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This paper presents a low-profile multi-slotted patch antenna for long term evolution (LTE) and fifth-generation (5G) communication applications. The studied antenna comprised of a stepped patch and a ground plane. To attain the required operating band, three slots have been inserted within the patch. The insertion of the slots enhances the capacitive effect and helps the prototype antenna to achieve an operating band ranging from 3.15 to 5.55 GHz (S11 ≤−10 dB), covering the N77/N78/N79 for sub-6 GHz 5G wireless communications and LTE bands of 22/42/43/46. The wideband antenna presented in this paper offers omnidirectional stable radiation patterns, good gains, and efficiency with a compact size which make this design an ideal contender for wireless fidelity (WiFi), wireless local area network (WLAN), LTE, and sub-6 GHz 5G communication applications.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has been associated with childhood stunting (length-for-age/height-for-age < –2 sd), while data lacks for Bangladesh, a country with substantial burden of childhood stunting. This paper examined the association between aflatoxin exposure and childhood stunting in a slum setting of Dhaka city.
In this MAL-ED aflatoxin birth cohort study, plasma samples were assayed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) by MS at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months of age for 208, 196, 173 and 167 children to assess chronic aflatoxin exposure. Relationship between aflatoxin exposure and anthropometric measures was examined by mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Setting and participants:
The study was conducted in Mirpur, Dhaka, where children were followed from birth to 36 months.
Prevalence of stunting increased from 21 % at 7 months to 49 % at 36 months of age. Mean AFB1-lys concentrations at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months were 1·30 (range 0·09–5·79), 1·52 (range 0·06–6·35), 3·43 (range 0·15–65·60) and 3·70 (range 0·09–126·54) pg/mg albumin, respectively, and the percentage of children with detectable AFB1-lys was 10, 21, 18 and 62 %, respectively. No association was observed between aflatoxin exposure and stunting in multivariable analyses. Factors associated with childhood stunting were age, low birth weight, maternal height, stool myeloperoxidase and number of people sleeping in one room.
A relatively lower exposure to aflatoxin may not influence the linear growth of children. This finding indicates a threshold level of exposure for linear growth deficit and further investigation in other areas where higher concentrations of aflatoxin exposure exist.
Children in armed conflict are frequently deprived of basic needs, psychologically supportive environments, educational and vocational opportunities, and other resources that promote positive psychosocial development and mental health. This article describes the mental health challenges faced by conflict-affected children and youth, the interventions designed to prevent or ameliorate the psychosocial impact of conflict-related experiences, and a case example of the challenges and opportunities related to addressing the mental health needs of Rohingya children and youth.
The spectral and energy characteristics of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonator with the movable metal mirror are researched. It is found that the high-Q HE-polarized whispering gallery modes (WGMs) are effectively excited in such a resonator by the dielectric waveguide. A mode set of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonator depends on the presence of an air gap in its design. Changing the height of the air gap affects the energy characteristics of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonators (DR). Shifting the resonant fields of WGMs from the dielectric disk to the air gap is the reason for this effect. It is shown that at certain heights of the air gap, increasing the unloaded Q-factor of the tunable thin planar DR and improving the excitation efficiency of WGMs in it is achieved.
Introduction: Calgary's introduction of rentable electronic scooters (e-scooters) in July of 2019 was met with wild popularity, representing the third most popular launch after Tel-Aviv and Paris. The present study aims to characterize the injury burden seen in all Calgary Emergency Departments (EDs) and Urgent Care Centres (UCCs) attributable to e-scooters since their 2019 introduction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all electronic medical records of patients presenting to Calgary EDs or UCCs with the term “scooter” in the triage note, where exclusion criteria are considered for non e-scooter injuries (e.g: non-motorized scooters). Trends in scooter injuries will be compared between April - October 2018 (control arm preceding e-scooter introduction) and April - October 2019. Injury incidence, types, patient demographics, and relative risk compared to bicycle-related injuries will be determined. Descriptive statistics will be calculated. Moreover, 33 ED visits were brought in by EMS and provide information about injury types and locations of injuries involving EMS transport. Results: Preliminary data reveals 540 scooter-related visits (3.10% admitted/transferred) between July 8th and September 30th 2019 (mean age of 28, 56.30% male). Conversely, the number of bicycle-related visits and motor vehicle related injuries were 1482 and 586 (9.90% and 9.70% admitted/transferred) respectively over the same time period suggesting a greater burden but likely a lower per-ride incidence of injury requiring ED or UCC care. Moreover, between July 8th to October 1st 2019, 33 e-scooter presentations involved EMS (21.21% admitted to hospital), where 12.12% involved upper extremity injury, 21.21% were lower extremity injuries, and 6.06% were head injuries (mean age of 34, 48.48% male). Conversely, estimated EMS transfers to EDs or UCCs for bicycle injuries and motor vehicle injuries were 197 and 463 respectively over the same time period. ICU admissions or fatality were not recorded. Conclusion: Representing the most comprehensive study of e-scooter injury patterns in Canada to date, we here demonstrate a significant injury burden attributable to e-scooters following their introduction in Calgary in 2019. Bicycle-related and motor vehicle injuries were both more prevalent in this time period, and required more EMS visits. Further characterization of injury types, injuries and comparison with injury patterns prior to e-scooter introduction is yet to be determined.
