To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterium encephalitis is rare. Since 2013, a global outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection has been attributed to point-source contamination of heater cooler units used in cardiac surgery. Disseminated M. chimaera infection has presented many unique challenges, including non-specific clinical presentations with delays in diagnosis, and a high mortality rate among predominantly immunocompetent adults. Here, we describe three patients with fatal disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection showing initially non-specific, progressively worsening neurocognitive decline, including confusion, delirium, depression and apathy. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebrum, brain stem and spinal cord, along with granulomatous chorioretinitis. Cerebral involvement and differentiation between mycobacterial granulomas and microangiopathic changes can be assessed best on MRI with contrast enhancement. The prognosis of M. chimaera encephalitis appears to be very poor, but might be improved by increased awareness of this new syndrome and timely antimicrobial treatment.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical, radiological and neuropathological findings of Mycobacterium chimaera encephalitis
2.Be aware of this rare form of encephalitis, and explain its diagnosis, prognosis and management
This study aimed to determine the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and dietary modification.
A systematic review was conducted. The data sources for the study were PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Articles were independently extracted by two authors according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The outcome focus was laryngopharyngeal reflux improvement through diet or dietary behaviour.
Of the 372 studies identified, 7 met our inclusion criteria. In these seven studies, laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms improved following dietary modifications. However, the studies did not present the independent effect of each dietary factor on laryngopharyngeal reflux. Moreover, only one of the seven studies had a randomised controlled study design.
The reference studies of dietary modification for laryngopharyngeal reflux patients are not sufficient to provide recommendations.
This paper reports on: (1) an evaluation of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) developed for comorbid presentations of depression, anxiety, traumatic stress, and/or externalizing symptoms among children in three Somali refugee camps on the Ethiopian/Somali border, and (2) an evaluation of implementation factors from the perspective of staff, lay providers, and families who engaged in the intervention.
This project was conducted in three refugee camps and utilized locally validated mental health instruments for internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Participants were recruited from either a validity study or from referrals from social workers within International Rescue Committee Programs. Lay providers delivered CETA to youth (CETA-Youth) and families, and symptoms were re-assessed post-treatment. Providers and families responded to a semi-structured interview to assess implementation factors.
Children who participated in the CETA-Youth open trial reported significant decreases in symptoms of internalizing (d = 1.37), externalizing (d = 0.85), and posttraumatic stress (d = 1.71), and improvements in well-being (d = 0.75). Caregivers also reported significant decreases in child symptoms. Qualitative results were positive toward the acceptability and appropriateness of treatment, and its feasibility.
This project is the first to examine a common elements approach (CETA: defined as flexible delivery of elements, order, and dosing) with children and caregivers in a low-resource setting with delivery by lay providers. CETA-Youth may offer an effective treatment that is easier to implement and scale-up versus multiple focal interventions. A fullscale randomized clinical trial is warranted.
The objective of this study was to assess determinants of poor sleep quality which is an under-diagnosed and under-treated problem in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension.
Poor sleep quality is linked to decreased quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality. Poor sleep quality is common in the elderly population with associated cardiometabolic risk factors such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension.
This is a cross-sectional study undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Singhealth Polyclinics-Outram) in Singapore. Singaporeans aged 65 years and above who had at least one of the three cardiometabolic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia) were identified. Responders’ sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and were divided into those with good quality sleep and those with poor quality sleep, based on the PSQI score. Information on demographics, co-morbidities and lifestyle practices were collected. Descriptive and multivariate analyses of determinants of poor sleep were determined.
