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To search for studies on tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning used as isolated treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Pierre Robin sequence.
A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and three additional databases, from inception through to 8 July 2016, was performed by two authors.
Seven studies with 90 patients (59 tongue–lip adhesion and 31 tongue repositioning patients) met the inclusion criteria. Tongue–lip adhesion reduced the mean (± standard deviation) apnoea/hypopnoea index from 30.8 ± 22.3 to 15.4 ± 18.9 events per hour (50 per cent reduction). The apnoea/hypopnoea index mean difference for tongue–lip adhesion was −15.28 events per hour (95 per cent confidence interval = −30.70 to 0.15; p = 0.05). Tongue–lip adhesion improved the lowest oxygen saturation from 75.8 ± 6.8 to 84.4 ± 7.3 per cent. Tongue repositioning reduced the apnoea/hypopnoea index from 46.5 to 17.4 events per hour (62.6 per cent reduction). Tongue repositioning improved the mean oxygen saturation from 90.8 ± 1.2 to 95.0 ± 0.5 per cent.
Tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning can improve apnoea/hypopnoea index and oxygenation parameters in children with Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnoea.
To review the phenomenon and implications of temporal bone and craniofacial bone staining in the context of prolonged exposure to tetracycline antibiotic.
Case report and literature review.
A 52-year-old male with a 5-year history of tetracycline use presented to undergo tympanomastoidectomy and was found to have an unusual rusty green pigmentation of the entire aspect of the exposed temporal bone. A literature review revealed more than 20 cases of tetracycline-induced pigmentation of intraoral maxillary and mandibular bone, and 2 prior cases involving the cranial bones.
Tissue and organ pigmentation is an unexpected and unfavourable consequence of the use of tetracyclines, particularly minocycline. Tetracycline is contraindicated in children because of the risk for dysosteogenesis and enamel hypoplasia. In adults, although the unusual staining may present as an unexpected dilemma upon surgical exposure, current research shows no significant clinical consequences for this type of pigmentation.
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