). Seizure onset was variable (2 months to 12 years). Febrile and absence seizures were the most frequent types (64%, n=16). Afebrile generalized tonicclonic (40%, n=10) and atonic (24%, n=6) seizures followed. Most patients (60%, n=15) had multiple seizure types. The majority (72%, n=18) was controlled on a single antiepileptic, or none; 4% (n=1) remained refractory to antiepileptics. Conclusions: The seizure phenotype in Sotos syndrome most commonly involves febrile convulsions or absence seizures. Afebrile tonic-clonic or atonic seizures may also occur. Seizures are typically well-controlled with antiepileptics. The rate of developmental impairment and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is high.
Background: It is well understood that gliomas require vast supply of energy to proliferate, invade and spread. We wished to identify novel biomarkers by comparing normal brain and plasma to high and low grade gliomas using newer techniques in laser ionization mass spectroscopy - precision metabolomics and lipidomics. Methods: Single center IRB approved tissue bank of “normal” brain and plasma (n=6) and IDH wild-type GBM tissue and plamsa (n=29), IDH mutant GBM tissue and plamsa (n=6), Low grade glioma (n=4) tissue and plamsa were analyzed for over 2000 endogenous metbolites and complex lipids. Unbiased clustering and Random Forest plots and pathway analysis were performed with appropriate statsitical analysis (significance p < 0.05). Results: IDH mutant GBM had higher levels of 2-HG, however, plasma 2-HG did not reflect IDH genotype. Changes in glucose and fatty acid utilization were observed in IDH WT and mutant gliomas compared to normal brain tissue. Lipidomics of plasma and tissue of normal and gliomas did not reveal a biomarker reaching statistical significance. Conclusions: We will continue to investigate if plasma and tissue biomarkers including hypotaurine, methionine, branched chain amino acid catabolites and pregnonolone can be used to predict tumor progression, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.
Introduction: Renal colic is one of the most common presentations to the emergency department (ED), and often requires complex interdisciplinary collaboration between emergency physicians and urology surgeons. Previous literature has shown that adoption of interdisciplinary rapid referral clinics can improve both timeliness of care and patient outcomes. However, these Acute Care Surgery models have not yet been commonly adopted for urology care in the ED. Methods: In July 2016, we adopted the intervention of an Acute Care Urology (ACU) model through the creation of a rapid referral clinic dedicated to ED patient referrals, the addition of an ACU surgeon, and enhanced use of daytime OR blocks. We conducted a manual chart review of 579 patients presenting to the ED with a complaint of renal colic. Patient data was collected in two separate time periods to analyze trends before implementation of the ACU model (pre-intervention, September - November 2015), to examine the model's impact (post-intervention, September - November 2016). Secondary methods of evaluation included a survey of 20 ED physicians to capture subjective feedback through Likert scale data. Results: Of the evaluated 579 patients with a complaint of renal colic,194 patients were discharged from ED with an diagnosis of obstructing kidney stone and were referred to urology for outpatient care. The ED-to-clinic time was significantly lower for those in the ACU model (p <0.001). The mean time to clinic was 15.76 days (SD = 15.47, range 1-93) pre-intervention versus 4.17 days (SD = 2.33, range = 1-12) post-intervention. Furthermore, the ACU clinic allowed significantly more patients to be referred for outpatient care (p = 0.0004). There was also higher likelihood that patients would successfully obtain an appointment following referral (p = 0.0055). Decreasing trends were shown in mean ED wait time, in addition to time from assessment to procedure. Results of the qualitative survey were overwhelmingly positive. All 20 surveyed ED physicians were more confident that outpatients would be seen in a timely manner (85% strongly agree, 15% agree). Qualitative feedback included the belief that follow-up is more accessible, that ED physicians are less likely to page the on-call urologist, and that they are able to discharge patients sooner. Conclusion: The ACU model for patients with renal colic may be beneficial in reducing ED-to-clinic time, ensuring proper follow-up after ED diagnosis, and improving patient care within the ED.
There is a scarcity of specialist trainers and supervisors for psychosocial interventions in low- and middle-income countries. A cascaded model of training and supervision was developed to sustain delivery of an evidence-based peer-delivered intervention for perinatal depression (the Thinking Healthy Programme) in rural Pakistan. The study aimed to evaluate the model.
Mixed methods were employed as part of a randomised controlled trial of the intervention. Quantitative data consisted of the peers' competencies assessed during field training and over the implementation phase of the intervention, using a specially developed checklist. Qualitative data were collected from peers and their trainers through 11 focus groups during the second and third year of intervention rollout.
