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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
There are no definite guidelines regarding the most adequate steroid regimens for acute acoustic trauma.
To elucidate the dose-dependent differing benefits of oral steroids on hearing improvement following acute acoustic trauma.
Twenty-nine patients treated with oral steroids following a diagnosis of unilateral acute acoustic trauma were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were sorted into two groups with an oral steroid regimen. Group 1 received a 14-day course of treatment: 60 mg prednisolone daily for 10 days, tapering off over days 11–14. Group 2 received prednisolone for a total of 10 days: 60 mg for 5 days, tapering down each day for the remainder. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors associated with the hearing gain.
In the multivariable regression (R2 = 0.51, p < 0.001), patients in group 1 showed more significant improvement in the degree of hearing gain compared to group 2 (p = 0.03).
After comparing the differing benefits of oral steroids on hearing improvement by dosage, we recommend a high dose of prednisolone (60 mg per day) for 10 days, tapering over the remaining 4 days, for better hearing recovery following acute acoustic trauma.
Norovirus, a major cause of gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide, was first reported in South Korea in 1999. The most common causal agents of pediatric acute gastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirus. While vaccination has reduced the pediatric rotavirus infection rate, norovirus vaccines have not been developed. Therefore, prediction and prevention of norovirus are very important. Norovirus is divided into genogroups GI–GVII, with GII.4 being the most prevalent. However, in 2012–2013, GII.17 showed a higher incidence than GII.4 and a novel variant, GII.P17-GII.17, appeared. In this study, 204 stool samples collected in 2013–2014 were screened by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; 11 GI (5.39%) and 45 GII (22.06%) noroviruses were identified. GI.4, GI.5, GII.4, GII.6 and GII.17 were detected. The whole genomes of the three norovirus GII.17 were sequenced. The whole genome of GII.17 consists of three open reading frames of 5109, 1623 and 780 bp. Compared with 20 GII.17 strains isolated in other countries, we observed numerous changes in the protruding P2 domain of VP1 in the Korean GII.17 viruses. Our study provided genome information that might aid in epidemic prevention, epidemiology studies and vaccine development.
The persistent coverage control problem is formulated based on cell discretisation of two-dimensional mission space and time-increasing cell ages. A new performance function is defined to represent the coverage level of the mission space, and time behaviour is evaluated by the probabilistic method based on the detection model of agents. For comparison, persistent coverage controllers are designed by a target-based approach and a reactive approach. Both controllers are designed in a distributed manner using Voronoi tessellation and Delaunay graph-based local information sharing. Numerical simulation is performed to analyse the evaluated mean age of cells and evaluated coverage level over time for the designed persistent coverage controllers. The differences between the evaluation model and simulation situation are discussed.
Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are related to fetal growth, there is a paucity of data regarding how offspring sex affects the relationship between maternal BMI in underweight mothers (pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m2) and size for gestational age at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of offspring sex on the relationships among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and size for gestational age at birth in Japanese underweight mothers. Records of women with full-term pregnancies who underwent perinatal care at Kawasaki Municipal Hospital (Kawasaki, Japan) between January 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The study cohort included underweight (n=566) and normal-weight women (18.5 kg/m2⩽pre-pregnancy BMI<25 kg/m2; n=2671). The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01). Additionally, SGA incidence in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01) in female, but not male (P=0.30) neonates. In the women with female neonates, pre-pregnancy underweight was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (odds ratio [OR]: 1.80; P<0.01), but inadequate GWG was not (OR: 1.38; P=0.11). In contrast, in women with male neonates, inadequate GWG was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (OR: 1.53; P=0.03), but not with pre-pregnancy underweight (OR: 1.30; P=0.10). In conclusion, the present results suggest that pre-pregnancy underweight is associated with SGA in female offspring but not in male offspring.
This study evaluated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukins 10 and 12, and interferon-γ levels, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and clusters of differentiation 17c and 86 expression in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Twenty-four patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and 24 individuals with normal hearing and no history of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (who were attending the clinic for other problems), were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and clusters of differentiation 11c and 86 were isolated and analysed. Plasma and supernatant levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukins 10 and 12 were measured.
