Ghumusar is an inadequately studied goat population of western region of Ganjam district of Orissa state. Sporadic information is available on its morphological traits but no information is found on its genetic variability. Therefore, an attempt was made to measure the genetic diversity in Ghumusar goat population using 25 microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA isolated from blood samples drawn at random from 50 individuals were utilized for this study. The average number of observed allele was 9.80 and the effective average number of allele was 4.28. The polymorphic information contents ranged from 0.53 to 0.91. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.73 and 0.71, respectively. The values of Nei's gene diversity in Ghumusar goat population ranged from 0.11 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.69. The overall Fis value was observed to be 0.002, which is not significantly different from zero; hence indicating no global deficit of heterozygotes. Under sign test, expected number of loci with heterozygosity excess (Hee) was 14.88, 14.79 and 14.74 for the infinite allele model (IAM), stepwise mutation model (SMM) and two-phased model (TPM) of mutation, respectively. The observed number of loci with heterozygotic excess (He) was 14, 8 and 2 under these three models, respectively. Under all the three models, He was less than Hee and this deviation was significant under SMM and TPM models. There was no serious genetic reduction in effective population size as indicated by L-shaped curve in Ghumusar goat population.