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Abundances of heavy elements in dwarf galaxies reflect their early evolutionary histories. Recent astronomical observations have shown that there are star-to-star scatters in the abundances of r-process elements and the decreasing trend of Zn toward higher metallicity in extremely metal-poor stars. However, the enrichment of heavy elements is not well understood. Here we performed a series of high-resolution N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies. We find that neutron star mergers can explain ratios of r-process elements to iron in dwarf galaxies due to their suppressed star formation rates. We also find that stars with [Zn/Fe] ≳ 0.5 reflect the ejecta from electron-capture supernovae. Inhomogeneity of the metals in the interstellar medium causes the scatters of heavy elements. We estimate that the timescale of metal mixing is ≲ 40 Myr using heavy element abundances in metal-poor stars.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.
Neutron star mergers are one of the candidate astrophysical site(s) of r-process. Several chemical evolution studies however pointed out that the observed abundance of r-process is difficult to reproduce by neutron star mergers. In this study, we aim to clarify the enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies. We carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct a chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf galaxies assuming that neutron star mergers are the major source of r-process elements. Our models reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] with neutron star mergers with a merger time of 100 Myr. We find that star formation efficiency and metal mixing processes during the first ≲ 300 Myr of galaxy evolution are important to reproduce the observations. This study supports that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.
We prepared silicon hyperdoped with sulfur by ion-implantation followed by pulsed laser melting. Effects of laser fluence during pulsed laser melting and of post-annealing on the silicon hyperdoped with sulfur are investigated. The structure of hyperdoped layer changes from poly-to mono-crystal with increasing laser fluence. Interface between sulfur-implanted-layer and single-crystal substrate disappear above 1.1 J/cm2. The spectral intensity of mid-infrared (MIR) optical absorption increases with crystallinity and spectral shape depends on whether the melt depth during pulsed laser melting reaches interface between implanted layer and single-crystal silicon substrate or not. The MIR absorption intensity rapidly decreases with thermal annealing temperature and almost disappears at 750 °C. The activation energy of conductivity decreases with increasing laser fluence and further decreases with increasing post thermal-annealing temperature. The insulator-metal transition is observed for the sample annealed at 750 °C. These results indicate that there is no direct correlation between MIR optical absorption band and insulator-metal transition.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-known energy source for muscle contraction. In this study, to visualize localization of ATP, a luciferin-luciferase reaction (LLR) was performed in mouse skeletal muscle with an “in vivo cryotechnique” (IVCT). First, to confirm if ATP molecules could be trapped and detected after glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment, ATP was directly attached to glass slides with GA, and LLR was performed. The LLR was clearly detected as an intentional design of the ATP attachment. The intensity of the light unit by LLR was correlated with the concentration of the GA-treated ATP in vitro. Next, LLR was evaluated in mouse skeletal muscles with IVCT followed by freeze-substitution fixation (FS) in acetone-containing GA. In such tissue sections the histological structure was well maintained, and the intensity of LLR in areas between muscle fibers and connective tissues was different. Moreover, differences in LLR among muscle fibers were also detected. For the IVCT-FS tissue sections, diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactions were clearly detected in type I muscle fibers and erythrocytes in capillaries, which demonstrated flow shape. Thus, it became possible to perform microscopic evaluation of the numbers of ATP molecules in the mouse skeletal muscles with IVCT, which mostly reflect living states.
We show that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law in galaxies is affected significantly by the evolutionary stage of star forming molecular gas, using narrow band Paα imaging of Taffy I, an interacting pair of galaxies. Star forming regions in the system show very uniform ages except for the bridge region, and the SK law of regions at the same age show a exceptionally tight SK law.
We present a patient with mitochondrial hearing loss and a novel mitochondrial DNA transition, who underwent successful cochlear implantation.
An 11-year-old girl showed epilepsy and progressive hearing loss. Despite the use of hearing aids, she gradually lost her remaining hearing ability. Laboratory data revealed elevated lactate levels, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse, mild brain atrophy. Cochlear implantation was performed, and the patient's hearing ability was markedly improved. Whole mitochondrial DNA genome analysis revealed a novel heteroplasmic mitochondrial 625G>A transition in the transfer RNA gene for phenylalanine. This transition was not detected in blood DNA from the patient's mother and healthy controls. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activities in muscle were predominantly decreased in complex III.
This case indicates that cochlear implantation can be a valuable therapeutic option for patients with mitochondrial syndromic hearing loss.
