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Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomized crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiologic mediators of appetite during a 72-hr period of high physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, ˜2300kcal/d) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1d (REST) followed by energy balanced (BAL) and energy deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET), and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18±20%) and negative during DEF (-43±9%). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26±40%, 56±71%, 28±34%, respectively), and lower during BAL (-55±25%, -52±27%, -54±21%, respectively; Pcondition<0.05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65±61% higher during BAL (Pcondition<0.05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance were maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25% would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations, and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiologic responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
Due to shortages of N95 respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is necessary to estimate the number of N95s required for healthcare workers (HCWs) to inform manufacturing targets and resource allocation.
We developed a model to determine the number of N95 respirators needed for HCWs both in a single acute-care hospital and the United States.
For an acute-care hospital with 400 all-cause monthly admissions, the number of N95 respirators needed to manage COVID-19 patients admitted during a month ranges from 113 (95% interpercentile range [IPR], 50–229) if 0.5% of admissions are COVID-19 patients to 22,101 (95% IPR, 5,904–25,881) if 100% of admissions are COVID-19 patients (assuming single use per respirator, and 10 encounters between HCWs and each COVID-19 patient per day). The number of N95s needed decreases to a range of 22 (95% IPR, 10–43) to 4,445 (95% IPR, 1,975–8,684) if each N95 is used for 5 patient encounters. Varying monthly all-cause admissions to 2,000 requires 6,645–13,404 respirators with a 60% COVID-19 admission prevalence, 10 HCW–patient encounters, and reusing N95s 5–10 times. Nationally, the number of N95 respirators needed over the course of the pandemic ranges from 86 million (95% IPR, 37.1–200.6 million) to 1.6 billion (95% IPR, 0.7–3.6 billion) as 5%–90% of the population is exposed (single-use). This number ranges from 17.4 million (95% IPR, 7.3–41 million) to 312.3 million (95% IPR, 131.5–737.3 million) using each respirator for 5 encounters.
We quantified the number of N95 respirators needed for a given acute-care hospital and nationally during the COVID-19 pandemic under varying conditions.
Although testing is widely regarded as critical to fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, what measure and level of testing best reflects successful infection control remains unresolved. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity of two testing metrics – population testing number and testing coverage – to population mortality outcomes and identify a benchmark for testing adequacy. We aggregated publicly available data through 12 April on testing and outcomes related to COVID-19 across 36 OECD (Organization for Economic Development) countries and Taiwan. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the aforementioned metrics and following outcome measures: deaths per 1 million people, case fatality rate and case proportion of critical illness. Fractional polynomials were used to generate scatter plots to model the relationship between the testing metrics and outcomes. We found that testing coverage, but not population testing number, was highly correlated with population mortality (rs = −0.79, P = 5.975 × 10−9vs. rs = −0.3, P = 0.05) and case fatality rate (rs = −0.67, P = 9.067 × 10−6vs. rs = −0.21, P = 0.20). A testing coverage threshold of 15–45 signified adequate testing: below 15, testing coverage was associated with exponentially increasing population mortality; above 45, increased testing did not yield significant incremental mortality benefit. Taken together, testing coverage was better than population testing number in explaining country performance and can serve as an early and sensitive indicator of testing adequacy and disease burden.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
To characterize the current state of antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions of antifungal use among pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs).
We developed and distributed an electronic survey, which included 17 closed-ended questions about institutional antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions, among pediatric ASPs.
ASP physicians and pharmacists of 74 hospitals participating in the multicenter Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.
We sent surveys to 74 hospitals and received 68 unique responses, for a response rate of 92%. Overall, 63 of 68 the respondent ASPs (93%) reported that they conduct 1 or more antifungal stewardship activities. Of these 68 hospital ASPs, 43 (63%) perform prospective audit and feedback (PAF) of antifungals. The most common reasons reported for not performing PAF of antifungals were not enough time or resources (19 of 25, 76%) and minimal institutional antifungal use (6 of 25, 24%). Also, 52 hospitals (76%) require preauthorization for 1 or more antifungal agents. The most commonly restricted antifungals were isavuconazole (42 of 52 hospitals, 80%) and posaconazole (39 of 52 hospitals, 75%). Furthermore, 33 ASPs (48%) agreed or strongly agreed that antifungals are inappropriately used at their institution, and only 25 of 68 (37%) of ASPs felt very confident making recommendations about antifungals.
Most pediatric ASPs steward antifungals, but the strategies employed are highly variable across surveyed institutions. Although nearly half of respondents identified inappropriate antifungal use as a problem at their institution, most ASPs do not feel confident making recommendations about antifungals. Future studies are needed to determine the rate of inappropriate antifungal use and the best antifungal stewardship strategies.
Previous research has suggested an association between depression and subsequent acute stroke incidence, but few studies have examined any effect modification by sociodemographic factors. In addition, no studies have investigated this association among primary care recipients with hypertension.
