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This study aimed to develop a functional model of subglottic stenosis by inducing direct airway irritation in transplanted mouse laryngotracheal complexes.
Laryngotracheal complexes from C57BL/6 mice were harvested and divided into three groups: uninjured, mechanically injured and chemically injured. Donor laryngotracheal complexes from each group were placed in dorsal subcutaneous pockets of recipient mice. Each week, the transplanted laryngotracheal complexes were harvested, and tissues were fixed, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Representative slides were reviewed by a blinded pathologist, to determine the formation of granulation tissue, and graded as to the degree of granulation formation.
Direct airway irritation induced granulation tissue formation under the disrupted epithelium of airway mucosa; this was seen as early as two weeks after chemical injury.
Results indicate that granulation tissue formation in a murine model may be an efficient tool for investigating the development and treatment of subglottic stenosis.
Regenerative medicine using patient's own stem cells (SCs) to repair dysfunctional tissues is an attractive approach to complement surgical and pharmacological treatments for aging and degenerative disorders. Recently, dental SCs have drawn much attention owing to their accessibility, plasticity and applicability for regenerative use not only for dental, but also other body tissues. In ophthalmology, there has been increasing interest to differentiate dental pulp SC and periodontal ligament SC (PDLSC) towards ocular lineage. Both can commit to retinal fate expressing eye field transcription factors and generate rhodopsin-positive photoreceptor-like cells. This proposes a novel therapeutic alternative for retinal degeneration diseases. Moreover, as PDLSC shares similar cranial neural crest origin and proteoglycan secretion with corneal stromal keratoctyes and corneal endothelial cells, this offers the possibility of differentiating PDLSC to these corneal cell types. The advance could lead to a shift in the medical management of corneal opacities and endothelial disorders from highly invasive corneal transplantation using limited donor tissue to cell therapy utilizing autologous cells. This article provides an overview of dental SC research and the perspective of utilizing dental SCs for ocular regenerative medicine.
Background: Fundoscopy is an important component of the neurological examination, but can be challenging in uncooperative children. This study explores whether playing a video during eye examination, improves the success, duration and ease of pediatric fundoscopy. Methods: We completed a prospective, multi-clinic, block-randomized trial. Patients 1-4 years were recruited in the emergency department, neurology, spinal cord and general pediatric clinic. Patients were randomized (by eye examined) to video/non-video assisted fundoscopy. Successful exams were defined as visualizing the fundus within 60 seconds. Time to visualize optic disc was recorded and difficulty of exam was examined using a 10-point Likert scale. Results: 101 subjects were recruited, with a mean age of 2.8 years. Overall, there was a 20% absolute improvement in the success rate of visualizing the optic disc in the video versus non-video group (p<0.01). Time to visualize optic disc was also improved (Δ5.3s, p<0.01). Improvement in ease of examination with video were noted by caregivers and practitioners (p<0.01). Conclusion: Playing a video improved the ease, duration and most importantly the success of fundoscopy in younger children. This simple, inexpensive adjunct has great potential to improve the ease and efficacy of this aspect of the neurological examination.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm rarely diagnosed in the larynx. Traditionally, it has been treated by radical surgery (i.e. total laryngectomy), followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy. Recent advances suggest that it may be treated with combination therapy comprising high-dose radiation and pulse chemotherapy, with a high success rate.
We report the first documented case of subglottic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an adolescent female treated with chemoradiation alone, and review the literature reflecting a move towards organ preservation.
While surgery has been successfully used to treat this neoplasm, combination therapy, as described in our study, also seems effective and has the added advantage of preserving laryngeal function.