There were 199 responders (response rate 88.1%). Nocturia (adjusted prevalence rate ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.26) was found to be associated with an increased risk of poor sleep quality in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Nocturia, a prevalent problem in the Asian elderly population, has been found to be associated with poor sleep quality in our study. Hence, it is imperative to identify and treat patients with nocturia to improve sleep quality among them.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Layered ice has been used to investigate the initiation of fabrics in shear zones where there is preservation of a refolded layering The fabrics were measured using an apparatus that acquires pixel-based images that illustrate the variation of c-axis orientation within and between grains. In the centre of the shear zones there is dynamic recrystallization with the production of an asymmetric two-maxima fabric. The way dynamic recrystallization modifies the inherited folds and microstructure suggests that there is little effect of inheritance from a precursor grain microstructure or fabric No obvious evidence has been found for the occurrence of sub-grains, which implies that the role of sub-grain rotation is minimal or is obliterated by the recrystallization process. The final c-axis pattern is asymmetric with respect to the direction of shortening, with a strong maximum at ~5° to the pole of the shear zone, and a sense of asymmetry in the direction of the shear, and a secondary maximum inclined at ~45° to the plane of shearing. Distinct sets of nearest-neighbour c-axis distributions, namely, intermediate-angle (10–25°), high-angle (50–65°) and very high-angle (120–150°), suggest there may be special grain-boundary relationships.
Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children.
Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals
Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day
We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria. We applied adult temperature, white blood cell count, antibiotic, and culture criteria for IVAC and PVAP to these patients. We matched pediatric VAC patients with controls and evaluated associations with adverse outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 233 pediatric VACs (12,167 ventilation episodes) were identified. In the cardiac ICU (CICU), 62.5% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; in the pediatric ICU (PICU), 54.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; and in the neonatal ICU (NICU), 20.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria. Most patients had abnormal white blood cell counts and temperatures; we therefore recommend simplifying surveillance by focusing on “pediatric VAC with antimicrobial use” (pediatric AVAC). Pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test (“pediatric PVAP”) occurred in 8.9% of VACs in the CICU, 13.3% of VACs in the PICU, and 4.3% of VACs in the NICU. Hospital mortality was increased, and hospital and ICU length of stay and duration of ventilation were prolonged among all pediatric VAE subsets compared with controls.
We propose pediatric AVAC for surveillance related to antimicrobial use, with pediatric PVAP as a subset of AVAC. Studies on generalizability and responsiveness of these metrics to quality improvement initiatives are needed, as are studies to determine whether lower pediatric VAE rates are associated with improvements in other outcomes.
The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing procedure (BHR) is metal-on-metal resurfacing procedure for hip arthritis. BHR was associated with low risk of surgical site infection (SSI; 0.6%). In addition to antimicrobials, superficial SSIs were treated with incision and drainage, whereas deep incisional or organ-space SSIs required removal of prosthesis.
We present results from our study of the active dwarf ∊ Eri (K2 V) based on ultraviolet spectra recorded with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. A combination of simple theoretical arguments and observational constraints derived from measured line fluxes are used to deduce new information about the structure of the upper transition region/corona. The area filling factor of emitting material is determined in the upper atmosphere as a function of temperature. This provides new constraints on how the magnetic field might spread out in the atmosphere of an active main sequence star. Measured emission line widths are used, together with a new semi-empirical model of the atmosphere, to place limits on the energy fluxes carried by MHD waves. These are compared with estimates of the energy input required to support the combined radiative/conductive losses in the upper atmosphere. It is shown that, in principle, waves which propagate at the Alfvén speed could provide sufficient energy to heat the corona.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
Clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of a maternal low glycaemic index (GI) diet on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, but the impact of the diet on the offspring in later life, and the mechanisms underlying these effects, remain unclear. In this study, Albino Wistar rats were fed either a low GI (n=14) or high GI (n=14) diet during pregnancy and lactation and their offspring weaned onto either the low or high GI diet. Low GI dams had better glucose tolerance (AUC[glucose], 1322±55 v. 1523±72 mmol min/l, P<0.05) and a lower proportion of visceral fat (19.0±2.9 v. 21.7±3.8% of total body fat, P<0.05) compared to high GI dams. Female offspring of low GI dams had lower visceral adiposity (0.45±0.03 v. 0.53±0.03% body weight, P<0.05) and higher glucose tolerance (AUC[glucose], 1243±29 v. 1351±39 mmol min/l, P<0.05) at weaning, as well as lower hepatic PI3K-p85 mRNA at 12 weeks of age. No differences in glucose tolerance or hepatic gene expression were observed in male offspring, but the male low GI offspring did have reduced hepatic lipid content at weaning. These findings suggest that consuming a low GI diet during pregnancy and lactation can improve glucose tolerance and reduce visceral adiposity in the female offspring at weaning, and may potentially produce long-term reductions in the hepatic lipogenic capacity of these offspring.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a brief parenting intervention, ‘Parents Make the Difference‘(PMD), on parenting behaviors, quality of parent-child interactions, children's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral wellbeing, and malaria prevention behaviors in rural, post-conflict Liberia.