Following training, 43 peers out of 45 (95%) achieved at least a ‘satisfactory’ level of competency (scores of ⩾70% on the Quality and Competency Checklist). Of the cohort of 45 peers initially recruited 34 (75%) were retained over 3 years and showed sustained or improved competencies over time. Qualitatively, the key factors contributing to peers' competency were use of interactive training and supervision techniques, the trainer–peer relationship, and their cultural similarity. The partnership with community health workers and use of primary health care facilities for training and supervision gave credibility to the peers in the community.
The study demonstrates that lay-workers such as peers can be trained and supervised to deliver a psychological intervention using a cascaded model, thus addressing the barrier of scarcity of specialist trainers and supervisors.
Advances in material science and semiconductor technology have enabled a variety of inventions to be implemented in electronic systems and devices used in the medical, telecommunications, and consumer electronics sectors. In this paper, a wireless charging system is described as a wearable body heater that uses a chair as a transmitter (Tx). This system incorporates the widely accepted Qi wireless charging standard. Alignment conditions of a linear three-element coil arrangement and a 3 × 3 coil matrix array are investigated using voltage induced in a coil as a performance indicator. The efficiency obtained is demonstrated to be up to 80% for a voltage of over 6.5 Volts and a power transfer of over 5 Watts. Our results and proposed approach can be useful for many applications. This is because the wireless charging system described herein can help design seating areas for the elderly and disabled, commercial systems, consumer electronics, medical devices, electronic textiles (e-textiles), and other electronic systems and devices.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To establish an effective team of researchers working towards developing and validating prognostic models employing use of image analyses and other numerical metadata to better understand pediatric undernutrition, and to learn how different approaches can be brought together collaboratively and efficiently. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Over the past 18 months we have established a transdisciplinary team spanning three countries and the Schools of Medicine, Engineering, Data Science and Global Health. We first identified two team leaders specifically a pediatric physician scientist (SS) and a data scientist/engineer (DB). The leaders worked together to recruit team members, with the understanding that different ideas are encouraged and will be used collaboratively to tackle the problem of pediatric undernutrition. The final data analytic and interpretative core team consisted of four data science students, two PhD students, an undergraduate biology major, a recent medical graduate, and a PhD research scientist. Additional collaborative members included faculty from Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine (Pediatrics and Pathology) along with international Global Health faculty from Pakistan and Zambia. We learned early on that it was important to understand what each of the member’s motivation for contributing to the project was along with aligning that motivation with the overall goals of the team. This made us help prioritize team member tasks and streamline ideas. We also incorporated a mechanism of weekly (monthly/bimonthly for global partners) meetings with informal oral presentations which consisted of each member’s current progress, thoughts and concerns, and next experimental goals. This method enabled team leaders to have a 3600 mechanism of feedback. Overall, we assessed the effectiveness of our team by two mechanisms: 1) ongoing team member feedback, including team leaders, and 2) progress of the research project. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our feedback has shown that on initial development of the team there was hesitance in communication due to the background diversity of our various member along with different cultural/social expectations. We used ice-breaking methods such as dedicated time for brief introductions, career directions, and life goals for each team member. We subsequently found that with the exception of one, all other team members noted our working environment professional and conducive to productivity. We also learnt from our method of ongoing constant feedback that at times, due to the complexity of different disciplines, some information was lost due to the difference in educational backgrounds. We have now employed new methods to relay information more effectively, with the use of not just sharing literature but also by explaining the content. The progress of our research project has varied over the past 4-6 months. There was a steep learning curve for almost every member, for example all the data science students had never studied anything related to medicine during their education, including minimal if none exposure to the ethics of medical research. Conversely, team members with medical/biology backgrounds had minimal prior exposure to computational modeling, computer engineering and the verbage of communicating mathematical algorithms. While this may have slowed our progress we learned that by asking questions and engaging every member it was easier to delegate tasks effectively. Once our team reached an overall understanding of each member’s goals there was a steady progress in the project, with new results and new methods of analysis being tested every week. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We expect that our on-going collaboration will result in the development of new and novel modalities to understand and diagnose pediatric undernutrition, and can be used as a model to tackle several other problems. As with many team science projects, credit and authorship are challenges that we are outlining creative strategies for as suggested by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and other literature.
