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This comprehensive textbook provides a modern, self-contained treatment for upper undergraduate and graduate level students. It emphasizes the links between structure, defects, bonding, and properties throughout, and provides an integrated treatment of a wide range of materials, including crystalline, amorphous, organic and nano- materials. Boxes on synthesis methods, characterization tools, and technological applications distil specific examples and support student understanding of materials and their design. The first six chapters cover the fundamentals of extended solids, while later chapters explore a specific property or class of material, building a coherent framework for students to master core concepts with confidence, and for instructors to easily tailor the coverage to fit their own single semester course. With mathematical details given only where they strengthen understanding, 400 original figures and over 330 problems for hands-on learning, this accessible textbook is ideal for courses in chemistry and materials science.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter phenology in thirteen economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across fourteen states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus species seed shatter was low (0 to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2 to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than ten percent of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
Review a single-centre experience with pulmonary artery sling repair and evaluate risk factors for re-intervention.
Patients with surgically repaired pulmonary artery sling at a single institution between 1996 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. A univariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate variables for association with freedom from re-intervention.
Eighteen patients had pulmonary artery sling repair. At operation, median age and weight were 6.9 months (interquartile range 4.1–18.1) and 9.5 kg (interquartile range 6.5–14.5), respectively. A median hospital length of stay was 12 days (interquartile range 5.8–55.3). Twelve patients (67%) had complete tracheal rings, of whom six (50%) underwent tracheoplasty (five concurrently with pulmonary artery sling repair). Airway re-intervention was required in five (83%) of the six patients who underwent tracheoplasty. One patient had intraoperative diagnosis and repair of pulmonary artery sling during unrelated lesion repair and required tracheoplasty 24 days post-operatively. One patient died 55 days after pulmonary artery sling repair and tracheoplasty following multiple arrests and re-interventions. Median post-operative follow-up for surviving patients was 6.3 years (interquartile range 11 months–13 years), at which time freedom from re-intervention was 61%. When controlling for patient and tracheal size, initial tracheoplasty was associated with decreased freedom from re-intervention (hazard ratio 21.9, 95% confidence interval 1.7–284.3, p = 0.018).
In patients with pulmonary artery sling, tracheoplasty is associated with decreased freedom from re-intervention. In select patients with pulmonary artery sling and complete tracheal rings, conservative management without tracheoplasty is feasible. Further study is necessary to delineate objective indications for tracheoplasty.
Background: Healthcare services are increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Outpatient settings such as emergency departments (EDs), oncology clinics, dialysis clinics, and day surgery often involve invasive procedures with the risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). As a leading cause of HAI, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in outpatient settings has not been sufficiently described in Canada. The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) aims to describe the epidemiology, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of outpatient CDI across Canada. Methods: Epidemiologic data were collected from patients diagnosed with CDI from a network of 47 adult and pediatric CNISP hospitals. Patients presenting to an outpatient setting such as the ED or outpatient clinics were considered as outpatient CDI. Cases were considered HAIs if the patient had had a healthcare intervention within the previous 4 weeks, and they were considered community-associated if there was no history of hospitalization within the previous 12 weeks. Clostridioides difficile isolates were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for testing during an annual 2-month targeted surveillance period. National and regional rates of CDI were stratified by outpatient location. Results: Between January 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019, 2,691 cases of outpatient-CDI were reported, and 348 isolates were available for testing. Most cases (1,475 of 2,691, 54.8%) were identified in outpatient clinics, and 72.8% (1,960 of 2,691) were classified as community associated. CDI cases per 100,000 ED visits were highest in 2015, at 10.3, and decreased to 8.1 in 2018. Rates from outpatient clinics decreased from 3.5 in 2016 to 2.7 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Regionally, CDI rates in the ED declined in Central Canada and increased in the West after 2016. Rates in outpatient clinics were >2 times higher in the West compared to other regions. RT027 associated with NAP1 was most common among ED patients (26 of 195, 13.3%), whereas RT106 associated with NAP11 was predominant in outpatient clinics (22 of 189, 11.6%). Overall, 10.4% of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, 0.5% were resistant to rifampin, and 24.2% were resistant to clindamycin. No resistance was observed for metronidazole, vancomycin, or tigecycline. Compared to CNISP inpatient CDI data, outpatients with CDI were younger (51.8 ± 23.3 vs 64.2 ± 21.6; P < .001), included more females (56.4% vs 50.9%; P < .001), and were more often treated with metronidazole (63.0% vs 56.1%; P < .001). Conclusions: For the first time, CDI cases identified in outpatient settings were characterized in a Canadian context. Outpatient CDI rates are decreasing overall, but they vary by region. Predominant ribotypes vary based on outpatient location. Outpatients with CDI are younger and are more likely female than inpatients with CDI.
