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In search of a suitable resource conservation technology under pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop productivity and water-use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated during a 3-year study. The treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT) with planting on permanent narrow beds (PNB), PNB with residue (PNB + R), ZT with planting on permanent broad beds (PBB) and PBB + R. The PBB + R plots had higher pigeonpea grain yield than the CT plots in all 3 years. However, wheat grain yields under all plots were similar in all years except for PBB + R plots in the second year, which had higher wheat yield than CT plots. The contrast analysis showed that pigeonpea grain yield of CA plots was significantly higher than CT plots in the first year. However, both pigeonpea and wheat grain yields during the last 2 years under CA and CT plots were similar. The PBB + R plots had higher system WUE than the CT plots in the second and third years. Plots under CA had significantly higher WUE and significantly lower water use than CT plots in these years. The PBB + R plots had higher WUE than PNB + R and PNB plots. Also, the PBB plots had higher WUE than PNB in the second and third years, despite similar water use. The interactions of bed width and residue management for all parameters in the second and third years were not significant. Those positive impacts under PBB + R plots over CT plots were perceived to be due to no tillage and significantly higher amount of estimated residue retention. Thus, both PBB and PBB + R technologies would be very useful under a pigeonpea–wheat cropping system in this region.
A field experiment was carried out at the farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to quantify the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and different levels of N fertiliser application on nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil under maize. The experiment included five treatments: 60 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 160 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open top chambers (OTC) and 120 kg N ha−1 under elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) in the OTC. Peaks of N2O flux were observed after every dose of N application. Cumulative N2O emission was 13% lower under ambient CO2 as compared to the elevated CO2 concentrations. There was an increase in CO2 emissions with application of N from 60 kg ha−1 to 160 kg ha−1. Higher yield and root biomass was observed under higher N treatment (160 kg N ha−1). There was no significant increase in maize yield under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2. The carbon emitted was more than the carbon fixed under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2 levels. The carbon efficiency ratio (C fixed/C emitted) was highest in ambient CO2 treatment in the OTC.
Mayank S. Pathak, The Parkinson and Movement Disorder Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA, USA,
Allison Brashear, Department of Neurology, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome produced by conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or cerebral palsy that affect upper motor neurons or their efferent pathways in the brain or spinal cord. It is characterized by increased muscle tone, exaggerated tendon reflexes, repetitive stretch reflex discharges (clonus) and released flexor reflexes (great toe extension; flexion at the ankle, knee and hip) (Lance, 1981). Late sequelae may include contracture, pain, fibrosis and muscle atrophy.
Chemodenervation by intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can reduce spastic muscle tone (usually measured by the Ashworth Scale or Modified Ashworth Scale), normalize limb posture, ameliorate pain, modestly improve motor function (measured by performance of standardized motor tasks or activities of daily living) and prevent contractures. Such efficacy is best documented for the upper limbs (Bhakta et al., 2000; Sheean, 2001; Brashear et al., 2002; Childers et al., 2004; Suputtitada and Suwanwela, 2005; Bergfeldt et al., 2006; Kaňovský et al., 2009; Barnes et al., 2010; Ryuji et al., 2010a; Shaw et al., 2011). In the lower limbs, efficacy is more limited, although rectification of plantar-flexed foot posture is documented (Baricich et al., 2008), and there is a modicum of evidence for amelioration of gait (Bleyenheuft et al., 2009; Ryuji et al., 2010b). In 2008, a large evidence-based review concluded that BoNT should be offered for treatment of spasticity in adults, with level A evidence for improvement of muscle tone and level B for improvement of motor function (Simpson et al., 2008; Elia et al., 2009).
Radio frequency (RF) and microwave amplifier research has been largely focused on solid-state technology in recent years. This paper presents design and performance characterization of a 50-kW modular solid-state amplifier, operating at 505.8 MHz. It includes architecture selection and design procedures based on circuit and EM simulations for its building blocks like solid-state amplifier modules, combiners, dividers, and directional couplers. Key performance objectives such as efficiency, return loss, and amplitude/phase imbalance are discussed for this amplifier for real-time operation. This amplifier is serving as the state-of-the-art RF source in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. Characterization on component level as well as system level of this amplifier serves useful data for RF designers working in communication and particle accelerator fields.
