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This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
In the past 50 years, South America has emerged as the dominant world producer of soybeans, a crop of no significance in the region before the middle of the 20th century. As of the crop year 2019/2020, Brazil and Argentina produced 176 million tons which is over half of all world production and these two countries alone will also account for 57 per cent of all Soybeans exported in international trade. How this new agricultural product evolved in these two principal regional producers is the aim of this study. Here we attempt to examine the historical evolution of soybean production in Brazil and Argentina and try to show the unique patterns of production in each of the two crucial states.
In this chapter, we will begin the formal study of conduction heat transfer by introducing the fundamental rate equation, Fourier’s Law. This rate equation will then be applied to situations that are both one-dimensional and steady state. This chapter also provides an initial exposure to the formal process of deriving a differential equation by applying the First Law of Thermodynamics to a differentially small control volume. The alternative process of solving a problem using numerical techniques in which the First Law of Thermodynamics is applied to small but finite control volumes is introduced. Both of these approaches are repeated throughout the text as the problems that are considered become increasingly complex. Finally, the concept of a thermal resistance is introduced in this chapter. Thermal resistances are a primary tool for understanding heat transfer problems in order to simplify and solve them.
Chapters 7 through 9 discuss forced convection problems. In a forced convection problem the fluid is driven externally over a surface (for example by a fan or a pump). Free (or natural) convection refers to a problem where, in the absence of a temperature difference between the surface and the fluid, the fluid would be completely quiescent. However, because the density of most fluids depends at least weakly on temperature, the heating or cooling of the fluid leads to density gradients and an imbalance in the buoyancy forces (i.e., forces related to the action of gravity) that may cause fluid motion. The fluid motion in a free convection situation is fundamentally driven by density gradients that are induced in the fluid as it is heated or cooled due to the presence of a surface. The velocities induced by these density gradients are typically small and therefore the absolute magnitude of natural convection heat transfer coefficients is also small compared to forced convection values.
Chapter 7 provides a discussion of the behavior of laminar and turbulent boundary layers at a conceptual level without presenting any specific correlations that can be used to solve an external flow problem. In Section 7.3 the boundary layer equations are derived and Section 7.4 shows how, with some limitations, their solution can be expressed in terms of a limited set of nondimensional parameters: the Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and Nusselt number. These relationships are referred to as correlations.
Chapters 2 and 3 discussed the analytical and numerical solution of one-dimensional (1-D), steady-state problems. These are problems in which the temperature within the material is independent of time and varies in only one spatial dimension (e.g., x). Examples of such problems are the plane wall studied in Section 2.2, which is truly a 1-D problem, and the extended surface problems in Chapter 3 that are only approximately 1-D. The governing differential equation for these problems is an ordinary differential equation (ODE) and the mathematics required to solve the problem are straightforward.
Chapters 1 through 4 discuss steady-state problems, i.e., problems in which temperature depends on position (e.g., x and y) but does not change with time (t). Steady-state problems become progressively more difficult as the dimensionality of the problem increases from 1-D to 2-D (and even to 3-D, although this was not covered). This chapter begins the consideration of transient conduction problems, i.e., problems where temperature depends on time. This chapter specifically considers the simplest transient problem, one in which the temperature approximately depends only on time and not on position.
Chapters 7 through 10 discuss convection situations involving single-phase fluids. The thermodynamic state of the fluids in these problems is sufficiently far from their vapor dome that they do not undergo a phase change. In this chapter, two-phase convection processes are examined. Two-phase processes occur when the fluid is experiencing heat transfer near the vapor dome so that vapor and liquid are simultaneously present. If the fluid is being transformed from liquid to vapor through heat addition, then the process is referred to as boiling or evaporation. If vapor is being transformed to liquid by heat removal, then the process is referred to as condensation.
Chapter 2 considered problems that were truly one-dimensional. Energy transfer occurred only in one coordinate direction and therefore temperature varied only in that direction. In this chapter, we will examine problems that are only approximately one-dimensional, referred to generally as extended surfaces. Extended surfaces are typically thin pieces of conductive material that can be approximated as being isothermal in two dimensions and having temperature variations in only one direction. In an extended surface, energy is transferred laterally (i.e., across the thickness) but the temperature change induced by the energy transfer is sufficiently small that it can be neglected. The extended surface approximation greatly reduces the complexity of the problem and can often be applied with little loss in accuracy.
A heat exchanger is a device that is designed to transfer thermal energy from one fluid to another. Heat exchangers are everywhere in our modern society. Nearly all thermal systems employ at least one and usually several heat exchangers. The background material related to conduction and convection, presented in Chapters 2 through 11, is required to analyze and design heat exchangers. Section 12.1 reviews the applications and types of heat exchangers that are commonly encountered. The subsequent sections provide the theory and tools required to predict and understand the performance of these devices.
Heat transfer is the term used to describe the movement of thermal energy (heat) from one place to another. Heat transfer drives the world that we live in. Look around. Heat transfer is at work no matter where you currently are.