Disclosures: Susy Hota reports contract research for Finch Therapeutics.
Despite a growing understanding of disorders of consciousness following severe brain injury, the association between long-term impairment of consciousness, spontaneous brain oscillations, and underlying subcortical damage, and the ability of such information to aid patient diagnosis, remains incomplete.
Cross-sectional observational sample of 116 patients with a disorder of consciousness secondary to brain injury, collected prospectively at a tertiary center between 2011 and 2013. Multimodal analyses relating clinical measures of impairment, electroencephalographic measures of spontaneous brain activity, and magnetic resonance imaging data of subcortical atrophy were conducted in 2018.
In the final analyzed sample of 61 patients, systematic associations were found between electroencephalographic power spectra and subcortical damage. Specifically, the ratio of beta-to-delta relative power was negatively associated with greater atrophy in regions of the bilateral thalamus and globus pallidus (both left > right) previously shown to be preferentially atrophied in chronic disorders of consciousness. Power spectrum total density was also negatively associated with widespread atrophy in regions of the left globus pallidus, right caudate, and in the brainstem. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of demographics, encephalographic, and imaging data in an analytic framework can be employed to aid behavioral diagnosis.
These results ground, for the first time, electroencephalographic presentation detected with routine clinical techniques in the underlying brain pathology of disorders of consciousness and demonstrate how multimodal combination of clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data can be employed in potentially mitigating the high rates of misdiagnosis typical of this patient cohort.
Over the past 15 years, there has been substantial growth in web-based psychological interventions. We summarize evidence regarding the efficacy of web-based self-directed psychological interventions on depressive, anxiety and distress symptoms in people living with a chronic health condition.
We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE databases and Cochrane Database from 1990 to 1 May 2019. English language papers of randomized controlled trials (usual care or waitlist control) of web-based psychological interventions with a primary or secondary aim to reduce anxiety, depression or distress in adults with a chronic health condition were eligible. Results were assessed using narrative synthases and random-effects meta-analyses.
In total 70 eligible studies across 17 health conditions [most commonly: cancer (k = 20), chronic pain (k = 9), arthritis (k = 6) and multiple sclerosis (k = 5), diabetes (k = 4), fibromyalgia (k = 4)] were identified. Interventions were based on CBT principles in 46 (66%) studies and 42 (60%) included a facilitator. When combining all chronic health conditions, web-based interventions were more efficacious than control conditions in reducing symptoms of depression g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.22–0.39), anxiety g = 0.19 (95% CI 0.12–0.27), and distress g = 0.36 (95% CI 0.23–0.49).
Evidence regarding effectiveness for specific chronic health conditions was inconsistent. While self-guided online psychological interventions may help to reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression and distress in people with chronic health conditions in general, it is unclear if these interventions are effective for specific health conditions. More high-quality evidence is needed before definite conclusions can be made.
Cohorting patients who are colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) protects uncolonized patients from acquiring MDROs in healthcare settings. The potential for cross transmission within the cohort and the possibility of colonized patients acquiring secondary isolates with additional antibiotic resistance traits is often neglected. We searched for evidence of cross transmission of KPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) colonization among cohorted patients in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH), and we evaluated the impact of secondary acquisitions on resistance potential.