Ultradistributions of compact support are represented as the boundary values of Cauchy and Poisson integrals corresponding to tubular radial domains Tc' =ℝn + iC', C'⊂⊂C, where C is an open, connected, convex cone. The Cauchy integral of is shown to be an analytic function in TC' which satisfies a certain boundedness condition. Analytic functions which satisfy a specified growth condition in TC' have a distributional boundary value which can be used to determine an distribution.
Swift heavy ion irradiation is one of the most versatile techniques to alter and monitor the properties of materials in general and at nanoscale in particular. The materials modification can be controlled by a suitable choice of ion beam parameters such as ion species, fluence and incident energy. It is also possible to choose these ion beam parameters in such a way that ion beam irradiation can cause annealing of defects or creation of defects at a particular depth. Here, we present a review of our work on swift heavy ion induced modifications of III-V semiconductor heterostructures and multi-quantum wells in addition to synthesis of Ge nanocrystals using atom beam co-sputtering, RF magnetron sputtering followed by RTA, swift heavy ion irradiation, respectively. We also present the growth of GeO2 nanocrystals by microwave annealing. These samples were studied by using XRD, Raman, PL, RBS and TEM. The observed results and their explanation using possible mechanisms are discussed in detail.
We report here swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced effects on structural and surface properties of III-nitrides. Tensile strained Al(1-x)InxN/GaN Hetero-Structures (HS) were realized using Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Despotion (MOCVD) technique with indium composition as 12%. Ion species and energies are chosen such that electronic energy deposition rates differ significantly in Al(1-x)InxN and are essential for understanding the ion beam interactions at the interfaces. Thus the samples were irradiated with 80 MeV Ni6+ and 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at varied fluence (1×1012 and 3 ×1012 ions/cm2) to alter the structural properties. Under this energy regime, the structural changes in Al(1-x)InxN would occur due to the intense ultrafast excitations of electrons along the ion path. We employed different characterization techniques like High Resolution X- ray Diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (RBS) for composition, thickness and strain. HRXRD and RBS experimental spectra have been fitted with Philip’s epitaxy SIMNRA code, which yields thickness and composition from compound semiconductors. The surface morphology of pristine and irradiated samples is studied and compared by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix have been synthesized on Si substrate by co-sputtering of SiO2 and Ge using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The as-deposited films were subjected to microwave annealing at 800 and 9000C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the Ge composition and film thickness. The structural characterization was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. XRD measurements confirmed the formation of Ge nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of Ge-Ge vibrational mode around 299 cm−1, which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Variation of nanocrystal size with annealing temperature has been discussed. Advantages of microwave annealing are explained in detail.
Multi quantum wells of InGaAs/InP grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been irradiated using swift heavy ions. Irradiation has been performed using 150MeV Ag and 200MeV Au ions. Both as-grown and irradiated samples were subjected to rapid thermal annealing at 500 and 7000C for 60s. As-grown, irradiated and annealed samples were subjected to high resolution x-ray diffraction studies. Both symmetric and asymmetric scans were analyzed. The as-grown and Ag ion irradiated samples show sharp and highly ordered satellite peaks whereas, the Au ion irradiated samples show broad and low intense peaks. The higher order satellite peaks of the annealed samples vanished with increase of annealing temperature from 500 to 7000C, indicating mixing induced interfacial disorder. Annealing of irradiated samples show higher mixing and disorder and no higher order satellite peaks were observed. Negligible strain was observed after high temperature annealing of as grown samples. Strain values calculated from the X-ray studies indicate that the irradiated samples have higher strain which has been reduced upon annealing. This indicates that the annealing induced mixing occurs maintaining the lattice parameter close to that of the substrate. The effect of electronic energy loss for interface mixing has been discussed in detail. The role of incident ion fluence in combination with the electronic energy loss will also be discussed in detail. The results have been compared with the literature and discussed in detail.