We investigated an unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) that occurred in Modasa, Gujarat (India) in 2009. Genomic analysis of all fulminant hepatic failure cases confirmed exclusive predominance of subgenotype D1. A1762T, G1764A basal core promoter (BCP) mutations, insertion of isoleucine after nt 1843, stop codon mutation G1896A, G1862T transversion plus seven other mutations in the core gene caused inhibition of HBeAg expression implicating them as circulating precore/BCP mutant virus. Two rare mutations at amino acids 89 (Ile→Ala) and 119 (Leu→Ser) in addition to other mutations in the polymerase (pol) gene may have caused some alteration in either of four pol gene domains to affect encapsidation of pregenomic RNA to enhance pathogenicity. Sequence similarity among patients' sequences suggested an involvement of a single hepatitis B mutant strain/source to corroborate the finding of gross and continued usage of HBV mutant-contaminated syringes/needles by a physician which resulted in this unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B. The fulminant exacerbation of the disease might be attributed to mutations in the BCP/precore/core and pol genes that may have occurred due to selection pressure during rapid spread/mutation of the virus.
Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II® cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.
Although Injury is being looked into as a major public health problem in India, most of the data coming is mortality related data from the National Crime Records Bureau and projections based on that data. There is complete absence if injury related data both surveillance data as well as outcome based data. Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi is one of the pioneering centers to understand the need to record the injury related data of all trauma cases which are admitted to the Apex Center, thus establishing a first of its kind hospital based Trauma Registry in India. This trauma registry will serve as a means for collating trauma data that will further help in the evaluation, prevention, and research of trauma care and can be used for quality control and planning future research and injury prevention activities, in India. Later, the center has an objective of networking all regional hospitals for data collection with an aim to establish a National Trauma Registry. Although several trauma registry software's exist from Western hemisphere but the Apex Trauma Center decided to formulate and designed its own Trauma Registry form and develop the related software which includes: Basic Identification; Demographic profile; Brought by personnel and vehicle; Condition at time of arrival; ED Interventions; Detailed Diagnosis; Definitive Procedures; Disposition/ Outcome The Trauma registry is being maintained, under the leadership of a Faculty and the data is collected and entered by the Trauma Nurse Coordinators, who follow the patient from admission to discharge. The data collection for the JPNATC Trauma Registry had started w.e.f. April 2009, but initially there were usual problems of data loss and non-availability of data. This has been overcome gradually and we hope that the registry will attain its full potential in another year or so.
There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide.
A retrospective study of patients with maxillofacial fractures seen and treated at the Jai Parkash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, India between January 2007 to June 2010. Data extracted from the patients' records include aetiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality and concomitant injuries.
There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (56.8%) was the most common aetiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 years to 75 years (mean = 34.7) with a peak incidence in the 3rd decade with a male–female sex ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615(77%) and middle third 205(23%). With regards to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the commonest sites, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%) and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by Open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 10.8% with orthopaedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated with 16.3 % of cases.
Maxillofacial fractures are on the increase. We advocate the establishment of regionalized trauma centers with basic training available to all surgical residents for initial emergency room management.
LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode material was prepared by sol-gel method and annealed at 850°C for 15 hrs. The prepared powder was coated with ZnO by dissolving zinc acetate in methanol and LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 powder was mixed in this solution followed by the continuous stirring for 4 hr. The LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The coin cell was fabricated using LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 as cathode materials, LiPF6, dissolved in EC/DMC (1:1 wt ratio) as electrolyte, and Li foil as anode. The cyclic voltammetric and charge-discharge characteristics were carried out for the coin cell using LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials. It was found that the ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials showed improved discharge capacity (∼146mAh/g) as compared to the pure LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (∼140mAh/g). The discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles was found to be about 94% and 97% for LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials, respectively.
Nickel-substituted Bi4Ti3O12 (i.e., Bi4-xNixTi3O12) were synthesized by sol-gel process for different compositions. Thin films were deposited on Pt (i.e., Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si) substrate by spin coating. Materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. This study indicates that the material makes a solid solution for the compositions: x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.30, where a Ni ion replaces the Bi site. The prominent effect of Ni substitution was observed in low-frequency Raman modes. Sol-gel derived thin films of Bi4-xNixTi3O12 on a Pt substrate and post annealed at 700°C were tested for ferroelectric response which showed high remnant polarization (Pr = 22 μC/cm2 for x = 0.15). The leakage current (less then 10−7 A/cm2) at low field was observed in the film with composition x = 0.15 .The polarization of the BNiT (x = 0.15) film decreased to 83% of the initial value after 1×109 switching cycles These results indicate the potential application of Ni substituted bismuth titanate films in non-volatile ferroelectric memories.