Genomic epidemiological investigation.
A high-prevalence LTACH during a bundled intervention that included cohorting KPC-Kp–positive patients.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and location data were analyzed to identify potential cases of cross transmission between cohorted patients.
Secondary KPC-Kp isolates from 19 of 28 admission-positive patients were more closely related to another patient’s isolate than to their own admission isolate. Of these 19 cases, 14 showed strong genomic evidence for cross transmission (<10 single nucleotide variants or SNVs), and most of these patients occupied shared cohort floors (12 patients) or rooms (4 patients) at the same time. Of the 14 patients with strong genomic evidence of acquisition, 12 acquired antibiotic resistance genes not found in their primary isolates.
Acquisition of secondary KPC-Kp isolates carrying distinct antibiotic resistance genes was detected in nearly half of cohorted patients. These results highlight the importance of healthcare provider adherence to infection prevention protocols within cohort locations, and they indicate the need for future studies to assess whether multiple-strain acquisition increases risk of adverse patient outcomes.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Recent declines of wild pollinators and infections in honey, bumble and other bee species have raised concerns about pathogen spillover from managed honey and bumble bees to other pollinators. Parasites of honey and bumble bees include trypanosomatids and microsporidia that often exhibit low host specificity, suggesting potential for spillover to co-occurring bees via shared floral resources. However, experimental tests of trypanosomatid and microsporidial cross-infectivity outside of managed honey and bumble bees are scarce. To characterize potential cross-infectivity of honey and bumble bee-associated parasites, we inoculated three trypanosomatids and one microsporidian into five potential hosts – including four managed species – from the apid, halictid and megachilid bee families. We found evidence of cross-infection by the trypanosomatids Crithidia bombi and C. mellificae, with evidence for replication in 3/5 and 3/4 host species, respectively. These include the first reports of experimental C. bombi infection in Megachile rotundata and Osmia lignaria, and C. mellificae infection in O. lignaria and Halictus ligatus. Although inability to control amounts inoculated in O. lignaria and H. ligatus hindered estimates of parasite replication, our findings suggest a broad host range in these trypanosomatids, and underscore the need to quantify disease-mediated threats of managed social bees to sympatric pollinators.
Introduction: Prehospital field trauma triage (FTT) standards were reviewed and revised in 2014 based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The FTT standard allows a hospital bypass and direct transport, within 30 min, to a lead trauma hospital (LTH). Our objectives were to assess the impact of the newly introduced prehospital FTT standard and to describe the emergency department (ED) management and outcomes of patients that had bypassed closer hospitals. Methods: We conducted a 12-month multi-centred health record review of paramedic and ED records following the implementation of the 4 step FTT standard (step 1: vital signs and level of consciousness (physiologic), step 2: anatomical injury, step 3: mechanism and step 4: special considerations) in nine paramedic services across Eastern Ontario. We included adult trauma patients transported as urgent that met FTT standard, regardless of transport time. We developed and piloted a data collection tool and obtained consensus on all definitions. The primary outcome was the rate of appropriate triage to a LTH which was defined as: ISS ≥12, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), non-orthopedic surgery, or death. We have reported descriptive statistics. Results: 570 patients were included: mean age 48.8, male 68.9%, falls 29.6%, motor vehicle collisions 20.2%, stab wounds 10.5%, transported to a LTH 76.5% (n = 436). 72.2% (n = 315) of patients transported to a LTH had bypassed a closer hospital and 126/306 (41.2%) of those were determined to be an appropriate triage to LTH (9 patients had missing outcomes). ED management included: CT head/cervical spine 69.9%, ultrasound 53.6%, xray 51.6%, intubation 15.0%, sedation 11.1%, tranexamic acid 9.8%, blood transfusion 8.2%, fracture reduction 6.9%, tube thoracostomy 5.9%. Outcomes included: ISS ≥ 12 32.7%, admitted to ICU 15.0%, non-orthopedic surgery 11.1%, death 8.8%. Others included: admission to hospital 57.5%, mean LOS 12.8 days, orthopedic surgery 16.3% and discharged from ED 37.3%. Conclusion: Despite a high number of admissions, the majority of trauma patients bypassed to a LTH were considered over-triaged, with a low number of ED procedures and non-orthopedic surgeries. Continued work is needed to appropriately identify patients requiring transport to a LTH.
