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Against a backdrop of increasing research, clinical and taxonomic attention in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), evidence suggests a link between NSSI and eating disorders (ED). The frequency estimates of NSSI in ED vary widely. Little is known about the sources of this variation, and no meta-analysis has quantified the association between ED and NSSI.
Using random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression analyses, and 1816–6466 unique participants with various ED, we estimated the weighted average percentage of individuals with ED, those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and those with bulimia nervosa (BN) who are reported to have a lifetime history of NSSI across studies. We further examined predictors of NSSI in ED.
The weighted average percentage of patients with a lifetime history of NSSI was 27.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.8–31.0%] for ED, 21.8% (95% CI 18.5–25.6%) for AN, and 32.7% (95% CI 26.9–39.1%) for BN. The difference between BN and AN was statistically significant [odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% CI 1.14–2.77, p = 0.013]. The odds of NSSI increased by 24% for every 10% increase in the percentage of participants with histories of suicide attempts (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04–1.48, p = 0.020) and decreased by 26% for every 10% increase in the percentage of participants with histories of substance abuse (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58–0.95, p = 0.023).
In the specific context of ED, NSSI is highly prevalent and correlates positively with attempted suicide, urging for NSSI-focused treatments. A novel finding is that NSSI is potentially antagonized by substance abuse.
Considering the substantial systematic longevity risk threatening annuity providers’ solvency, indexing benefits on actual mortality improvements appears to be an efficient risk management tool, as discussed in Denuit et al. (2011) and Richter and Weber (2011). Whereas these papers consider indexing annuity payments, the present work suggests that the length of the deferment period could also be subject to revision, providing longevity-contingent deferred life annuities.
Direct observations are presented of the micromechanical events that contribute to the localization of deformation within brittle compressive shear faults. The observations were made on ice and show that faults are composed of both wing cracks and splay cracks. The latter features initiate from one side of inclined parent cracks and create sets of slender microcolumns fixed on one end and free on the other. It is proposed that the fault-triggering mechanism is the breaking of near-surface microcolumns owing to frictional sliding across their free ends. A lower-bound estimate of the compressive strength of ice is found to be in order of magnitude agreement with experiment.
This paper aims to provide accurate approximations for the quantiles of the conditional expected present value of the payments made by the annuity provider, given the future path of the Lee-Carter time index. Conditional cohort and period life expectancies are also considered. The paper also addresses some associated simulation issues, which, hitherto, have been unresolved.
We investigate the implications of a dual approach to the graduation of the force of mortality based on the modelling of the exposures as gamma random variables, as opposed to the modelling of the numbers of deaths as Poisson random variables.
Deaths and exposures by individual calendar year and individual years of age for the U.K. male assured lives experience over the recent past are comprehensively modelled using generalised linear modelling techniques. Our principal objective is to develop a model which incorporates both the age variation in mortality and the underlying time trends in the mortality rates. The approach has considerable advantages over ad hoc methods of fitting parametric models to represent the age variation in mortality and then separately attempting to represent the time trends in the parameters of these models. The approach advocated can be seen as an extension to the conventional parametric graduation techniques used by the CMI Bureau to represent trends in mortality.
Data have been generously supplied by the Faculty of Actuaries Withdrawals Research Group. These data cover the lapse or withdrawal experience for the calendar year 1976 of seven Scottish life offices. An extensive analysis has been published by the Research Group although, for reasons we shall discuss later, we believe that the approach outlined here is better able to describe the structure of the data than the detailed (and somewhat pedestrian) tabulations of this earlier paper.
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