We have synthesized spinel LiMn1.99Nd0.01O4 and LiMn1.99Ce0.01O4 powder by chemical synthesis method. The synthesized powders were used to prepare cathodes for Li ion coin cells. The structural and electrochemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge studies, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry of the cathodes revealed the reversible nature of Li-ion intercalation in the cell. The charge-discharge characteristics for LiMn1.99Ce0.01O4 were obtained in 3.5 V – 4.8 V voltage range, while for LiMn1.99Nd0.01O4 the charge-discharge were carried out in 3.4 V – 4.4 V range. The initial discharge capacities of LiMn1.99Ce0.01O4 and LiMn1.99Nd0.01O4 were obtained as 134mAh/g and 149 mAh/g, respectively. The coin cells were tested for up to 25 charge-discharge cycles and after 25 cycles the discharge capacities were determined to 79.5 mAh/g and 132 mAh/g for LiMn1.99Ce0.01O4 and LiMn1.99Nd0.01O4 cathodes respectively. However, by doping with a small concentration of rare earth materials, like Ce and Nd reduces the capacity fading in pure LiMn2O4 cathodes making it suitable for Li-ion battery applications.
A metallic glass ribbon of Cu55Ti45 prepared by melt spinning was examined by x-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction, by small angle neutron diffraction (SANS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by differential thermal analysis (DTA). In the liquid quenched condition large angle diffraction data (both x-ray and neutron) show the broad banded structure typical of the amorphous state. The SANS data, however, exhibit highly anisotropic patterns arising from the phase decomposition during solidification. Ribbons annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg ) produced neutron diffraction patterns of materials with the same amorphous structure combined with a new short range order; and the SANS patterns retained the asymmetry of the as-quenched material. Ribbons annealed above the crystallization temperature (Tc) show both isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the SANS patterns. Formation of the equilibrium TiCu phase occurs directly from the metallic glass at Tc. The equilibrium Ti3Cu4 phase, however, forms from the TiCu phase at slightly higher temperatures.
Very high angle (∼ 100mrad) annular dark-field (HAADF) images in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can be used to quantitatively measure the mass of a cluster on a support material. With knowledge of the annular dark field (ADF) detector efficiency, the absolute intensity of very HAADF images can be converted to elastic scattering cross-sections. By comparing the theoretical and experimental elastic scattering cross-sections, the number of atoms can be determined. Statistical measurement of absolute cross-sections from Re-6 clusters show good agreement with theoretical cross-sections. The experimental error corresponded to ±2 Re atoms. Our experiments demonstrate the exceptional stability of the Re-6 organometallic compound relative to Re-8 clusters. This technique is presently being applied to Pt clusters.
Thin films of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of thickness ranging from 15nm-500nm have been deposited on Si3N4(90nm)/Si substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. These samples have been studied using in situ ion scattering techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to analyze the oxygen distribution and defect chemistry as a function of annealing in various oxidizing and reducing ambient upto 500°C. In addition, the structural quality of these films after long time annealing has been investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Temperature dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been performed to study the unoccupied density of states and chemical nature of YSZ. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the effects of annealing in different ambient on the defect chemistry, structure and stability of films in these materials systems.
Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a small cytosolic photoreceptor that actuates the negative phototactic response in its host organism Halorhodospira halophila. It has an optical absorption maximum at 446 nm (blue light). We report an initial study of the photocycle of PYP at the single molecule level using “high enhancement factor” surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active nanostructures with 514 nm laser excitation. The SERS-active “nanometal-on-semiconductor” structures are prepared employing a redox technique on thin germanium films, coated on glass slides. Single molecule spectra are observed in terms of sudden appearance of discernable Raman peaks with spectral fluctuations. The single molecule spectra capture protonation, photo-isomerization, and H-bond breaking - the steps that are instrumental in the photocycle of PYP. This is indicative of single PYP molecules diffusing to high-enhancement-factor SERS sites, and undergoing photo-cycle under 514 nm excitation.
Zn0.90Co0.10O and Zn0.85[Co0.50Fe0.50]0.15O targets were used to grow thin films by rf magnetron sputtering. XRD patterns of the films showed a strong preferred orientation along c-axis. Zn0.90Co0.10O film showed a transmittance above 75% in the visible range, while the transmittance of the Zn0.85[Co0.50Fe0.50]0.15O film was about 45%; with three absorption peaks attributed to d-d transitions of tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+. The band gap values for Zn0.90Co0.10O and Zn0.85[Co0.50Fe0.50]0.15O films were 2.95 and 2.70 eV respectively, which are slightly less than ZnO bulk. The Zn0.90Co0.10O film showed a relatively large positive magnetoresistance (MR) at the high magnetic field in the temperature range from 7 to 50 K, which reached 11.9% a 7K for the magnetoresistance. The lowest MR was found at 100 K. From M-H curve measured at room temperature shown a probable antiferromagnetic behavior, although was possible to observe little coercive field of 30 Oe and 40 Oe for Zn0.90Co0.10O and Zn0.85[Co0.50Fe0.50]0.15O films, respectively.
Gadolinium-substituted Bi4Ti3O12 (i.e. Bi4−xGdxTi3O12) were synthesized by sol-gel process for different compositions, and thin films were deposited on Pt (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si) substrate by spin coating. Post annealed films at 700° C were investigated for their structural properties using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicating solid solution for compositions: x = 0.00, 0.46, 0.56, and 0.85 where Bi ion is replaced by Gd-ion. Sol-gel derived Pt/Bi4−xGdxTi3O12 film/Pt capacitor structure was tested for dielectric, ferroelectric, and leakage current responses. Films showed ferroelectricity with polarization, Pr = 22 µC/cm2 for composition: x = 0.46. Magnetic response of the powder sample for composition: x = 0.85 was tested using SQUID, which showed superparamagnetic at room temperature and magnetic at 5 K with magnetic coercivity (Hc) = 29 Oe and very small remanance (σr) = 5.4 × 10−4 emu/g.
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are increasingly being considered for use in minimally invasive medical devices. For safe deployment of implanted devices it is important to be able to precisely control the actuation temperature of the device. In this study we report the effect of varying monomer composition on the glass transitions/actuation temperatures (Tg) of novel low density shape memory foams. The foams were based on hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI), triethanolamine (TEA) and tetrakis (2-hydroxyl propyl) ethylenediamine (HPED), and were produced via a combination of chemical and physical blowing process. The process for post-foaming cleaning was also varied. Foams were characterized by DSC, DMA, and for shape memory. No clear trends were observed for foam samples without cleaning, and this was attributed to process chemicals acting as plasticizers. In foams cleaned via washing and/or sonication, the Tg was observed to decrease for compositions that were higher in the TEA content. Also, no change in shape memory behavior was observed for varying compositions. This work demonstrates the ability to tailor actuation transition temperature while maintaining shape memory behavior for low density foams suitable for aneurysm treatment.
Our experience with shape memory polymers (SMP) began with a project to develop an embolic coil release actuator in 1996. This was the first known SMP device to enter human trials. Recent progress with the SMP devices include multiple device applications (stroke treatments, stents, other interventional devices), functional animal studies, synthesis and characterization of new SMP materials, in vivo and in vitro biocompatibility studies and device-tissue interactions for the laser, resistive, or magnetic-field activated actuators. We describe several of our applied SMP devices.