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Liposarcomas rarely occur in the parapharyngeal space and only a few case reports exist. For curative therapy of liposarcoma, surgical excision remains the dominant modality. Although a wide surgical margin is important to prevent local recurrence, wide excision is often difficult in the head and neck region.
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a well-differentiated liposarcoma arising in the parapharyngeal space. We removed the tumour surgically utilising a cervical–parotid approach. The histological diagnosis was well-differentiated sclerosing liposarcoma. There is no recurrence after five years and nine months of follow up.
The patient's age and the tumour site made it difficult for us to make a quantitative diagnosis before the operation. Well-differentiated liposarcoma rarely develop distant metastasis, but often recur locally. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for well-differentiated liposarcoma is still not clear and careful and long-term follow up is necessary.
Bone contouring is currently the best treatment for fibro-osseous lesions after bone growth arrest. Navigation systems available for this surgery allow intra-operative visualisation with improved cosmetic outcomes. However, conventional navigation systems using superficial skin registration cannot prevent subtle discrepancies.
To address this problem, we used a non-invasive cranial bone registration that uses patient-specific dental templates to maintain exact registration. We created the preset goal using the mirror image of the unaffected side for unilateral lesions, and using images obtained before the onset of symptoms for bilateral lesions. This system achieved precise pre-operative simulation. A sound aid in the navigation system provided information regarding proximity to critical structures and to the preset goal.
We used this system to contour fibro-osseous lesions in three patients. All patients achieved good facial contours and improvement in symptoms.
This method offers a safe, rapid surgical aid in treating orbital fibro-osseous lesions.
The objective of this study was to examine temporal and regional variations of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) in a retrospective study using Japanese national surveillance data from 2001 to 2010. We calculated the incidence of sCJD by age and sex, derived the standardized incidence in each of the 47 prefectures, and performed spatial disease clustering analysis. The average annual incidence of sCJD was 1·026 per million in men (637 patients) and 1·132 per million in women (733 patients), a significant sex difference after adjustment for age (P = 0·001). The ratios of familial CJD to sCJD apparently increased between 2001–2005 and 2006–2010, possibly as a result of the nationwide introduction of genetic testing after 2006. Based on the data of 2006–2010, certain geographical clusters of sCJD were identified. The incidence of sCJD was higher in several specific prefectures compared to the national average. Thus, sCJD appears to have regional variations, suggesting the existence of genetic or region-specific factors affecting the incidence of the disease.
To enhance the catalytic activities of zeolites for the polycondensation reactions of humic precursors, Fe was loaded into a zeolite via an ion-exchange reaction and the resulting product was subjected to calcination at 773 K. Two types iron-loaded zeolites were prepared using one equivalent (Fe-Z-1) and 10-equivalents (Fe-Z-10) of Fe2+ to the cation-exchange capacity of a natural zeolite from Niki town (Hokkaido, Japan). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that the Fe(II) that was originally loaded into the cation-exchange sites in the zeolite became oxidized to a Fe(III) ionic species during the preparation. The catalytic activities of each zeolite were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening for reaction mixtures containing catechol, glycine and glucose as model humic precursors. The catalytic activities of Fe-Z-1 and Fe-Z-10 were higher than that for an untreated zeolite, and increased with the amount of Fe in the zeolite.
Polycondensation reactions between amino acids and phenols are one of the pathways for the formation of humic substances, and clay minerals are able to catalyse these reactions. To investigate the catalytic power of allophane, an allophane fraction (ALF) was separated from weathered pumice (WP) that contained imogolite as an impurity by taking advantage of differences in sedimentation velocity. The iron content in the separated ALF was increased by up to 3.0% compared to that in the starting WP (1.3%), and the ALF was further treated with sodium dithionate and citric acid (ALF-DC) to remove the iron. The catalytic powers of WP, ALF and ALF-DC were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening of reaction mixtures from polycondensation reactions between catechol and tryptophan, model compounds for precursors of humic substances. The catalytic power for ALF was significantly higher than the corresponding values for WP and ALF-DC. This can be attributed to the high iron content of the ALF, which serves as a Lewis acid that can enhance nucleophilic reactions which occur during the polycondensation reactions.
Prediction of carbohydrate fractions using equations from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a valuable tool to assess the nutritional value of forages. In this paper, these carbohydrate fractions were predicted using data from three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars, fresh or as silage. The CNCPS equations for fractions B2 and C include measurement of ash and protein-free neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as one of their components. However, NDF lacks pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are found in the cell wall (CW) matrix, so this work compared the use of a crude CW preparation instead of NDF in the CNCPS equations. There were no differences in the estimates of fractions B1 and C when CW replaced NDF; however, there were differences in fractions A and B2. Some of the CNCPS equations could be simplified when using CW instead of NDF. Notably, lignin could be expressed as a proportion of DM, rather than on the basis of ash and protein-free NDF, when predicting CNCPS fraction C. The CNCPS fraction B1 (starch + pectin) values were lower than pectin determined through wet chemistry. This finding, along with the results obtained by the substitution of CW for NDF in the CNCPS equations, suggests that pectin was not part of fraction B1 but present in fraction A. We suggest that pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are dissolved by the neutral detergent solution be allocated to a specific fraction (B2) and that another fraction (B3) be adopted for the digestible cell wall carbohydrates.
Systemic autoimmune diseases, including ulcerative colitis, may involve the inner ear. Several ulcerative colitis cases presenting with sensorineural hearing loss have been reported. We report the T2-weighted, three-dimensional, inner-ear magnetic resonance imaging findings in the inner ears of two such patients.
Case reports and a review of the literature concerning autoimmune disease and sensorineural hearing loss are presented.