High fluences of low energy Ge+ ions were implanted into Si matrix. We have also deposited Ge and SiO2 composite films by using the Atom beam sputtering (ABS). The as implanted/as-deposited films were irradiated by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) with various energies and fluences. These pristine and irradiated samples were subsequently characterized by XRD and Raman to understand the crystallization behavior. Raman studies of the films indicate the formation of Ge crystallites as a result of SHI irradiation. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction results also confirm the presence of Ge crystallites in the irradiated samples. Moreover, the crystalline nature of Ge improves with an increase in fluence. Rutherford back scattering was used to quantify the concentration of Ge in SiO2 matrix and the film thickness. These detailed results have been discussed and compared with the ones available in literature. The basic mechanism for crystallization induced by SHI in these films will be presented.
Epitaxial AlGaN/GaN layers grown by MBE on SiC substrates were irradiated with 150 MeV Ag ions at a fluence of 5×1012 ions/cm2. AlGaN/GaN MQWs were grown on Sapphire substrate by MOCVD and irradiated with 200 MeV Au8+ ions at a fluence of 5×1011 ions/cm2 . These samples were used to study the effects of SHI on optical properties of AlGaN/GaN based nano structures. RBS/Channelling strain measurements were carried out at off normal axis of irradiated and unirradiated samples. In as grown samples, AlGaN layer is partially relaxed with a small compressive strain. After irradiation this compressive strain increases by 0.22% in AlGaN layer. Incident ion energy dependence of dechannelling parameter shows E1/2 dependence, which corresponds to the dislocations. Defect densities were calculated from the E1/2 graph. As a result of irradiation defect density increased on both GaN and AlGaN layer. Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN MQWs before and after irradiation have been analyzed using PL. This study shows that SHI increase the confinement effects in the MQWs and intensity of the active layer of the MQWs luminescence is increased by one order. This may be due to the induced strain in GaN and AlGaN layers. Some unwanted yellow luminescence has also been introduced by the SHI possibly due the point defects or defect luminescence from the induced dislocations in GaN bulk epitaxial layers. In this study, we present some new results concerning high energy irradiation on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures and MQWs characterized by RBS/Channelling and PL.
This paper examines the trends in utilization of five indicators of reproductive and child health services, namely, childhood immunization, medical assistance at delivery, antenatal care, contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception, by wealth index of the household in India and two disparate states, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. The data from three rounds of the National Family and Health Survey conducted during 1992–2005 are analysed. The wealth index is computed using principal component derived weights from a set of consumer durables, land size, housing quality and water and sanitation facilities of the household, and classified into quintiles for all three rounds. Bivariate analyses, rich–poor ratio and concentration index are used to understand the trends in utilization of, and inequality in, reproductive and child health services. The results indicate huge disparities in utilization of these services, largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Utilization of basic childhood immunization among the poorest and the poor stagnated in India, as well as in both states, during 1998–2005 compared with 1992–1998. The use of maternal care services such as medical assistance at delivery and antenatal care remained at a low level among the poor over this period. However, contraceptive use increased relatively faster among the poor, even with higher unmet need. Of all these services, the inequality in medical assistance at delivery is consistently large, while that of contraceptive use is small. The state-level differences in service coverage by wealth quintiles over time are large.
Spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome produced by conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy that affect upper motor neurons or their efferent pathways in the brain or spinal cord. It is characterized by increased muscle tone, exaggerated tendon reflexes, repetitive stretch reflex discharges (clonus), and released flexor reflexes (great toe extension; flexion at the ankle, knee, and hip) (Lance, 1981). Late sequelae may include contracture, pain, fibrosis, and muscle atrophy. Chemodenervation by intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin can reduce spastic muscle tone, normalize limb posture, ameliorate pain, and may improve motor function and prevent contractures.
Reduction of muscle tone, as measured by the Ashworth scale and by changes in range of motion after treatment with botulinum toxin, is best documented in the upper limbs (Brashear et al., 2002; Childers et al., 2004; Suputtitada & Suwanwela, 2005). In the lower limbs, muscle tone improvements are modest, with best results achieved from treatment below the knee.
Improvement of motor function has been noted in some studies, using measures such as the Barthel index, dressing, analyses of gait parameters such as walking speed, and the performance of other standardized tasks (Sheean, 2001; Brashear et al., 2002). In summary, motor function may be improved in a select subgroup of patients who retain selective motor control and some degree of dexterity in important distal muscles, require injection of relatively few target muscles, and especially if combined with other interventions such as physical therapy (Bhakta et al., 2000; Sheean, 2001).