Our goals were to evaluate if the presence of severe delusions negatively affects insight, regardless of diagnosis, and whether or not patients gain insight into their delusions when using a third person perspective.
92 delusional patients with psychotic and psychotic mood disorders were asked to speak about their delusions and were evaluated by means of the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). They were then asked to state whether they thought what they said was believable for them and for the interviewer. After two weeks 79 patients were evaluated with the same scales and listened to a tape where their delusion was re-enacted. They were then asked to state if what they heard was believable for them and for the interviewer.
12 patients thought their delusions was unbelievable for the interviewer at first interview, and 17 patients did the same after the second interview; 4 patients stated what they heard from the tape after the second interview was unbelievable both for them and interviewer. Patients with better insight (patients who stated their delusion was not believable) had a lower SAPS score, a lower item delusion score and a significant improvement of item delusion score at second interview
Several patients gain partial insight when using a third person perspective. The severity of delusions negatively affects insight, regardless of the patient's diagnosis.
To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism by means of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); to assess which depressive symptoms are prevalent in our population, with references to the factorialization of HAM-D by Cleary and Guy (1977); to verify whether levothyroxine replacement therapy alone can induce total remission of depressive symptoms.
The study enrolled 63 patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology service of San Paolo Hospital in Milan. All patients underwent an evaluation by means of HAM-D and MADRS scales and serum TSH, free T4, free T3, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab levels were measured.
We estimated a prevalence of depressive symptoms in our population of 63.5%. Concerning the qualitative assessment of psychiatric disturbances in the population we considered, our results showed that the most frequent symptoms were part of four factors, according to the Cleary and Guy factorialization of HAM-D: these factors are representative of anxiety and somatisation (factor I), cognitive impairment disturbances (factor III), psychomotor retardation (factor V) and sleep disorders (factor VI). Levothyroxine replacement therapy alone wasn’t effective in inducing total remission of depressive symptoms.
This study suggests the importance of a psychiatric evaluation in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism.
We describe a case of OCD and movement disorders associated with anti basal ganglia antibodies.
A 17 year old patient was referred to our unit in February 2010 because of movement disorder. He denied personal or family history of psychiatric disorders and substance abuse other that occasional cannabis use. His symptoms had began 6 months earlier when he started presenting intrusive thoughts associated with various compulsions such as complex arm and leg movements and bizarre postures: he was treated with Olanzapine and Sertraline which lead to partial improvement of symptoms but he self-discontinuated the medication in january 2010. Upon admittance in february 2010 the patient showed obsessive thoughts associated with bizarre postures and upper limb complex movements.
He was treated with 100 mg of Clomipramine which lead to partial regression of symptoms. Autoimmunity screening was performed revealing anti neuron specific enolase and anti pyruvate kynase antibodies. The patient was treated with Desametasone which did not lead to any improvement.
Anti neuron specific enolase and anti pyruvate kynase antibodies are directed against antigens specifically expressed in the basal ganglia. According to literature data these autoantibodies can be associated with movement disorders and OCD and we hypothesize that our patient's symtptoms were caused by autoimmunity. Although cortison was not successfull, recents reports in scientific literature have shown that other non psychopharmacological treatment, such as plasmapheresis, or IV immunoglobulins could be effective in similar patients: we are considering this as our next treatment option.
A 34 year old man was referred to our unit for psychiatric evaluation. His psychomotor development was normal until the age of 12, when he started showing progressive loss of cognitive skills and finalized motor activity. Symptoms rapidly worsened and by the age of 20 his language and motor skills were severly compromised. Starting at age 17 he had been treated with both 1st and 2nd generation antipsychotics which did not lead to any changes in symptoms. Family history was negative for psychotic or neurological disorders. The mother had alcohol abuse disorder and the younger sister was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder.