We describe two cases of ulcerative colitis with sensorineural hearing loss in which three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging revealed obliteration of the inner ear. Those inner ears with obliteration had severe hearing loss, and responded poorly to steroid therapy.
To our knowledge, there has been no previous published report of the T2-weighted, inner-ear magnetic resonance imaging findings of cases of ulcerative colitis with sensorineural hearing loss. This paper represents the first published report in the world literature of inner-ear obliteration in such patients. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging is beneficial in elucidating the pathophysiology of the inner-ear involvement seen in ulcerative colitis.
Traumatic luxation of the stapes into the vestibule is a rare entity, and the disease complicated with pneumolabyrinth is extremely rare. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with pneumolabyrinth associated with a stapediovestibular dislocation. The patient presented with vertigo and nystagmus following penetrating trauma to the middle ear. High resolution computed tomography scans demonstrated air in the vestibule and dislocation of the stapes. Exploratory tympanotomy demonstrated oozing of the perilymph from the oval window and depression of the stapes into the vestibule. Pneumolabyrinth and stapes luxation detected by high resolution computed tomography should be predictive of a perilymphatic fistula.
Dynamic balance involving movement of the centre of gravity is important for the evaluation of street fitness after sedation. The purpose of this study was to compare the recovery of dynamic balance after intravenous sedation with propofol or midazolam, and to investigate the usefulness of simple dynamic balance tests in evaluating the recovery.
Fourteen young male volunteers underwent intravenous sedation with propofol and midazolam for 1 h each at an interval of more than 1 week. Computerized dynamic posturography using a multi-axial tilting platform, the 10-m maximum-speed walking test and the timed ‘up & go’ test (subjects stand up from a chair, walk 5 m and back with maximum speed and sit down again) were performed before and after sedation. The increase in each variable of the tests described above represents a reduction of function.
The score of the computerized dynamic posturography was significantly lower in propofol sedation than that in midazolam sedation until 40 min after the end of sedation (P = 0.006). The scores of maximum-speed walking test and timed ‘up & go’ test were significantly lower in propofol sedation than those in midazolam sedation till 60 min after the end of sedation, respectively (P = 0.035 and 0.042). The timed ‘up & go’ and maximum-speed walking tests were well and significantly correlated with computerized dynamic posturography in midazolam sedation (timed ‘up & go’ test vs. computerized dynamic posturography: r = 0.66, P < 0.01; and maximum-speed walking test vs. computerized dynamic posturography: r = 0.53, P < 0.01).
The timed ‘up & go’ and maximum-speed walking tests are useful simple dynamic balance tests well correlated with precise computerized dynamic posturography for the evaluation of the recovery of dynamic balance from midazolam sedation in younger adults.
A new SSMR process to produce ultra-fine-grained hot strip is introduced,
featuring: closely spaced rolling stands, continuous high
speed rolling with moderately large reductions rolling, rapid interpass
cooling and rapid finish rolling cooling. An ultra-fine-grained CMn
steel strip (1μm) is obtained with a 700 MPa yield stress. A
proper choice of the work roll diameter and a careful control of the
friction coefficient should make it possible to keep the rolling force
at a level compatible with the design capacity of a conventional rolling
Background and objective: Computerized dynamic posturography using an intentional postural-sway task can be used to assess body-leaning ability and postural-control ability to prevent falls. Falls are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of intentional dynamic balance function after intravenous sedation with midazolam in elderly subjects in comparison with that in young subjects. Methods: Midazolam was administered in small, divided doses over 4–5 min until the Wilson sedation score reached three in 20 young and 18 elderly male volunteers. The dynamic limits of the stability test, in which subjects leaned their body intentionally as indicated by a cursor moving on a computer screen, was determined before (baseline) and 50, 70, 90, 110, and 130 min after administration of midazolam. Results: The changes from baseline values of path sway and movement time 50 min after the administration of midazolam in elderly subjects (106.8 ± 101.0%, 4.6 ± 3.0 s; mean ± SD) were significantly greater than those (32.9 ± 87.2%, 1.9 ± 2.8 s) in young subjects (P = 0.024, P = 0.008), respectively. Conclusions: The elderly show slower recovery of the intentional dynamic balance function than do young adults after intravenous sedation with midazolam.
The definition of UTC was implemented in 1972, principally to accommodate celestial navigation and follows recommendation 460 of the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) in 1970. Since 1972 the use of electronic means to navigate has overtaken celestial navigation. This fact along with increasing public dissatisfaction with the possible disruption to modern electronic communications and navigation systems caused by the insertion of a leap second has called into question the current definition of UTC. An extensive review of the background and issues relating to the leap second can be found in Nelson, et al (2001).
JPL continues to be active in creating ephemerides in support of spacecraft navigation as well as various other functions. Many of the products are available on web sites: (a) “Horizons”, the interactive web site, updated on an hourly basis, is located at http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. As of August, 2005, it contains orbital elements and ephemerides for the sun and 9 planets, 150 natural satellites (including the Moon), 291, 655 asteroids, 1631 comets, and 34 Spacecraft. Horizons uses the full precision of the JPL DE405.
(b)JPL's Planetary and Lunar Ephemerides in “export” format are available via FTP from the Internet: ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/eph/export/ or on a CD-ROM: http://www.willbell.com/software/jpl.htm We advise to read the attached README.
(d)SPICE Toolkit is a subroutine package for experienced programmers who write their own main driving programs for astrometrical computations. SPICE is available at http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/. It contains a large library of subroutines useful in reading SPICE format ephemeris files (SPK) and in computing many solar system observation geometry parameters associated with the various JPL solar system missions. Available in Fortran, C, and IDL for most popular computing platforms.