Ab initio microkinetic modeling was performed to study ethanol conversion to acetaldehyde on Pt-based bimetallic alloys in a non-oxidative environment. Alloying Pt with Au, Ag, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, and Sb showed an increase in product turnover by at least an order of magnitude compared with Pt at 423 K. This was correlated to the increased stabilization of CH3CHO species over these alloys. Among the alloy candidates; Pt3Cu, Pt3Zn, Pt3Ga, Pt3Ge, Pt3Sb, and Pt3Pb were found to be more active than Pt.
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), a two dimensional (2D) material, has emerged as an important substrate and dielectric for electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices based on graphene and other atomically thin two dimensional materials. Here we report on the initial oxidation of (0001) hBN single crystals in ambient air as functions of temperature and time, as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). For oxidation times of 20 minutes, the first evidence of oxidation appears at 900°C, with the formation of shallow, hexagonal-, and irregular-shaped pits that are less than 100 nm across and several nanometer deep. Oxidation at 1100°C for 20 minutes produced 1.0-2.0-micron size pits with flat and pointed bottoms that were approximately hexagonal-shaped, but with rough and irregular edges, and multiple interior steps. Oxidation was not uniform on the surface of hBN, but starts where dislocations in the crystal intersected the surfaces. Pit depth increased linearly with temperature and oxidation times. In addition to the surface pits, small particles formed on the surface. Elemental analysis of the thermally oxidized hBN crystals by SEM/EDS revealed the major elements of these particles were boron and oxygen.
Accurate three-dimensional dosimetry is essential in modern radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this research work, the PRESAGE® dosimeter was used as quality assurance (QA) tool for VMAT planning for head and neck (H&N) cancer.
Material and method
Computer tomography (CT) scans of an Image Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) H&N anthropomorphic phantom with both IROC standard insert and PRESAGE® insert were acquired separately. Both CT scans were imported into the Pinnacle (9.4 version) TPS for treatment planning, where the structures [planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk) and thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were manually contoured and used to optimise a VMAT plan. Treatment planning was done using VMAT (dual arc: 182°–178°, 178°–182°). Beam profile comparisons and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreement with film, PRESAGE® measurement and treatment planning system (TPS) calculated dose distribution.
The average ratio of TLD measured to calculated doses at the four PTV locations in the H&N phantom were between 0·95 to 0·99 for all three VMAT deliveries. Dose profiles were taken along the left–right, the anterior–posterior and superior–inferior axes, and good agreement was found between the PRESAGE® and Pinnacle profile. The mean value of gamma results for three VMAT deliveries in axial and sagittal planes were found to be 94·24 and 93·16% when compared with film and Pinnacle, respectively. The average values comparing the PRESAGE® results and dose values calculated on Pinnacle were observed to be 95·29 and 94·38% in the said planes, respectively, using a 5%/3 mm gamma criteria.
The PRESAGE® dose measurements and calculated dose of pinnacle show reasonable agreement in both axial and sagittal planes for complex dual arc VMAT treatment plans. In general, the PRESAGE® dosimeter is found to be a feasible QA tool of VMAT plan for H&N cancer treatment.
Transcatheter right ventricle decompression in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is technically challenging, with risk of cardiac perforation and death. Further, despite successful right ventricle decompression, re-intervention on the pulmonary valve is common. The association between technical factors during right ventricle decompression and the risks of complications and re-intervention are not well described.
This is a multicentre retrospective study among the participating centres of the Congenital Catheterization Research Collaborative. Between 2005 and 2015, all neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum and attempted transcatheter right ventricle decompression were included. Technical factors evaluated included the use and characteristics of radiofrequency energy, maximal balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, infundibular diameter, and right ventricle systolic pressure pre- and post-valvuloplasty (BPV). The primary end point was cardiac perforation or death; the secondary end point was re-intervention.
A total of 99 neonates underwent transcatheter right ventricle decompression at a median of 3 days (IQR 2–5) of age, including 63 patients by radiofrequency and 32 by wire perforation of the pulmonary valve. There were 32 complications including 10 (10.5%) cardiac perforations, of which two resulted in death. Cardiac perforation was associated with the use of radiofrequency (p=0.047), longer radiofrequency duration (3.5 versus 2.0 seconds, p=0.02), and higher maximal radiofrequency energy (7.5 versus 5.0 J, p<0.01) but not with patient weight (p=0.09), pulmonary valve diameter (p=0.23), or infundibular diameter (p=0.57). Re-intervention was performed in 36 patients and was associated with higher post-intervention right ventricle pressure (median 60 versus 50 mmHg, p=0.041) and residual valve gradient (median 15 versus 10 mmHg, p=0.046), but not with balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, atmospheric pressure used during BPV, or the presence of a residual balloon waist during BPV. Re-intervention was not associated with any right ventricle anatomic characteristics, including pulmonary valve diameter.