Data from 27 feeding trials conducted on growing pigs from different research institutes across India were subjected to mixed model regression analysis to derive requirements of digestible energy (DE), crude protein (CP) and essential amino acids for maintenance and body weight gains. The ranges of maintenance requirements were determined to be: DE 516 to 702 kJ/kg M0.75, CP 6.98 to 11.62, lysine 0.431 to 0.664, methionine 0.265 to 0.458, methionine + cystine 0.327 to 0.466, cystine 0.055 to 0.184, threonine 0.205 to 0.511, arginine 0.377 to 1.21, isoleucine 0.241 to 0.775, leucine 0.604 to 1.54, phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.496 to 1.33, tryptophan 0.078 to 0.213, and valine 0.330 to 0.892 g/kg M0.75, respectively for different body weight ranges. The corresponding requirements for 1 g gain in body weight were: DE 28.6 to 38.6 kJ, CP 0.27 to 0.44 g, lysine 0.0071 to 0.0126 g, methionine 0.0047 to 0.0133 g, methionine + cystine 0.0151 to 0.0261 g, cystine 0.0043 to 0.0094 g, threonine 0.0052 to 0.0165 g, arginine 0.0045 to 0.0301 g, isoleucine 0.0023 to 0.0198 g, leucine 0.0150 to 0.0447 g, phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.0091 to 0.0382 g, tryptophan 0.0005 to 0.0044 g, and valine 0.0061 to 0.0222 g. Regression equations had high R2 values (ranging from 0.50 to 0.99 for different estimates), low coefficients of variation, low variance of error estimates and the coefficients were highly significant (P < 0.001). Regressed values were used to develop feeding standards. As the new standards derived in the present study are based on a thorough analysis of a larger database than previous Indian standards, the new feeding standard seems to be more appropriate for India and other tropical countries.
The continuous wavelet transform is studied on certain Gel'fand–Shilov spaces of type S. It is shown that, for wavelets belonging to the one type of S-space defined on R, the wavelet transform is a continuous linear map of the other type of the S-space into a space of the same type (latter type) defined on R × R+. The wavelet transforms of certain ultradifferentiable functions are also investigated.
The pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is commonly used for head and neck reconstruction especially in impoverished nations. PMMC is a sturdy pedicled flap with relatively fewer complications, the learning curve is short and no specialized training in microvascular surgery is needed in order to use this flap. In a defect that requires a large skin and mucosal lining the authors routinely use either a bi-paddle PMMC or a combination of PMMC (for the mucosal lining) and a delto-pectoral flap (for the skin defect). It is indisputable that free tissue transfer is a better way of reconstruction for the majority of most such defects. Unfortunately, not all patients can be offered this form of reconstruction due to the cost, time, expertise and infrastructural constraints in high volume centres such as ours. Bi-paddling of PMMC is hazardous in obese males and most female patients. In such patients the skin defect is reconstructed usually by the delto-pectoral (DP) flap but this, for obvious reasons, is less welcomed by the patients. The authors suggest a technique wherein mucosal lining is created by the myofascial lining (inner surface) of the flap and the skin defect is reconstructed by the skin paddle of the single paddle PMMC. It should be considered wherever a DP flap is unacceptable, or bi-paddling or free tissue transfer is not possible.
Objectives: Most studies typically measure health preferences excluding health states perceived as worse than death. The objective of this study is to test the impact of including (versus excluding) health states perceived to be worse than death on utility measurementusing standard gamble (SG) and visual analogue scale (VAS) methods.
Methods: By means of a cross-sectional descriptive study design, women were asked to rate the utility of three hypothetical breast cancer health states: cure, treatment, and recurrence (n=119). Preference weights were estimated, allowing for negative utilities with death (perfect health) scaled at zero (1.0).
Results: Unpaired t-test analysis showed significantly greater change in SG and VAS weights for individuals perceiving cancer recurrence as worse than death than those perceiving death as least desirable state. Excluding negative utilities from the study resulted in significantly smaller changes in utility. Study results show that preference elicitation methods can be successfully adapted to acquire negative utilities.
Conclusions: Changes in utility were greater when negative preferences were permitted. Addressing negative preference scores could significantly affect quality adjusted life year estimates in economic analyses.