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Recognition of faces of family members, friends, and colleagues is an important skill essential for everyday life. Individuals affected by prosopagnosia (face blindness) have difficulty recognizing familiar individuals. The prevalence of prosopagnosia has been estimated to be as high as 3%. Prosopagnosia can severely impact the quality of life of those affected, and it has been suggested to co-occur with conditions such as depression and anxiety.
To determine real-world diagnostic frequency of prosopagnosia and the spectrum of its comorbidities, we utilized a large database of more than 7.5 million de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) from patients who received care at major academic health centers and Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York City. We designed a computable phenotype to search the database for diagnosed cases of prosopagnosia, revealing a total of n = 902 cases. In addition, data from a randomly sampled matched control population (n = 100,973) were drawn from the database for comparative analyses to study the condition’s comorbidity landscape. Diagnostic frequency of prosopagnosia, epidemiological characteristics, and comorbidity landscape were assessed.
We observed prosopagnosia diagnoses at a rate of 0.012% (12 per 100,000 individuals). We discovered elevated frequency of prosopagnosia diagnosis for individuals who carried certain comorbid conditions, such as personality disorder, depression, epilepsy, and anxiety. Moreover, prosopagnosia diagnoses increased with the number of comorbid conditions.
Results from this study show a wide range of comorbidities and suggest that prosopagnosia is vastly underdiagnosed. Findings imply important clinical consequences for the diagnosis and management of prosopagnosia as well as its comorbid conditions.
inhaled loxapine has shown efficiency in the treatment of the mild-moderate agitation syndrome of schyzophrenia and mania patients. Its rapid response and calming effect non-sedative allow to hypothesize reasonable efficiency and tolerability in borderline personality disorder diagnosed patients.
analyze the efficiency and tolerability of inhaled loxapine as a pharmacological approach in the treatment of agitation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical diagnosed patients.
Materials and method
an application was administered for every agitation episode in BPD patients treated with inhaled loxapine in the emergency room or the psychiatric ward, which included B aRS and CGI-S scales for the evaluation of each episode and its severity, before and after its use. Other secondary measures of efficiency were taken into account, such as requirement of physical restrain.
in the majority of evaluated episodes inhaled loxapine decreased notably initial B aRS and CGI-S values and no serious clinical side effects attributable to this medication were observed.
in our sample, inhaled loxapine was efficiency and well tolerated pharmacological intervention for agitation in BPD patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The concept of psychogenic psychosis was introduced by Wimmer in 1916 and subsequently extended by Strömgren in the mid twentieth century. It typically describes a polymorphic psychotic episode of abrupt onset and which follows a trauma or stressful life situation. The duration of the episode is usually brief and remission occurs ad integrum. In recent decades, the notion has fallen into disuse in clinical psychiatry and international classifications. This could be due to a general improvement in living conditions, with less exposure to traumatic situations.
We intend to study the characteristics of psychogenic psychosis in immigrants. We believe that the condition could be observed better in this population, given their greater vulnerability to trauma. For this purpose, we chose a sample of Romanian patients, who nevertheless have considerable cultural affinity with the Spanish population.
We collected the clinical and biographical data of four cases of psychogenic psychosis admitted to our clinic between 2012 and 2015.
Four Romanian women aged 25 to 42 were diagnosed with psychogenic psychosis in this period. Mean length of hospitalization was 5, 0 days. All patients reported familiar or occupational stress prior to the onset of symptoms. Psychotic symptoms remitted quickly with low doses of medication, despite being initially intense.
Reported cases fit remarkably well with the original description of Wimmer. The concept of psychogenic psychosis, along with similar brief psychotic entities, could be useful in describing the psychopathology derived from new social models and crises.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA) has eight general/adult items applied in all households and six additional items exclusively asked in households with children and/or adolescents (HHCA). Continuing an investigation programme on the adequacy of model-based cut-off points for EBIA, the present study aims to: (i) explore the capacity of properly stratifying HHCA according to food insecurity (FI) severity level by applying only the eight ‘generic’ items; and (ii) compare it against the fourteen-item scale.
Latent class factor analysis (LCFA) models were applied to the answers to the eight general/adult items to identify latent groups corresponding to FI levels and optimal group-separating cut-off points. Analyses involved a thorough classification agreement evaluation and were performed at the national level and by macro-regions.
Data derived from the cross-sectional Brazilian National Household Sample Survey of 2013.
A nationally representative sample of 116 543 households.
In all households and investigated domains, LCFA detected four distinct household food (in)security groups (food security and three levels of severity of FI) and the same set of cut-off points (1/2, 4/5 and 6/7). Misclassification in the aggregate data was 0·66 % in adult-only households and 1·06 % in HHCA. Comparison of the scale reduced to eight items with the ‘original’ fourteen-item scale demonstrated consistency in the classification. In HHCA, the agreement between both classifications was 96·2 %.
