To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Emerging from the warehouse of knowledge about terrestrial ecosystem functioning and the application of the systems ecology paradigm, exemplified by the power of simulation modeling, tremendous strides have been made linking the interactions of the land, atmosphere, and water locally to globally. Through integration of ecosystem, atmospheric, soil, and more recently social science interactions, plausible scenarios and even reasonable predictions are now possible about the outcomes of human activities. The applications of that knowledge to the effects of changing climates, human-caused nitrogen enrichment of ecosystems, and altered UV-B radiation represent challenges addressed in this chapter. The primary linkages addressed are through the C, N, S, and H2O cycles, and UV-B radiation. Carbon dioxide exchanges between land and the atmosphere, N additions and losses to and from lands and waters, early studies of SO2 in grassland ecosystem, and the effects of UV-B radiation on ecosystems have been mainstays of research described in this chapter. This research knowledge has been used in international and national climate assessments, for example the IPCC, US National Climate Assessment, and Paris Climate Accord. Likewise, the knowledge has been used to develop concepts and technologies related to sustainable agriculture, C sequestration, and food security.
The aim of this study was to establish arytenoid asymmetry as a pre-operative predictive parameter for arytenoid adduction surgery in unilateral vocal fold paralysis and thereafter identify the most predictive parameter for arytenoid adduction among the established parameters.
A retrospective comparative study was undertaken. The ‘arytenoid asymmetry angle’ formed between skewed ‘glottic’ and ‘interarytenoid’ axes (traced along the plane of closure of the membranous and cartilaginous glottis, respectively) was quantified in pre-operative laryngoscopic images of 85 adults with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent either type 1 thyroplasty (group 1) or type 1 thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction (group 2). The need for arytenoid adduction was determined intra-operatively based on subjective voice improvement and laryngoscopic results.
Arytenoid asymmetry (p < 0.0001), posterior phonatory gap (p = 0.001) and vertical level difference (p = 0.004) were significantly greater in group 2 (descending order of parameters). Arytenoid asymmetry angle showed a significant positive correlation with the latter two parameters.
Arytenoid asymmetry is the most predictive parameter for arytenoid adduction. An arytenoid asymmetry angle of more than or equal to 33.9⁰ is an indication for arytenoid adduction. This aids in pre-operative planning of arytenoid adduction.
To highlight the importance of imaging in reducing an accidental injury to the anomalous brachiocephalic trunk and its branches during tracheal surgery.
This paper reports two cases of accidental injury to the great vessels in the neck during tracheal surgery. The first incident occurred during a repeat tracheostomy, when the right common carotid artery was injured. On reviewing the computed tomography images, the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic artery was seen to the left of the midline, and the right common carotid artery was adherent just below the tracheostomy site. The second incident happened during surgery for tracheal stenosis, when there was an inadvertent injury to the main brachiocephalic trunk, which was adherent to the trachea in the lower neck region.
For airway surgeons, radiological assessment of vascular structures in relation to the trachea prior to surgery is as important as the endoluminal airway assessment for the best outcome.
Mounting evidence has implicated oxidative stress in severe psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Glutathione (GSH) is the major intracellular antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress.
To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated MDD by measuring cortical GSH in MDD patients and in matched healthy controls in vivo, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Fifteen psychotropic medication-free patients with MDD diagnosed according DSM-IV-TR criteria and 13 healthy volunteers (HV) participated in the study. A history of other axis I diagnoses or substance/alcohol abuse was exclusionary for all subjects. In vivo brain GSH levels, expressed in institutional units, were obtained from a single 3 × 3 × 2-cm3 occipital lobe voxel at 3.0 Tesla using MRS spectral editing.
Statistical comparisons revealed a 20.6% mean cortical GSH decrease (p< .003) in MDD (2.3 ± 0.4) compared to HV (2.9 ± 0.6), which remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, bmi, and smoking status. In addition, we found GSH levels to correlate negatively with depressive symptoms and with indices of emotional and functional disability across all participants.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a significant cortical GSH deficit in vivo in MDD, a finding that supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of the disorder, and suggests the viability of treatment strategies based on using synthetic GSH precursors, such as N-acetylcysteine, to spur in situ synthesis and elevation of the antioxidant and mitigate the pathogenic effects of oxidative stress.