There were no significant differences with respect to age and gender. Monocyte population, mean tumour necrosis factor-α level and cluster of differentiation 86 expression were significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group. However, interferon-γ and interleukin 12 levels were significantly decreased. The difference in mean interleukin 10 level was not significant.
Increases in tumour necrosis factor-α level and monocyte population might play critical roles in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. This warrants detailed investigation and further studies on the role of dendritic cells in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
In this study, the combustion instability and emission characteristics of flames of different H2/CH4 compositions were investigated in a partially premixed model gas turbine combustor. A mode shift in the frequency of instability occurred under varying experimental conditions from the first to the seventh mode of longitudinal frequency in the combustor, and a parametric study was conducted to determine the reasons for this shift by using the length of the combustor, a factor that determines the mode frequency of longitudinal instability, as the main parameter. Furthermore, heat load and fuel composition (H2 ratio) were considered as parameters to compare the phenomenon under different conditions. The GRI-3.0 CANTERA code, OH chemiluminescence and the Abel inversion process were applied to analyse the frequency mode shift. NOx emissions, which occurred through the thermal NOx mechanism, increased with increasing heat load and H2 ratio. The instability frequency shifted from the first to the seventh mode as the H2 ratio increased in the H2/CH4 mixture. However, 100% H2 as fuel did not cause combustion instability because it has a higher burning velocity and extinction stretch rate than CH4. Furthermore, the laminar flame speed influenced the frequency mode shift. These phenomena were confirmed by the flame shapes. The Abel inversion process was applied to obtain the cross section of the flames from averaged OH chemiluminescence images. Stable and unstable flames were identified from the radial profile of OH concentration. The combustor length was found to not influence frequency mode shift, whereas the H2 ratio significantly influenced it as well as the flame shape. The results of this experimental study can help in the reliable operation of gas turbine systems in SNG plants.
The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect immediate (within 24 h after farrowing onset) postnatal piglet mortality in litters with hyperprolific sows, and investigate their associations with behaviour of postpartum sows in two different farrowing housing systems. A total of 30 sows were housed in: (1) CRATE (n=15): the farrowing crate closed (0.80×2.20 m) within a pen (2.50×1.70 m), and (2) OPEN (n=15): the farrowing crate open (0.80×2.20×1.80 m) within a pen (2.50×2.40 m) with a provision of 20 ls of hay in a rack. A total of 518 live born piglets, produced from the 30 sows, were used for data analyses during the first 24 h after the onset of parturition (T24). Behavioural observations of the sows were assessed via video analyses during T24. Total and crushed piglet mortality rates were higher in OPEN compared with CRATE (P<0.01, for both). During T24, the OPEN sows tended to show higher frequency of postural changes (P=0.07) and duration of standing (P=0.10), and showed higher frequencies of bar-biting (P<0.05) and piglet trapping (P<0.01), when compared with the CRATE sows. During T24, the mortality rates caused by crushing were correlated with the piglet trapping event (r=0.93, P<0.0001), postural changes (r=0.37, P<0.01), duration of standing (r=0.32, P<0.01) and frequency of bar-biting behaviour (r=0.51, P<0.01) of the sows (n=30). In conclusion, immediate postnatal piglet mortality, mainly due to crushing, may be associated with potential increases in frequency of postural changes, duration of standing and incidence of piglet trapping in postpartum sows in the open crate system with large litters.
The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has emerged as a serious rice pest in Asia. In the present study, 12 microsatellite markers were employed to investigate the genetic structure, diversity and migration route of 43 populations sampled from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, Korea, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam). According to the isolation by distance analysis, a significant positive correlation was observed between genetic and geographic distances by the Mantel test (r2 = 0.4585, P = 0.01), indicating the role of geographic isolation in the genetic structure of S. furcifera. A population assignment test using the first-generation migrants detection method (thresholds a = 0.01) revealed southern China and northern Vietnam as the main sources of S. furcifera in Korea. Nepal and Bangladesh might be additional potential sources via interconnection with Vietnam populations. This paper provides useful data for the migration route and origin of S. furcifera in Korea and will contribute to planthopper resistance management.