At the time of our evaluation patient was receiving 10 mg of Olanzapine. He was vigilant and passively cooperative to examination; he displayed physical immobility, waxy flexibilitas, stereotyped behaviour, camptocormia, echolalia, blunted affect and automatic and repetitive behaviour. Thought content was difficult to evaluate but he denied hallucinations or delusional thoughts.
BP was normal, as well as brain MRI and PET. Screening for Wilson's disease, metabolic diseases and fragile X Syndrome were negatve. DAT scan was also performed and showed no abnormalities. Medication withdrawal didn’t lead to any changes in his status.
The patient's symtoms fulfill the criteria for drug resistant Catatonic Schizophrenia. However the early onset of symptoms, the rapid deterioration of cognitive abilities, the early and extensive motor imparment and the complete resistance to drug treatment make this an interesting case for discussion about differential diagnosis.
We describe a rare case antithyroid drug induced hypothyroidism leading to an acute psychotic episode.
A 39 year old woman complaining of anxiety was referred to our day hospital unit in september 2010. Her symptoms began a month earlier and she denied any past personal or family history of psychiatric disorders except for an acute psychotic episode in august 2010. She diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in june 2010 and was started on medication with 30 mg of methilmazole. Two weeks later she started to feel confused, and she developed auditory and visual hallucinations as well as persecutory delusionsn and she was hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Upon admittance lab work indicated severe hypothyroidism (TSH 87 uI/L)and high total cholesterol. Antythiroid medication was suspended and the patient was started on antipsychotic medication with 10 mg of haloperidol.
Four days later the patient dysplayed a complete remission of symtpoms. She self discontinuated the antipsychotic medication one week after discharge and showed no sign of psychotic symptoms. Thyroid function was later revaluated and indicated mild hypethyroidism, for which methilmazole 10 mg was prescribed. in october 2010 the patient was evaluated in our unit and showed no sign of psychotic symptoms or anxiety.
Although very few cases of methilmazole induced psychosis are reported, based on the patient's history, on the doses of medication that were prescribed, on the lab work and on the onset, evolution and remission of her symptoms we hypothesize that the psychotic episode was drug induced.
Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world.
Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms.
Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals.
These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
Dromedary camels have been shown to be the main reservoir for human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) infections. This systematic review aims to compile and analyse all published data on MERS-coronavirus (CoV) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels. We included original research articles containing laboratory evidence of MERS-CoV infections in dromedary camels in the field from 2013 to April 2018. In general, camels only show minor clinical signs of disease after being infected with MERS-CoV. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV in camels has been found in 20 countries, with molecular evidence for virus circulation in 13 countries. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies increases with age in camels, while the prevalence of viral shedding as determined by MERS-CoV RNA detection in nasal swabs decreases. In several studies, camels that were sampled at animal markets or quarantine facilities were seropositive more often than camels at farms as well as imported camels vs. locally bred camels. Some studies show a relatively higher seroprevalence and viral detection during the cooler winter months. Knowledge of the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV is essential to develop intervention and control measures to prevent human infections.
Nanohybrids containing graphene and bismuth ferrite have been actively employed as efficient photo-catalysts these days owing to the low rate of charge carrier's (e−–h+) recombination, moderate surface area with a suitable range of band-gaps. We have synthesized nanohybrids of graphene oxide (GO) and doped BiFeO3 using a co-precipitation method and the doping elements were lanthanum and manganese, hence called BLFMO/GO nanohybrids. The surface area of BLFMO [La = 15% increased from 6.8 m2/g (for pure) to 62.68 m2/g (in nanohybrid)]. Also, the bandgap of the BLFMO/GO nanohybrid reduced significantly up to 1.75 eV. The resulting BLFMO/GO nanohybrid represents significantly higher catalytic activity (96% in 30 min) than the pure BiFeO3 (30% in 30 min).