Schizophrenia puts a significant burden on caregivers.
To explore the effects of two long-acting treatments (LAT), paliperidone palmitate 1-month and 3-month formulations on caregiver burden (CGB) in European patients with schizophrenia using the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ)
To conduct a subgroup analysis of two randomized, double-blind studies (NCT01515423 and NCT01529515).
Caregivers (≥ 1 h of contact/week with the patients) were offered to complete the IEQ (31 items, each scoring: 0–4; total score: sum of 27 items [0–108]).
Among 756 European caregivers (53% parents, 18% spouse/partner or girl/boyfriend, 10% sister/brother), 60% reported a CGB of ≥ 32 hours/week at open-label baseline (BL-OL). CGB reduced significantly for patients with both BL-OL and at least one double-blind IEQ sum-score (n = 433): mean improvement [SD] (9.9 [12.66], P < 0.001) from BL-OL (mean [SD] 26.0 [13.30]) to study end (16.0 [10.47]); (reduction in burden associated with worrying [2.9 points] and urging [4.3 points]). CGB significantly improved in patients on prior oral antipsychotics post-switching to LAT with less leisure days impacted and less hours spent in caregiving (P < 0.001). There was significant relationship between improvements and relapse status, patient age (P < 0.001), age at diagnosis (P < 0.002), and number of prior psychiatric hospitalizations in the last 24 months (P < 0.05). Prior use of long-acting antipsychotics other than paliperidone palmitate 1-month or 3-month formulations at BL-OL and duration of prior psychiatric hospitalizations in the last 24 months did not show significant effect on improvements.
Switching from an oral antipsychotic to an LAT can provide a meaningful and significant improvement in caregiver burden.
Disclosure of interest
All authors are employees of Janssen Research & Development, LLC and hold stocks in the company.
Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervening glacial phases, however, grasslands were replaced with arid and hyperarid deserts. These millennial-scale climatic fluctuations have subjected bones and fossils to a dramatic suite of environmental conditions, affecting their fossilisation and preservation. Yet, as relatively few palaeontological assemblages have been reported from the Pleistocene of Arabia, our understanding of the preservational pathways that skeletal elements can take in these types of environments is lacking. Here, we report the first widespread taxonomic and taphonomic assessment of Arabian fossil deposits. Novel fossil fauna are described and overall the fauna are consistent with a well-watered semiarid grassland environment. Likewise, the taphonomic results suggest that bones were deposited under more humid conditions than present in the region today. However, fossils often exhibit significant attrition, obscuring and fragmenting most finds. These are likely tied to wind abrasion, insolation, and salt weathering following fossilisation and exhumation, processes particularly prevalent in desert environments.
We present the current status of a scalable computing framework to address the need of the multidisciplinary effort to study chemical dynamics. Specifically, we are enabling scientists to process and store experimental data, run large-scale computationally expensive high-fidelity physical simulations, and analyze these results using state-of-the-art data analytics, machine learning, and uncertainty quantification methods using heterogeneous computing resources. We present the results of this framework on a single metadata-driven workflow to accelerate an additive manufacturing use-case.
To describe the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions in patients with known viral respiratory infections (VRIs) diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 3 emergency departments (EDs) and to identify patient characteristics that influence the prescribing of antibiotics by ED physicians despite PCR confirmation of viral cause.
Retrospective, observational analysis of patients with PCR-diagnosed VRI discharged from 3 acute-care hospital EDs within 1 health system.
In total, 323 patients were discharged from the ED with a VRI diagnosis, of whom 68 were prescribed antibiotics (21.1%). These patients were older (median, 59.5 vs 43 years; P = .04), experienced symptoms longer (median, 4 vs 2 days; P = .002), were more likely to have received antibiotics in the preceding 7 days (27.9% vs 9.8%; P < .001), and had higher proportions of abnormal chest X-rays (64.5% vs 28.4%; P < .001). Patients were more likely to receive antibiotics for a diagnosis of pneumonia (39.7% vs 1.6%; P < .001) or otitis media (7.4% vs 0.4%; P = .002), and were less likely with diagnosis of upper respiratory infection (2.9% vs 13.7%; P = .02) or influenza (20.6% vs 44.3%; P < .001).