Technical factors surrounding transcatheter right ventricle decompression in pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum influence the risk of procedural complications but not the risk of future re-intervention. Cardiac perforation is associated with the use of radiofrequency energy, as well as radiofrequency application characteristics. Re-intervention after right ventricle decompression for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is common and relates to haemodynamic measures surrounding initial BPV.
Background: Lactate, a by-product of glycolysis, has been well established as a marker of poor tissue perfusion. Elevated lactate production is observed in tumor glycolysis known as the Warburg effect. We have previously shown that serum lactate correlated with brain tumor grade. In this prospective study we aimed to determine if the preoperative serum lactate correlated with preoperative MR spectroscopy and in lactate levels in the fresh frozen tissue samples. Methods: Twenty-one glioma patients (13 male, 8 female) ages 34 – 86 underwent craniotomy at a single institution by lead author. Tumor pathology revealed a Glioblastoma (n=16), grade II (oligodendroglioma n=1) and Grade III Glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma n=4). Preoperative spectroscopy was performed on 18 patients. A fellowship trained neuro-radiologist (JPC) was blinded to the serum and tissue lactate levels and graded the spectroscopy lactate levels as low or elevated. Results: There was direct correlation of spectroscopy tissue lactate levels with serum lactate levels. Pre-operative serum lactate (range 6.6- 29.9 mg/dl) was directly correlated with the fresh frozen tissue lactate levels (range 0.1 – 0.39 ug/mg; Pearson r=0.6 p = 0.0021). Conclusions: This study supports that serum lactate correlates with spectroscopy and tissue lactate levels.
New features of the twisted dusty plasma modes and associated instabilities are investigated in permeating plasmas. Using the Vlasov–Poisson model equations, a generalized dispersion relation is obtained for a Maxwellian distributed plasma to analyse the dust-acoustic and dust-ion-acoustic waves with finite orbital angular momentum (OAM) states. Existence conditions for damping/growth rates are discussed and showed significant modifications in twisted dusty modes as compared to straight propagating dusty modes. Numerically, the instability growth rate, which depends on particle streaming and twist effects in the wave potential, is significantly modified due to the Laguerre–Gaussian profiles. Relevance of the study to wave excitations due to penetration of solar wind into cometary clouds or interstellar dusty plasmas is discussed.
Recent evidence has raised the possibility of the existence of a sixth taste modality – that is, taste for fat – which is mediated by lingual CD36 and plays a role in obesity. Consequently, the genetic polymorphism of CD36 has been shown to be associated with altered oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between oro-sensory perception of linoleic acid (LA), two CD36 polymorphisms (rs1527483 and rs3212018), obesity parameters and craving habits for dietary lipids in young Czech adults. We also sequenced 5 and 6 exons of CD36 to trace out any new mutation that might be responsible for the difference in taste perception. We observed that craving for dietary lipids was correlated with anthropometric parameters (P<0·05) and LA detection threshold (P=0·033). The participants with the CC genotype of the rs1527483 polymorphism had lower BMI (P=0·011), waist circumference (P=0·005), waist:height ratio (P=0·010) and higher sensitivity for LA (P=0·037) than the participants with the CT and TT genotypes. Interestingly, we did not observe any association between the rs3212018 polymorphism and the studied parameters. Moreover, we did not observe any mutation in exons 5 and 6 of the CD36 gene in these subjects. Finally, we can state that rs1527483, but not rs3212018, is associated with high body weight in young Czech subjects.
The objective of the paper was to survey patients’ preference in relation to a continuity, or split, model of inpatient consultant care in the Louth Mental Health Service.
A written survey was administered to all patients attending the Louth Mental Health Service over a 2-week period. Participants were asked for their preferred model of care and clinical information was obtained from their clinical notes.
In total, 149 patients completed the survey questionnaire and 103 respondents (69%) indicated a preference for a continuity model of inpatient consultant psychiatric care. There was a trend for those who reported a past experience of inpatient hospitalisation to indicate a preference for the continuity model (76% v. 61%, respectively, χ2 3.67, p=0.056).
Patients indicate a preference for a continuity model of inpatient psychiatric care and this is important to consider in service planning. More research is needed to evaluate if any model of consultant care is associated with better patient outcomes.