A sample of 270 caregivers of children ages 3–7 were randomized into an immediate treatment group that received a 10-session parent training intervention or a wait-list control condition (1:1 allocation). Interviewers administered baseline and 1-month post-intervention surveys and conducted child-caregiver observations. Intent-to-treat estimates of the average treatment effects were calculated using ordinary least squares regression. This study was pre-registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01829815).
The program led to a 55.5% reduction in caregiver-reported use of harsh punishment practices (p < 0.001). The program also increased the use of positive behavior management strategies and improved caregiver–child interactions. The average caregiver in the treatment group reported a 4.4% increase in positive interactions (p < 0.05), while the average child of a caregiver assigned to the treatment group reported a 17.5% increase (p < 0.01). The program did not have a measurable impact on child wellbeing, cognitive skills, or household adoption of malaria prevention behaviors.
PMD is a promising approach for preventing child abuse and promoting positive parent-child relationships in low-resource settings.
To develop an automated method for ventilator-associated condition (VAC) surveillance and to compare its accuracy and efficiency with manual VAC surveillance
The intensive care units (ICUs) of 4 hospitals
This study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center, a tertiary care center in metropolitan Detroit. A total of 128 ICU beds in 4 acute care hospitals were included during the study period from August to October 2013. The automated VAC algorithm was implemented and utilized for 1 month by all study hospitals. Simultaneous manual VAC surveillance was conducted by 2 infection preventionists and 1 infection control fellow who were blinded to each another’s findings and to the automated VAC algorithm results. The VACs identified by the 2 surveillance processes were compared.
During the study period, 110 patients from all the included hospitals were mechanically ventilated and were evaluated for VAC for a total of 992 mechanical ventilation days. The automated VAC algorithm identified 39 VACs with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In comparison, the combined efforts of the IPs and the infection control fellow detected 58.9% of VACs, with 59% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 91% PPV, and 92% NPV. Moreover, the automated VAC algorithm was extremely efficient, requiring only 1 minute to detect VACs over a 1-month period, compared to 60.7 minutes using manual surveillance.
The automated VAC algorithm is efficient and accurate and is ready to be used routinely for VAC surveillance. Furthermore, its implementation can optimize the sensitivity and specificity of VAC identification.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):999–1003
We investigate topological realizations of higher-rank graphs. We show that the fundamental group of a higher-rank graph coincides with the fundamental group of its topological realization. We also show that topological realization of higher-rank graphs is a functor and that for each higher-rank graph Λ, this functor determines a category equivalence between the category of coverings of Λ and the category of coverings of its topological realization. We discuss how topological realization relates to two standard constructions for k-graphs: projective limits and crossed products by finitely generated free abelian groups.
With the ubiquitous Mini-Mental State Exam now under copyright, attention is turning to alternative cognitive screening tests. The aim of the present study was to investigate three common cognitive screening tools: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS), and the recently revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Assessment Version III (ACE-III).
The ACE-III, MoCA and RUDAS were administered in random order to a sample of 37 participants with diagnosed mild dementia and 47 comparison participants without dementia. The diagnostic accuracy of the three tests was assessed.