Dans le cadre du développement de la classification internationale des maladies (CIM-11), les groupes de travail ont développé des propositions avec pour objectif d’améliorer l’utilité clinique de la classification. Ces propositions sont testées via la plateforme internet « Réseau Mondial de Pratique Clinique (RMPC) » permettant de conduire à des études cliniques électroniques dans les langues officielles de l’OMS, dont le français. Cette étude s’intéresse aux catégories diagnostiques des troubles de l’alimentation et des conduites alimentaires (TCA). Des nouveaux diagnostics ont été proposés tels que le trouble d’hyperphagie et le trouble d’évitement et de restriction de l’apport alimentaire.
– évaluer l’impact des changements spécifiques des TCA entre la CIM-10 et la CIM-11 auprès des membres francophones du RMPC ;
– évaluer la validité, l’utilité clinique des nouvelles propositions et l’accord inter-juges des participants.
Étude mixte, internationale, conduite par internet auprès des membres francophones du RMPC.
Membres du RMPC maîtrisant le français (environ 1000 professionnels) et exerçant une activité clinique.
La population cible recevra un email d’invitation. Les participants seront amenés à lire deux vignettes puis à poser des diagnostics et à répondre à des questions complémentaires, en se basant sur la CIM-10 ou la CIM-11 qu’ils auront reçu de façon aléatoire.
Les vignettes représenteront des cas cliniques réels et reflèteront les changements spécifiques entre la CIM-10 et la CIM-11. Elles seront ainsi présentées par pair (8 pairs possibles).
– interparticipants portant sur l’utilisation du système diagnostique (10 ou 11) et l’attribution du diagnostic en fonction des changements spécifiques ;
– intra-participant sur l’évaluation des pairs de vignettes.
Cette étude doit permettre d’évaluer les nouvelles propositions CIM en français, en tenant compte des spécificités culturelles et linguistiques de la francophonie.
This presentation will describe a prospective study, due to commence in March 2010, to evaluate the use of Protected Engagement Time in adult acute inpatient wards in three mental health trusts in England.
Patients on acute psychiatric wards in the UK have recurrently reported that they are unhappy with the ward environment, that they are bored and have little to do, that wards are intimidating, and above all, that contact between staff and patients is often identified as too limited in both quantity and quality, and as lacking therapeutic content.
Protected Engagement Time (PET) has emerged as a promising initiative for improving quantity and usefulness of staff-patient contact. During fixed periods of the day, staff are asked to focus solely on patient contact, and are relieved of their administrative duties. However, we do not have any evidence about whether it works or how it should be implemented to achieve the best results.
This study aims to address this lack of evidence and will have three components:
a) A national survey investigating how widespread PET now is in England
b) Evaluation of the effects of PET on patients and staff by comparing 12 wards with PET and 12 wards without, by investigating staff-patient interactions, patient satisfaction, staff burnout and perceptions of the ward environment.
c) In-depth qualitative case studies on three wards with PET.
The objectives for each component and the measures used will be described in detail in the presentation, in addition to an update of study progress.
Stigma against mental illness and the mentally ill is well known. However, stigma against psychiatrists and mental health professionals is known but not discussed widely. Public attitudes and also those of other professionals affect recruitment into psychiatry and mental health services. The reasons for this discriminatory attitude are many and often not dissimilar to those held against mentally ill individuals. In this Guidance paper we present some of the factors affecting the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists which is perceived by the public at large. We look at the portrayal of psychiatry, psychiatrists in the media and literature which may affect attitudes. We also explore potential causes and explanations and propose some strategies in dealing with negative attitudes. Reduction in negative attitudes will improve recruitment and retention in psychiatry. We recommend that national psychiatric societies and other stakeholders, including patients, their families and carers, have a major and significant role to play in dealing with stigma, discrimination and prejudice against psychiatry and psychiatrists.
The Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma campaign, launched in January 2009 in England, intends to make fundamental improvements across England in: public knowledge, attitudes and discriminatory behaviour in relation to people with mental illness. To be effective and valid the campaign must reach a wide range of diverse audiences. This study explores attitudes of people from ethnic minority communities in relation to mental health.
The study investigates:
1) General attitudes and perceptions about mental illness in ethnic minority communities
2) How we might increase awareness about mental wellbeing and decrease stigma in ethnic minority communities.
Ten focus groups with members of ethnic minority groups were conducted. Five groups consisted of service users and five were composed of non-service users. Two groups comprised participants from an Indian origin, two Somali origin, two Afro-Caribbean origin and the other groups were mixed.
We will present findings regarding the ways in which traditional perceptions of mental health and personal experiences of ethnic minority service users affect their perceptions of sources of support such as family, friends, medical staff and religion and how this feedback could inform ant-stigma interventions.
The study suggests that in order to maximise the impact of anti-stigma campaigns, attention should be given to sources of discrimination and traditional perceptions of mental illness which are emphasised by ethnic minority groups. When planning anti-stigma campaigns it is important to incorporate experiences and perceptions from a wide range of audiences.
Les patients souffrant de maladies mentales meurent en moyenne 25 ans plus tôt que la population générale. Les causes de mortalité sont notamment liées aux maladies cardiovasculaires, en lien avec le syndrome métabolique. Peu de littérature explore les comorbidités somatiques et psychiatriques dans les Antilles françaises. L’objectif principal de cette étude préliminaire est de décrire au centre de crise du CHU de Martinique la population hospitalisée sur le plan somatique (syndrome métabolique) et sur le plan des comorbidités psychiatriques (dont les comorbidités psychotraumatiques).
Dans cette étude prospective où 49 patients ont été inclus de façon aléatoire entre février et juillet 2013, nous avons évalué les éléments suivants : syndrome métabolique, MINI, THQ, IESR.
Cette population est âgée de 44 ans en moyenne. Le syndrome métabolique est retrouvé chez 33 % de la population. Les comorbidités psychiatriques : 75 % de dépression, 57 % de risque suicidaire moyen à élevé. Au niveau des évènements traumatisants (médiane du nombre d’évènements traumatisants à 6) : 45 % déclarent avoir subi des agressions sexuelles, 43 % des catastrophes naturelles. Le score total de l’IESR a un score médian à 37,5.
Ces résultats rappellent la nécessité de systématiser la recherche du syndrome métabolique et des évènements traumatiques en hospitalisation en psychiatrie.
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe—primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship.
Social contact is one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations and is supported by decades of positive evidence. Several studies specifically support social contact interventions as a way of reducing stigma against people with mental health problems. Despite the effectiveness of this approach, some social groups have few opportunities for social contact in the real world.
Using the England Time to Change anti-stigma campaign as an example, we investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering social contact interventions at the mass population level to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems.
To investigate: (i) the feasibility of scaling up social contact interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems and (ii) the effectiveness of mass population social contact interventions to: improve intended stigmatising behaviour, increase willingness to disclose mental health problems and to promote engagement in antistigma activities.
Two types of mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via self-report questionnaire. Participants at social contact events were asked about the occurrence and quality of contact, attitudes, readiness to discuss mental health, and intended behaviour towards people with mental health problems.
Findings on feasibility and effectiveness of social contact programmes will be presented.
This study suggests that social contact interventions can be used by anti-stigma campaigns to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems. Further investigation is needed regarding the maintenance of these changes