Despite a diagnosis of VRI, one-fifth of ED patients were prescribed antibiotics. Patient characteristics including age, duration of symptoms, abnormal chest X-rays, and specific diagnosis may increase provider concern for concurrent bacterial infections. Opportunities exist for antimicrobial stewardship strategies to incorporate rapid diagnostics in promoting judicious antibiotic usage in the ED.
Reductions in insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cows develop as a means to support lactation; however, excessive mobilization of fatty acids (FA) increases the risk for peripartal metabolic disorders. Our objectives were to investigate the effect of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on systemic glucose and insulin tolerance, and to compare direct and indirect measurements of insulin sensitivity in peripartal lean and overweight dairy cows. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into two groups according to their BCS at day −28 prepartum: lean (n = 7; BCS ≤ 3.0) or overweight; (n = 7; BCS ≥ 4.0). Liver biopsies were performed on day −27, −14 and 4, relative to expected parturition. Intravenous insulin or glucose tolerances tests were performed following each liver biopsy. Relative to lean cows, overweight cows exhibited lower dry matter intake, lost more BCS and displayed increased plasma FA and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and elevated liver lipid content during peripartum. Glucose clearance rate was lower for all cows postpartum. Prepartum BCS had minimal effects on insulin and glucose tolerance; however, the ability of the cow to restore blood glucose levels following an insulin challenge was suppressed by increased BCS. Glucose-dependent parameters of insulin and glucose tolerance were not correlated with surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity. We conclude that prepartum BCS had minimal effect on systemic insulin sensitivity following parturition. The observed inconsistency between surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity and direct measurements of insulin and glucose tolerance adds support to growing concerns regarding their usefulness as tools to estimate systemic insulin action in periparturient cows.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
To validate a newly introduced cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty technique by statistically comparing it with the morphological and audiological outcomes of traditional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty.
A retrospective comparative study was conducted on 115 patients who underwent tympanoplasty during 2013 and 2015. Fifty-eight patients underwent temporalis fascia tympanoplasty and 57 underwent cartilage rim augmented fascia tympanoplasty.
In the cartilage fascia group, graft healing was achieved in 94.7 per cent of cases; in the temporalis fascia group, the graft take-up rate was 70 per cent. In those with a normal ossicular chain, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 92.6 per cent of cartilage fascia group cases and in 69.7 per cent of the temporalis fascia group cases, which was a statistically significant difference. Among the defective ossicular chain cases, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 76.9 per cent in the cartilage fascia group, as against 57.1 per cent in the temporalis fascia group.
Cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty has a definite advantage over the temporalis fascia technique in terms of superior graft take up and statistically significant hearing gain in those with normal ossicular mobility.
Inflammation of the mammary gland following bacterial infection, commonly known as mastitis, affects all mammalian species. Although the aetiology and epidemiology of mastitis in the dairy cow are well described, the genetic factors mediating resistance to mammary gland infection are not well known, due in part to the difficulty in obtaining robust phenotypic information from sufficiently large numbers of individuals. To address this problem, an experimental mammary gland infection experiment was undertaken, using a Friesian-Jersey cross breed F2 herd. A total of 604 animals received an intramammary infusion of Streptococcus uberis in one gland, and the clinical response over 13 milkings was used for linkage mapping and genome-wide association analysis. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) was detected on bovine chromosome 11 for clinical mastitis status using micro-satellite and Affymetrix 10 K SNP markers, and then exome and genome sequence data used from the six F1 sires of the experimental animals to examine this region in more detail. A total of 485 sequence variants were typed in the QTL interval, and association mapping using these and an additional 37 986 genome-wide markers from the Illumina SNP50 bovine SNP panel revealed association with markers encompassing the interleukin-1 gene cluster locus. This study highlights a region on bovine chromosome 11, consistent with earlier studies, as conferring resistance to experimentally induced mammary gland infection, and newly prioritises the IL1 gene cluster for further analysis in genetic resistance to mastitis.