Co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viral infections (CHIKV and DENV) have been reported mainly due to transmission by common Aedes vector. The purpose of the study was to identify and characterise the circulating strains of CHIKV and DENV in DENV endemic region of New Delhi during 2016. CHIKV and DENV were identified in the blood samples (n = 130) collected from suspected patients by RT-PCR. CHIKV was identified in 26 of 65 samples (40%). Similarly, DENV was detected in 48 of 120 samples (40%). Co-infection with both the viruses was identified in five (9%) of the samples. Interestingly, concurrent infection with DENV, CHIKV and Plasmodium vivax was detected in two samples. CHIKV strains (n = 11) belonged to the ECSA genotype whereas DENV-3 sequences (n = eight) clustered in Genotype III by phylogenetic analysis. Selection pressure of E1 protein of CHIKV and CprM protein of DENV-3 revealed purifying selection with four and two positive sites, respectively. Four amino acids of the CHIKV were positively selected and had high entropy suggesting probable variations. Co-circulation of both viruses in DENV endemic regions warrants effective monitoring of these emerging pathogens via comprehensive surveillance for implementation of effective control measures.
The liability-threshold model of psychosis risk predicts stronger phenotypic manifestation of the polygenic risk score (PRS) in the healthy relatives of patients, as compared with healthy comparison subjects.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder (871 siblings and 812 parents) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 523) were interviewed three times in 6 years. Repeated measures of two psychosis phenotypes, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE; self-report – subscales of positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy – Revised (SIS-R; clinical interview – subscales of positive and negative schizotypy), were examined for association with PRS. Interview-based lifetime rate of depressive and manic episodes were also examined, as was association with repeated measures of intelligence quotient (IQ).
In the relatives, PRS was associated with CAPE/SIS-R total score (respectively, B = 0.12, 95% CI 0.02–0.22 and B = 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.20), the SIS-R positive subscale (B = 0.16, 95% CI 0.04–0.28), the CAPE depression subscale (B = 0.21, 95% CI 0.07–0.34), any lifetime affective episode (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.04–9.3), but not with IQ (B = −1.8, 95% CI −8.0 to 4.4). In the controls, similar associations were apparent between PRS on the one hand and SIS-R total score, SIS-R positive, SIS-R negative, any lifetime affective episode and, in contrast, lower IQ (B = −8.5, 95% CI −15.5 to −1.6).
In non-ill people, polygenic risk for psychotic disorder is expressed pleiotropically in the domain of neurodevelopment, emotion regulation and attribution of salience. In subjects at elevated genetic risk, emerging expression of neurodevelopmental alterations may create floor effects, obscuring genetic associations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (p<0.01) related with BMI. Number of children was negatively related with women’s BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband’s education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.
Hydrogenated diamond like Carbon (H-DLC) is a promising lubricious coating that attracted a great deal of interest in recent years mainly because of its outstanding tribological properties. In this study, the nano-mechanical and -tribological properties of a range of H-DLC films were investigated. Specifically, four kinds of H-DLC coatings were produced on Si substrates in pure acetylene, pure methane, 25% methane + 75% hydrogen, 50% methane + 50% hydrogen discharge plasmas using a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system. Nano indentation was performed to measure the mechanical properties such as hardness and young's modulus and nanoscartching was performed to investigate the frictional behavior and wear mechanism of the H-DLC samples in open air. Moreover, Vickers indentation method was utilized to assess the fracture toughness of the samples. The results revealed that there is a strong correlation between the mechanical properties (hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness) and the friction coefficient of DLC coatings and the source gas chemistry. Lower hydrogen to carbon ratio in source gas leads to higher hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness and lower friction coefficient. Furthermore, lower wear volume of the coated materials was observed when the friction coefficient was lower. It was also confirmed that lower hydrogen content of the DLC coating leads to higher wear resistance under nanoscratch conditions.
We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 466 underweight and 446 normal-weight children aged 6–24 months living in the urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh to determine the association between vitamin D and other micronutrient status with upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Incidence rate ratios of URI and ALRI were estimated using multivariable generalized estimating equations. Our results indicate that underweight children with insufficient and deficient vitamin D status were associated with 20% and 23–25% reduced risk of URI, respectively, compared to children with sufficient status. Underweight children, those with serum retinol deficiency were at 1·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–2·4] times higher risk of ALRI than those with retinol sufficiency. In normal-weight children there were no significant differences between different vitamin D status and the incidence of URI and ALRI. However, normal-weight children with zinc insufficiency and those that were serum retinol deficient had 1·2 (95% CI 1·0–1·5) times higher risk of URI and 1·9 (95% CI 1·4–2·6) times higher risk of ALRI, respectively. Thus, our results should encourage efforts to increase the intake of retinol-enriched food or supplementation in this population. However, the mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on the incidence of childhood respiratory tract infection still needs further research.