While previous work showed that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkit for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can reduce spread regionally, these interventions are costly, and decisions makers want to know whether and when economic benefits occur.
Orange County, California
Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA)-generated agent-based model of all inpatient healthcare facilities, we simulated the implementation of the CRE toolkit (active screening of interfacility transfers) in different ways and estimated their economic impacts under various circumstances.
Compared to routine control measures, screening generated cost savings by year 1 when hospitals implemented screening after identifying ≤20 CRE cases (saving $2,000–$9,000) and by year 7 if all hospitals implemented in a regional coordinated manner after 1 hospital identified a CRE case (hospital perspective). Cost savings was achieved only if hospitals independently screened after identifying 10 cases (year 1, third-party payer perspective). Cost savings was achieved by year 1 if hospitals independently screened after identifying 1 CRE case and by year 3 if all hospitals coordinated and screened after 1 hospital identified 1 case (societal perspective). After a few years, all strategies cost less and have positive health effects compared to routine control measures; most strategies generate a positive cost-benefit each year.
Active screening of interfacility transfers garnered cost savings in year 1 of implementation when hospitals acted independently and by year 3 if all hospitals collectively implemented the toolkit in a coordinated manner. Despite taking longer to manifest, coordinated regional control resulted in greater savings over time.
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting <3 hours from stroke onset and achieving ultra-early reperfusion (<45 minutes from CTP) are reported. CTP thresholds that predict follow-up infarction vary based on time to reperfusion: Tmax >20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min−1/(100 g)−1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.
In this report we describe an 82-year female with a longstanding anxiety disorder who developed severe psychogenic dysphagia, leading to hospitalization due to failure to thrive. We describe for the first time the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to successfully manage a patient with pharmacological treatment resistant psychogenic dysphagia.
To analyse the relationship of pre-operative body mass index with surgical complications and oncological outcomes in patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer.
A retrospective review was conducted of 259 patients who underwent microvascular free flap reconstruction after head and neck ablative surgery.
Mean body mass index was 22.48 kg/m2. There were no correlations between body mass index and: flap failure (p = 0.739), flap ischaemia (p = 0.644), pharyngocutaneous fistula (p = 0.141) or wound infection (p = 0.224). The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 63 per cent. On univariate analysis, the five-year disease-specific survival rate was significantly correlated with pre-operative body mass index, based on Kaplan–Meier survival curves (p = 0.028). The five-year disease-specific survival rates in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese groups were 47 per cent, 55 per cent, 65 per cent and 80 per cent, respectively.
Pre-operative body mass index was a useful predictor for recurrence and survival in patients who underwent microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
We report on the astrometric registration of VLBI images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic Proto-Planetary Nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the KVN and Source/Frequency Phase Referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the AGB star, which drives the bi-lobe structure with the water masers in the out-flow.
This study aimed to identify the effect of lateral neck dissection on voice change in thyroidectomised patients.
Medical records from 264 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with (n = 65) or without (n = 199) lateral neck dissection were reviewed. Clinical and voice evaluation data were compared between the two groups.
Patients who underwent surgery that included lateral neck dissection had lower fundamental frequencies and speaking fundamental frequencies. They also had a higher incidence of asymmetric mucosal wave and vocal fold oedema on videostroboscopy during the first month after surgery, with the incidence of vocal fold oedema remaining significantly higher at three months. Self-assessed voice quality scores were significantly higher in lateral neck dissection patients at both one and three months after surgery.
In thyroidectomised patients, lateral neck dissection lowers the vocal pitch in the initial period after surgery and induces vocal fold oedema that persists for several months. Although most objective parameters improved within a month, subjective symptoms lasted for longer.