Both direct observations and reconstructions from various datasets, suggest that conditions were radically different during the Maunder Minimum (MM) than during the space era. Using an MHD model, we develop a set of feasible solutions to infer the properties of the solar wind during this interval. Additionally, we use these results to drive a global magnetospheric model. Finally, using the 2008/2009 solar minimum as an upper limit for MM conditions, we use results from the International Reference Ionosphere (ILI) model to speculate on the state of the ionosphere. The results describe interplanetary, magnetospheric, and ionospheric conditions that were substantially different than today. For example: (1) the solar wind density and magnetic field strength were an order of magnitude lower; (2) the Earth’s magnetopause and shock standoff distances were a factor of two larger; and (3) the maximum electron density in the ionosphere was substantially lower.
Reconstructions of long-term solar variability underpin our understanding of the solar dynamo, potential tropospheric climate implications and future space weather scenarios. Prior to direct spacecraft measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) and solar wind, accurate annual reconstructions are possible using geomagnetic and sunspot records. On longer timescales, information about the HMF can be extracted from cosmogenic radionuclide records, particularly 14C in ancient trees and 10Be in ice sheets. These proxies, and what they reveal about the HMF and solar wind, are briefly reviewed here.
Most major modern families of Hymenoptera were established in the Mesozoic, but the diversifications within ecologically key trophic guilds and lineages that significantly influence the character of modern terrestrial ecosystems – bees (Apiformes), ants (Formicidae), social Vespidae, parasitoids (Ichneumonidae), and phytophagous Tenthredinoidea – were previously known to occur mostly in the middle to late Eocene. We find these changes earlier, seen here in the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands fossil deposits of western North America. Some of these may have occurred even earlier, but have been obscured by taphonomic processes. We provide an overview of the Okanagan Highlands Hymenoptera to family level and in some cases below that, with a minimum of 25 named families and at least 30 when those tentatively assigned or distinct at family level, but not named are included. Some are poorly known as fossils (Trigonalidae, Siricidae, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae), and some represent the oldest confirmed occurrences (Trigonalidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae sensu stricto, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae, and possibly Halictidae). Some taxa previously thought to be relictual or extinct by the end of the Cretaceous (Angarosphecidae, Archaeoscoliinae, some Diapriidae) are present and sometimes abundant in the early Eocene. Living relatives of some taxa are now present in different climate regimes or on different continents.
To validate a novel photographic portion guide as a tool to estimate consumption of fish and shrimp. Application of such a validated tool can facilitate accurate individual and community seafood intake assessments and provide meaningful data relative to health benefits and hazard assessment, particularly in response to environmental contamination and disasters.
A photographic fish and shrimp portion guide presenting a stepped range of cooked portion sizes was used by participants to estimate their typical portion sizes. Participants selected their typical portion size from the photographic guide and also from a selection of freshly cooked reference meals. Photographic portions selections were compared with plated reference portions for each participant.
Academic sensory testing laboratory in the USA.
Separate groups of adults (25–64 years) contributed to fish (n 54) and shrimp (n 53) portion size comparison studies.
In the fish study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·59 (sd 2·65) oz (186·8 (sd 75·1) g)) and reference plate selections (7·04 (sd 2·63) oz (199·6 (sd 74·6) g); P=0·384). Similarly in the shrimp study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·88 (sd 3·40) oz (195·0 (sd 96·4) g)) and reference plate selections (6·06 (sd 2·65) oz (171·8 (sd 75·1) g); P=0·159). Photographic portions predicted plated reference portions for both fish and shrimp based on linear regression (P<0·001). Bland–Altman plot analyses showed good agreement between the two methods, <1 oz (<28·3 g) bias, in both fish and shrimp studies.
This validated photographic seafood portion guide provides a utilitarian tool for accurately assessing fish and shrimp intake in a community setting.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.