Mice were selected for growth from 3 to 9 weeks of age on a normal protein diet (N) containing 19·3% protein and a reduced protein diet (R) containing 5·1% protein. On each diet there were 3 high (H), 3 low (L) and 3 unselected control (C) lines. After 6 generations of selection, half of the mice in each line were tested on each diet. Responses were obtained when selecting for both increased and decreased growth on both diets. The realized heritabilities from within-family selection were 33 and 26% for the divergences on the normal and reduced protein diets, respectively. Consistent genotype-environment interactions were found when all lines were tested on both diets in generation 7. Performance on each protein level was best improved by selection on that protein level. Further, the correlated response was significantly less than the direct response when selecting on both diets. The estimates of the genetic correlation between growth on the two protein levels were low, rN = 0·16 from selection on the normal protein diet and rR = 0·51 from selection on the reduced protein diet. Selection resulted in a change in environmental sensitivity in the lines, dependent on the diet and direction of selection. The average of the divergences on the two diets was not dependent on the selection environment.