Gas materials in the inner Galactic disk continuously migrate toward the Galactic center (GC) due to interactions with the bar potential, magnetic fields, stars, and other gaseous materials. Those in forms of molecules appear to accumulate around 200 pc from the center (the central molecular zone, CMZ) to form stars there and further inside. The bar potential in the GC is thought to be responsible for such accumulation of molecules and subsequent star formation, which is believed to have been continuous throughout the lifetime of the Galaxy. We present 3-D hydrodynamic simulations of the CMZ that consider self-gravity, radiative cooling, and supernova feedback, and discuss the efficiency and role of the star formation in that region. We find that the gas accumulated in the CMZ by a bar potential of the inner bulge effectively turns into stars, supporting the idea that the stellar cusp inside the central 200 pc is a result of the sustained star formation in the CMZ. The obtained star formation rate in the CMZ, 0.03–0.1 M⊙, is consistent with the recent estimate based on the mid-infrared observations by Yusef-Zadeh et al. (2009).
Two-dimensional (2-D) strain sensor utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is demonstrated. SAW devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor.
The number of patients with severe invasive group-G streptococcal (Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) infections has been increasing in Japan. The emm genotypes and SmaI-digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis DNA profiles were variable among the strains isolated, suggesting there has not been clonal expansion of a specific subpopulation of strains. However, all strains carried scpA, ska, slo and sag genes, some of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.
We surveyed T serotypes and emm genotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) patients. T1 (emm1) remained dominant through 1992 to 2000, but the dominant T3 (emm3.1) strains from 1992 to 1995 disappeared during 1996–2000. Strains of several emm genotypes emerged during 1996–2000, indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing TSLS.
Chemical-vapor-deposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) under the atmosphere at low temperature has been conducted. The structure of the obtained films was assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. These analyses indicated that amorphous TiOxHy films were obtained at gas temperatures in the range of 150–300 °C, and crystalline anatase-TiO2 film was formed at 350 °C. This distinction is accounted for by plausible chemical reactions as follows; the hydroxyl reaction of TTIP below 350 °C promotes the formation of the amorphous TiOxHy. As the temperature goes up to 350 °C, dehydrogenation of the TiOxHy films promotes to form crystalline TiO2. Also the obtained amorphous films were annealed for 10 min under the atmosphere in assessing the transformation proceeding in the solid state. The structural change is shown at 350 °C, indicating that the crystalline phase would be formed via dehydrogenation and polymerization on the surface of the amorphous phase under the atmosphere. The crystal size of the annealed films was evaluated in assessment for the transformation.
We developed a chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus with a 0.5×240 mm2 slit-type nozzle that scans at an area of 240×315 mm2 in the atmosphere. This apparatus forms uniform oxide crystals on substrates through the decomposition process of precursors emitted from the nozzle. In this study, ZnO whiskers were synthesized on a single-crystalline 8-inch wafer of (100)-oriented silicon using this apparatus. Morphological and crystallographic properties of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry.
The status of Schistosoma sinensium (samples from Thailand and from Sichuan, China) relative to other species of the genus Schistosoma was investigated using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene (partial) and the nuclear ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Trees inferred from these sequences place S. sinensium as sister to the S. japonicum group and suggest a basal position in the clade utilizing snails of the family Pomatiopsidae. The sequence differences between specimens of S. sinensium from China and Thailand are at least as great as between S. malayensis and S. mekongi. Schistosoma sinensium is probably best regarded as a species complex.
Defects and stress are the most serious issues for growth of AlGaN. Low-temperature deposited (LT -) AlN interlayer between AlGaN and GaN is found to reduce tensile stress during growth, and at the same time suppress the propagation of dislocations having screw components, by which UV-photodetector showing very-low-dark current has been successfully fabricated. However, additional pure-edge dislocations are generated at the LT -interlayer, which resulted in the poor emission property. In addition to the LT -interlayer, lateral growth at the trenched structure was used, thereby achieving crack-free AlGaN and reduction of the density of all types of dislocations in the AlGaN layer. UV light emitting diodes having AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum well active layer was fabricated on the low dislocation density AlGaN. The LED shows strong and sharp UV-emission from GaN-wells.
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been widely used for planarization of ILD, STI, plug and wiring processes. In post metal CMP cleaning processes, there are still many problems to be solved. There are several surfaces of materials, such as wiring materials, barrier materials, dielectric materials etc., on the wafer that must be cleaned at the same time,. It is also important to clean these different surfaces without any chemical or mechanical damage. We have confirmed that the Electrolyzed D.I.water is effective in post CMP cleaning for controlling the surface condition during cleaning and leaving a robust surface after CMP. We describe the Electrolyzed D.I.water system and present some results on the cleaning capability and control of the metal surface for application to cleaning after a metal CMP process.