We examined the anonymized records of all public general outpatient visits by patients aged 45+ during January 2007–December 2010 in Hong Kong to extract primary care patients with hypertension for analysis. We took the last consultation date as the baseline and followed them up for 4 years (until 2011–2014) to observe any subsequent acute hospitalization due to stroke. Mixed-effects Cox models (random intercept across 74 included clinics) were implemented to examine the association between depression (ICPC diagnosis or anti-depressant prescription) at baseline and the hazard of acute stroke (ICD-9: 430–437.9). Effect modification by age, sex, and recipient status of social security assistance was examined in extended models with respective interaction terms specified.
In total, 396 858 eligible patients were included, with 9099 (2.3%) having depression, and 10 851 (2.7%) eventually hospitalized for stroke. From the adjusted analysis, baseline depression was associated with a 17% increased hazard of acute stroke hospitalization [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.32]. This association was suggested to be even stronger among men than among women (hazard ratio = 1.29, 95% CI 1.00–1.67).
Depression is more strongly associated with acute stroke incidence among male than female primary care patients with hypertension. More integrated services are warranted to address their needs.
There is a high demand for developing effective controllers to perform fast and accurate operations for either flexible link manipulators (FLMs) or rigid link manipulators (RLMs). Thus, this paper is beneficial for such vast field, and it is also advantageous and indispensable for researchers who are interested in robotics to have sufficient knowledge about various controllers of FLMs and RLMs as the controllers’ concepts are elaborated in detail. The paper concentrates in critically reviewing classical controllers, intelligent controllers, robust controllers, and hybrid controllers for both FLMs and RLMs. The advantages and disadvantages of the aforementioned control methods are summarized in this paper; it also has a detailed comparison for the controllers in terms of the design difficulty, performance, and the suitability for controlling FLMs or RLMs.
Neurologic complications associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection include seizures, encephalitis, encephalopathy and Reye syndrome. Mania and psychotic episodes are less commonly described, and there have been limited studies on the long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of H1N1 infection.
Here, we report a case of H1N1 infection with concurrent onset of acute manic and psychotic symptoms. Despite completing a full course of the antiviral medication oseltamivir, the patient's behaviour worsened over the next four weeks and he required readmission for psychiatric treatment. Based on the temporal sequence of events, we considered the possibility that these symptoms were sequelae of Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Moreover, the manic symptoms persisted weeks after the acute infection had abated, which gives rise to the consideration of long-lasting direct or indirect neuronal insult by the influenza virus. However, it is also possible that his symptoms may have represented a primary psychiatric disorder precipitated by or coincident with the viral infection.
After treatment with antipsychotic medication and a mood stabiliser, his manic and psychotic symptoms became significantly attenuated. His behaviour improved considerably such that he was able to return to school. Medications were stopped after one month of outpatient follow-up at his behest. Four months after discharge, he was completely free of symptoms and was performing well in school.
Treatment of influenza with antiviral medications has been shown to reduce the rate of complications. However, the effectiveness of antiviral treatment to prevent influenza-associated neuropsychiatric sequelae is unknown.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
It is known that Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is higher in patient with depression than in the general population. Though antidepressant seems to worsen the situation, there are also indications that the gender may play a role on it.
Evaluate the gender effect of sexual function among unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls.
The sample was formed by male and female Taiwanese outpatients in three age and sex matched groups, with sixty nine participants per group: unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls. the diagnoses of depressions were performed according DSM-IV and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. SD was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS software v17. Mixed designed ANOVA was used.
There are significant differences between males and females CSFQ results (sex main effect F = 82.44, p < 0.001) and between groups (group main effect F = 3.48, p = 0.034). Additionally, the 2-way interaction between sex and group was also significant (F = 3.40, p = 0.036). Simple main effect analysis shows differences among male participants, between healthy and medicated males (F = 11.41, p = 0.002), but not in female (F = 1.58, p = 0.21). However the statistics weren’t different between females groups, the medicated expresses better results (similar to healthy group) than the unmedicated one.
SD is different between genders in each of the groups. Antidepressant seems to increase SD in man, while improves sexual satisfaction/function among depressive woman. We speculate that psychological improvement after treatment may have different impact between genders on sexual satisfaction.
Limited research has examined the early neuropsychological and neurobiological changes associated with comorbid affective disorders and alcohol dependence.
Objectives & Aims
To investigate the cognitive and volumetric changes in individuals diagnosed with affective disorders with or without comorbid alcohol dependence.
Young adults (n = 21) who were undergoing medically-managed inpatient alcohol detoxification with comorbid affective disorders were neuropsychologically assessed 4-weeks following hospital discharge, and additionally underwent MRI brain scans during admission and 4-weeks following discharge. An affective disorders-only group (n = 21) with an equal distribution of anxiety and mood disorders was recruited through a youth mental health clinic.
Compared to affective disorders only (M = 31.8 ± 4.4 years old), individuals with affective disorders and alcohol dependence (M = 33.9 ± 6.3 years old; M = 21.1 ± 9.2 standard drinks/day) exhibited worse sustained attention and visual memory functioning. There was a highly significant association between drinking levels since detoxification and total brain volume change, such that resumption of heavy drinking attenuated brain volume gains associated with short-term abstinence (r = -0.87, p < 0.001).