Results indicate the eight ‘generic’ items in HHCA can be reliably used when it is not possible to apply the fourteen-item scale.
Cahokia is the largest documented urban settlement in the pre-Columbian United States. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city, located near what is now East St. Louis, Illinois, began to rapidly expand starting around AD 1050. At its height, Cahokia extended across 1000 ha and included large plazas, timber palisade walls, and hundreds of monumental earthen mounds. Following several centuries of occupation, the city experienced a period of gradual abandonment from about AD 1200 to 1400. Here, we present geochemical data from a 1500-year-old sediment core from nearby Horseshoe Lake that records watershed impacts associated with the growth and decline of Cahokia. Sedimentary analysis shows a distinctive 24-cm-thick, gray, fine-grained layer formed between AD 1150 and 1220 and characterized by low carbonate δ13C, elevated sorbed metal concentrations, and higher organic matter δ15N. The deposition of this layer is contemporaneous with archaeological evidence of increased agricultural activity, earthen mound construction, and higher populations surrounding the lake. We hypothesize that these human impacts increased soil erosion, producing new sediment sources from deeper soil horizons, and shifted dissolved transport to the lake, producing lower carbonate δ13C values, higher concentrations of lead, copper, potassium, and aluminum, and increased δ15N, likely due to contributions of enriched nitrogen from sewage.
Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) are currently promoted agricultural production systems that aim to use better resources through production integration and intensification. While this system reduces some risks, it adds complexity and new risks to businesses due to interdependence between the agricultural modules. To deal with these issues, integrated risk management is required to reduce the effects of risks and to take advantage of the opportunities of an ICLS. Generically, enterprise risk management (ERM) meets this need by proposing comprehensive and coherent risk management, instead of managing agricultural module risks individually. However, there is a need to customize the ERM approach to ICLS. Therefore, the current study aims to develop a method to manage risks for ICLS based on ERM, integrating the management of risks and aligning risk management with the strategic objectives. A literature review, a pilot study, interviews with experts, four case studies and 20 practitioners supported the method development and evaluation through three versions. As a result, the method identifies and relates risks through process mapping with a qualitative and quantitative analysis of their impacts, determines risk responses based on willingness to take risks, and helps identify processes to control, communicate and monitor the risks. The method also stimulates the implementation of ICLS in market-oriented farms, providing an approach to increase the chances of ICLS success. The main difference from previous research lies in the integrative management of multiple risks, the alignment of risks with strategy and the consideration that a risk might be considered an opportunity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
Introduction: During a hockey game, athletes who are suspected of having sustained a concussion are removed from the game and evaluated. The modified balance error scoring system (MBESS) assessment, an essential part of the concussion evaluation, is performed in the dressing room, barefoot on a hard surface after equipment removal. While, players that pass the concussion assessment may re-dress and return to play, the equipment removal and re-dressing delays their return into the game. The objective of our study was to develop and evaluate a new in-skates balance error scoring system (SBESS) to reduce the delay in returning to the game. Methods: A prospective randomized single blinded study was conducted with 80 healthy university hockey players split into two groups. An at-rest group performed the SBESS assessment at rest on two separate occasions. A post-exercise group performed the test once at rest and once after exercise. The SBESS consisted of performing 4 different stances for 20 seconds each without equipment removal. The assessments were video recorded, and 3 independent reviewers scored the videos. For both the at-rest and post-exercise groups, the primary outcome measured was the number of balance errors. The secondary outcome was the number of falls. Statistics: For the primary outcome, both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were calculated. The concordance between the SBESS and the currently used baseline pre-season balance score (MBESS) was also assessed. Results: The number of cumulative balance errors for all four stances varied between 4 and 7 for both groups without any significant exercise effect. No athletes fell. For inter-rater reliability, the intra-class correlation (ICC) was above 0.86, ranging from 0.86-0.92 for most stances except for the easiest stance, for which it was 0.66. For intra-rater reliability, the ICC ranged from 0.88 to 1 for all stances and raters. There was a lack of concordance between the SBESS and MBESS. Conclusion: The SBESS is a reliable balance test that can be safely performed in healthy athletes wearing their full equipment. The next step will be to evaluate the use of this test on concussed hockey athletes
This study evaluated the effects of diet containing taro flour on hormone levels and the seminiferous tubules morphology of rats. After weaning, the male rats were divided into two groups (n=12 each): control group (CG) treated with control diet and taro group (TG), fed with 25% taro flour for 90 days. Food, caloric intake, mass and body length were evaluated at experiment end. Testis followed the standard histological processing. Immunostaining was performed using an anti-vimentin antibody to identify Sertoli cells. In histomorphometry, total diameter, total area, epithelial height, luminal height and luminal area were analyzed. The testosterone levels were performed using the radioimmunoassay method. Group TG presented (P<0.05): increase in mass, body length, testicular weight, histomorphometric parameters and hormonal levels. Food intake, calorie and Sertoli cells not presented statistical differences. The taro promoted increase in the testicles parameters and hormones.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Experimental infections of Galba sp. (origin, Colombia) with allopatric isolates of Fasciola hepatica from France or Fascioloides magna from the Czech Republic were carried out during five successive snail generations to determine if this lymnaeid might sustain complete larval development of either parasite. In snails exposed to F. hepatica, 7 of 400 snails harboured several rediae and only two snails contained a small number of free cercariae on day 50 post-exposure. In contrast, the intensity of F. magna infection in Galba sp. progressively increased from the F1 to F5 generations. Spontaneous cercarial shedding of F. magna occurred in 7 of 100 Galba sp. belonging to the F5 generation and the number of shed cercariae did not differ significantly from that noted in control Galba truncatula of French origin. Galba sp. from Colombia can be added to the list of potential intermediate hosts for F. magna.