All the tests showed good overall accuracy as assessed by area under the ROC Curve, 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80–0.95) for the ACE-III, 0.84 (0.75–0.91) for the MoCA, and 0.86 (0.77–0.93) for RUDAS. The three tests were strongly correlated: r(84) = 0.85 (0.78–0.90) between the ACE-III and MoCA, 0.70 (0.57–0.80) between the ACE-III and RUDAS; and 0.65 (0.50–0.76) between the MoCA and RUDAS. The data derived optimal cut-off points for were lower than the published recommendations for the ACE-III (optimal cut-point ≤76, sensitivity = 81.1%, specificity = 85.1%) and the MoCA (≤20, sensitivity = 78.4%, specificity = 83.0%), but similar for the RUDAS (≤22, sensitivity = 78.4%, specificity = 85.1%).
All three tools discriminated well overall between cases of mild dementia and controls. To inform interpretation of these tests in clinical settings, it would be useful for future research to address more inclusive and potentially age-stratified local norms.
Poor maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. To determine the impact of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional (PCUN: −45 days to 6 days) and preimplantation (PIUN: 0–6 days) periods on cardiac growth and metabolism, we have quantified the mRNA and protein abundance of key regulators of cardiac growth and metabolism in the left ventricle of the sheep fetus in late gestation. The cardiac protein abundance of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phospho-acetyl CoA carboxykinase (ACC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK-4) were decreased, whereas ACC was increased in singletons in the PCUN and PIUN groups. In twins, however, cardiac ACC was decreased in the PCUN and PIUN groups, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) was increased in the PIUN group. In singletons, the cardiac abundance of insulin receptor β (IRβ) was decreased in the PCUN group, and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK-1) was decreased in the PCUN and PIUN groups. In twins, however, the cardiac abundance of IRβ and phospho-Akt substrate 160kDa (pAS160) were increased in the PIUN group. The cardiac abundance of insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF-2R), protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were decreased in PCUN and PIUN singletons and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was also decreased in the PIUN singletons. In contrast, in twins, cardiac abundance of IGF-2R and PKCα were increased in the PCUN and PIUN groups, phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pRPS6) was increased in the PCUN group, and ERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were also increased in the PIUN fetuses. In conclusion, maternal undernutrition limited to around the time of conception is sufficient to alter the abundance of key factors regulating cardiac growth and metabolism and this may increase the propensity for cardiovascular diseases in later life.
We report the case of an unusual late presentation of congenital tracheal stenosis in a 13-year-old boy. He was treated with minimally invasive Coblation resection of the stenotic segment, avoiding a major open tracheal resection and reconstruction. This case report is the first to document the use of an ultra-fine Coblation wand in the treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis.
The case proceeded well, without any complications. The patient had a fully healed and patent trachea at 12-week post-operative review.
Complex cases of congenital stenosis should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach. Different and novel treatment options should be explored to find one that suits the individual patient. Minimally invasive Coblation technology can offer less invasive treatment with quicker recovery and shorter hospitalisation.
Obesity is increasingly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) but data about the impact of elevated body mass index (BMI) on brain white-matter integrity in BD are sparse. Based on extant literature largely from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, we hypothesize that increased BMI is associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions early in the course of BD.
A total of 26 euthymic adults (12 normal weight and 14 overweight/obese) with remitted first-episode mania (FEM) and 28 controls (13 normal weight and 15 overweight/obese) matched for age, handedness and years of education underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging scans.
There are significant effects of diagnosis by BMI interactions observed especially in the right parietal lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 5.02, p = 0.030), occipital lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 10.30, p = 0.002) and temporal lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 7.92, p = 0.007). Specifically, decreased FA is found in the right parietal (F1,23 = 5.864, p = 0.023) and occipital lobes (F1,23 = 4.397, p = 0.047) within overweight/obese patients compared with normal-weight patients with FEM. Compared with overweight/obese controls, decreased FA is observed in right parietal (F1,25 = 6.708, p = 0.015), temporal (F1,25 = 10.751, p = 0.003) and occipital (F1,25 = 9.531, p = 0.005) regions in overweight/obese patients with FEM.
Our findings suggest that increased BMI affects temporo-parietal-occipital brain white-matter integrity in FEM. This highlights the need to further elucidate the relationship between obesity and other neural substrates (including subcortical changes) in BD which may clarify brain circuits subserving the association between obesity and clinical outcomes in BD.