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Solid state batteries are an emerging alternative to traditional liquid electrolyte cells that provide potential for safe and high-energy density power sources. This report describes a self-forming, solid state battery based on the Li/I2 couple using an LiI-rich LiI(3-hydroxypropionitrile)2 electrolyte (LiI–LiI(HPN)2). As the negative and positive active materials are generated in situ, the solid electrolyte–current collector interfaces play a critical role in determining the electrochemical response of the battery. Herein, we report the investigation of solid electrolyte–current collector interfaces with a self-forming LiI–LiI(HPN)2 solid electrolyte and the role of varying interface design in reducing resistance during cycling.
Lithium solid-state composite electrolytes (LiSCEs) provide the opportunity for long life spans, low self-discharge, high reliability, high energy density, and safety. Additionally, this class of electrolytes can be used in electrolytically formed solid-state batteries (EFBs), which may promote reductions in cell manufacturing costs due to their simplicity of design and permit the formation of batteries with diverse architectures. Herein, we provide a discussion of LiSCEs, highlight some of the recent progress in EFB development, and present a forward outlook.
In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
We aimed to verify the effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription (rRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting cases of modified measles (M-Me) and for predicting super-spreader candidates through the experience of a measles outbreak dominated by M-Me in Yamagata, Japan, during March–April 2017. We applied rRT-PCR to specimens from 35 cases of M-Me, nine cases of typical measles (T-Me) and nine cases of prodromal stage of T-Me (P-Me). From rRT-PCR among the M-Me cases, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed the highest positive rate (80.0%), followed by throat swab (48.6%), urine (33.3%) and serum (3.1%). The negative result of PBMC in M-Me cases was recovered by the result of a throat swab. In specimens of PBMC, throat swab and urine, M-Me group showed the significantly higher cycle of threshold (i.e., lower viral load) in the rRT-PCR than T-Me and P-Me groups, respectively. Furthermore, three super-spreaders in T-Me or P-Me showed an extremely low cycle of threshold in their throat swab specimens. rRT-PCR using PBMC and throat swab might be helpful for clinical management and measles control by certain detection of M-Me cases and by predicting super-spreading events resulting from measles cases with the high viral load.
Emerging applications require batteries to have both high energy and high power which are not necessarily compatible. The typical inverse relationship between power and energy in batteries is often due to the slow ion diffusion in electrode materials. While the optimization of current battery technology may be sufficient to fully address this issue, we present here that novel chemistry-focused strategies based on new fundamental understanding of materials may be applied to lead to the development of a new generation of batteries that store energy sufficiently and deliver it rapidly.
The effect of tunnel cations on tunnel size in α-MnO2 structured (hollandite, cryptomelane) materials has long been of interest, as the tunnel size effects catalytic and transport properties. Previous research on the tunnel size has focused on potassium cryptomelane (KxMn8O16). This paper uses synthetic control of silver content in AgxMn8O16 to investigate the effect that tunnel silver occupancy has on the lattice parameters. Materials with silver (x) content between 1.14 and 1.66 were synthesized, synchrotron diffraction and Rietveld Refinement was used to determine lattice parameters. The lattice parameters were found to contract as silver content increases (from 9.774 Å to 9.738 Å), in contrast to previous investigations of other tunnel cations.
ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) represents a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries, but there is still a lack of deep understanding of the fundamental reduction mechanism associated with this material. In this paper, the complete visualization of reduction/oxidation products irrespective of their crystallinity was achieved experimentally through a compilation of in situ X-ray diffraction, synchrotron based powder diffraction, and ex-situ X-ray absorption fine structure data. Complementary theoretical modelling study further shed light upon the fundamental understanding of the lithiation mechanism, especially at the early stage from ZnFe2O4 up to LixZnFe2O4 (x = 2).
In battery systems, a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed through electrolyte reaction on an electrode surface. The formation of SEI can have both positive and negative effects on electrochemistry. The initial formation of the layer protects the electrode from further reactivity, which can improve both shelf and cycle life. However, if the layer continues to form, it can impede charge transfer, which increases cell resistance and limits cycle life. The role of SEI is particularly important when studying conversion electrodes, since phase transformations which unveil new electroactive surfaces during reduction/oxidation can facilitate electrolyte decomposition. This manuscript highlights recent developments in the understanding and control of SEI formation for magnetite (Fe3O4) conversion electrodes through electrolyte and electrode modification.
Highly detailed structural characterization is required to understand the discharge mechanism in order to effectively investigate α-MnO2 structured lithium battery cathode materials. This paper discusses recent findings which elucidate the lithiation mechanism of silver-hollandite, AgxMn8O16. For Ag1.2Mn8O16, the structure is not significantly perturbed during the first 2 equivalents of lithiation and the electrochemistry is highly reversible. Upon 4 equivalents of lithiation, the structure becomes highly distorted, in correlation with capacity fade observed over 40 cycles. Notably, regarding capacity fade, modifications to Ag/Mn ratio are less impactful than modifications to the α-MnO2 crystallite size. This is shown in comparisons of two materials with the same stoichiometry (Ag1.4Mn8O16) and differing crystallite size (10 and 15 nm).
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) represents a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries, however, it suffers from limitations associated with poor intrinsic electron conductivity as well as moderate ionic conductivity. Hence, to achieve the goal of creating LTO anodes with improved high-rate performance, we have put forth a number of targeted fundamental strategies. Herein we discuss the roles of controllably tuning (i) morphology, (ii) attachment modalities of carbon, and (iii) ion doping of the LTO material. In addition, we also demonstrated in situ studies of lithiation-driven structural transformations in LTO via a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, which have been proven to be powerful tools to probe the negligible volume change and extraordinary stability of LTO upon repeated charge/discharge cycles.
Understanding the structural evolution of electrode material during electrochemical activity is important to elucidate the mechanism of (de)lithiation, and improve the electrochemical function based on the material properties. In this study, lithium vanadium oxide (LVO, LiV3O8) was investigated using ex-situ, in-situ, and operando experiments. Via a combination of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and density functional theory results, a reversible structural evolution during lithiation was revealed: from Li poor α phase (LiV3O8) to Li rich α phase (Li2.5V3O8) and finally β phase (Li4V3O8). In-situ and operando energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) provided tomographic information to visualize the spatial location of the phase evolution within the LVO electrode while inside a sealed lithium ion battery.
We report detections of thermal X-ray line emission and proper motions in the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946, the prototype of the small class of synchrotron dominated SNRs. Based on deep XMM-Newton observations, we find clear line features including Ne Lyα, Mg Heα, and Si Heα from the central portion of the remnant. The metal abundance ratios suggest that the thermal emission originates from core-collapse SN ejecta arising from a relatively low-mass (≲20 M⊙) progenitor. In addition, using XMM-Newton observations on a 13 yr time interval, we have measured expansion in the southeastern rim to be ~0.75″ yr−1 or ~3500 km s−1 at a distance of 1 kpc. Given this, we derive an upstream density to be ~0.01 cm−3, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium. We also estimate the age of the remnant to be ~1200–1600 yr, roughly consistent with the idea that RX J1713.7-3946 is the remnant of SN 393.