In this paper we are concerned with a class of p(x)-Kirchhoff equation where the non-linearity has non-standard growth and contains a bi-non-local term. We prove, by using variational methods (Mountain Pass Theorem and Ekeland Variational Principle), several results on the existence of positive solutions.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.
Elevated oxidative stress is reported to be associated with pregnancy complications in highly prolific sows. Oxidative DNA damage and the antioxidant status were determined in blood samples collected during the course of gestation and lactation in multiparous sows. Blood samples were drawn from sows (n = 5) on days 30, 60, 90 and 110 of gestation (G30, G60, G90 and G110, respectively), on day 3, 10 and 18 of lactation (L3, L10 and L18, respectively) and on day 5 of postweaning (W5). Lymphocytes were isolated from the fresh blood and cryopreserved in each time point. Lymphocyte DNA damage was analyzed by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) to determine the single- and double-strand brakes and endogenous antioxidant concentrations using an HPLC system with UV detection. The comet assay showed elevated (P < 0.05) DNA damage (between 38% and 47%) throughout the gestational and lactational periods than during early gestation (G30; 21%). Plasma retinol concentration was reduced (P < 0.05) at the end of gestation (G110) compared with G30. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations also showed a similar trend as to retinol. This study indicates that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and lactation, which are not fully recovered until the weaning compared with the G30, and that antioxidant nutrients in circulation substantially reduced in the mother pig at G110.
A wild population of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella infected by larval stages of Fasciola hepatica was discovered in the Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. One of 100 snails was infected in a rice culture field. This is the first time this species has been found acting as intermediate host of F. hepatica under natural conditions, not only for Cuba but also for the Caribbean area.
The ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) has been related to the expression of contextual fear conditioning. This study investigated the possible involvement of CB1 receptors in this aversive response. Male Wistar rats were submitted to a contextual aversive conditioning session and 48 h later re-exposed to the aversive context in which freezing and cardiovascular responses (increase of arterial pressure and heart rate) were recorded. The expression of CB1 receptor-mRNA in the vMPFC was also measured using real time-PCR. In the first experiment intra-vMPFC administration of the CB1 receptor agonist anandamide (AEA, 5 pmol/200 nl) or the AEA transport inhibitor AM404 (50 pmol/200 nl) prior to re-exposure to the aversive context attenuated the fear-conditioned responses. These effects were prevented by local pretreatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (100 pmol/200 nl). Using the same conditioning protocol in another animal group, we observed that CB1 receptor mRNA expression increased in the vMPFC 48 h after the conditioning session. Although AM251 did not cause any effect by itself in the first experiment, this drug facilitated freezing and cardiovascular responses when the conditioning session employed a lesser aversive condition. These results indicated that facilitation of cannabinoid-mediated neurotransmission in the vMPFC by local CB1 receptor activation attenuates the expression of contextual fear responses. Together they suggest that local endocannabinoid-mediated neurotransmission in the vMPFC can modulate these responses.
Nowadays it is well accepted that background aerosols in the boundary layer over remote oceans are of marine origin and not aged continental. Particularly in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean at least four main important regions exhibit significant ocean primary productivity. They are the Bellingshausen–Amundsen Sea, the Weddell Sea, the southern Argentinean shelf and the southern Chilean coast. In this work, we have combined ground-based continuous atmospheric sampling of aerosol number concentration (ANC), over-sea dimethyl sulphide (DMS) measurements, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration provided by Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite images, in situ meteorological data and monthly regional NCEP-NCAR re-analysis wind fields in order to investigate the relative contribution of each of the above regions to the apportionment of the ANC at King George Island (KGI), South Shetland Islands. Our results suggest that, at least during the period from September 1998–December 1999, the southern Argentinean shelf acted as the main contributor to the ANC measured in KGI.