In young adults with affective disorders, comorbid alcohol dependence is associated with more pronounced cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that these deficits are most relevant for cognitive remediation interventions. Crucially, abstinence or reduced drinking was associated with brain volume gains, whereas resumption of heavy drinking was associated with brain volume reductions, suggesting that medically-managed alcohol detoxification may, at least, partially reverse the neurobiological changes associated with prolonged alcohol dependence in young adults.
Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is a strong predictor of the functional outcome and no effective treatments are available. MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is approved by the FDA as outcome measure for trials of cognitive-enhancing drugs in schizophrenia. CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB) provides a briefer cognition assessment with minimal practice effects and a strong correlation between the CSB and MCCB composite scores. We tested the sensitivity of CSB as a cognitive outcome measure in a clinical trial in schizophrenia, where a cognitive-enhancing drug and cognitive training were combined.
49 participants with schizophrenia were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants were randomised to modafinil (200mg/day) or placebo and underwent a cognitive training program for 10 weekdays. CSB was administered twice at baseline to minimise practice effects, at the last day of the intervention and two weeks after the completion of the intervention.
There was a significant time effect at the end of the intervention on the CSB composite score (p=0.042). There was no significant treatment effect on CSB composite score at the end of the intervention (p=0.686) or at follow up (p=0.120).
Multiple administrations of CSB were well tolerated by participants. The significant time effects on the composite score may suggest the operation of practice effects. Several factors could have contributed to the lack of treatment effects on CSB, such as the burden of multiple neuropsychological testing in a relatively brief study, the duration of modafinil treatment and also the intensive nature of cognitive training.
To analyse the results of treatment for nasolabial cysts according to whether an intraoral sublabial or endoscopic transnasal approach was used, and to determine the recent surgical trend in our hospital.
Twenty-four patients with a histopathologically and radiologically confirmed nasolabial cyst between January 2010 and December 2017 were enrolled in this study.
Nasolabial cysts were predominant in females (91.7 per cent) and on the left side (54.2 per cent). Treatment involved an intraoral sublabial approach in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) and a transnasal endoscopic approach in 13 cases (52.0 per cent). In 13 cases (52.0 per cent) surgery was performed under local anaesthesia, while in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) it was conducted under general anaesthesia. The most common post-operative complications were numbness of the upper lip or teeth (n = 9, 36.0 per cent). Only one patient (4.0 per cent), who underwent a transnasal endoscopic approach, experienced a reoccurrence.
Surgical resection through an intraoral sublabial or transnasal endoscopic approach is the best treatment for a nasolabial cyst, showing very good results and a low recurrence rate. The recent surgical trend in our hospital is to treat nasolabial cysts using a transnasal endoscopic approach under local anaesthesia.
For high switching speed HV Schottky diodes, with very high work function metal and extremely lightly doped epi, the built-in potential may be too high for thermionic emission to occur, when the applied external voltage is quite low (near VF = 0.07V). If the epi is lightly doped p type, the built-in potential (VBuilt-in: potential difference between the metal and silicon Fermi levels) is 1.0V (measured with CV). If the external bias is 0.1V, near the measured VF, it is not enough to overcome the built-in potential for thermionic emission as illustrated. It is likely that in addition to thermionic emission, tunnelling and diffusion currents also contribute to the total HV Schottky diode forward current. TCAD simulation of HV Schottky diodes with N+ guard bands suggests the potential barrier and electric fields at the Schottky junction are relatively high for thermionic emission to occur, when external bias V ≈ VF. In this paper we report HV Schottky diodes fabricated with various metals, metal alloys and epitaxial films. Metal work functions and epi doping profiles are extracted with high frequency Capacitance-Voltage (CV) technique. 150V of breakdown voltage and very low forward voltage (VF = 0.07V) are demonstrated. The measured data indicate very high work function metal or metal alloy is needed to achieve high switching speed and low forward voltage.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
There have been significant changes in the diagnostic criteria for diffuse gliomas in the 2016 WHO CNS tumor classification, with the incorporation of molecular criteria into a number of definitions. This has placed a greater emphasis on the availability of key immunohistochemical and molecular tests. In order to determine the effect that these changes have had on neuropathology practice and the access of different centres to these tests, we designed a survey that was sent to all members of the Canadian Association of Neuropathology member list in the fall of 2017. This survey asked a number of questions relating to the approach to glioma diagnosis, immunohistochemical/molecular test ordering patterns, in-house test availability, and need to send out for testing. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from this survey, with a focus on institutional testing capabilities. This provides a valuable resource that could ultimately need to a national database of immunohistochemical and molecular test availability for each neuropathology centre.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Review the key molecular markers in the diagnosis of adult gliomas and methods of testing for them
2.Discuss the effect that the 2016 WHO CNS tumor update has had on clinical practice in Canada