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A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
This paper presents a new technique for the enhancement of axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of a circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a single feeding. To enhance the AR bandwidth, adjacent 3-dB AR passbands are merged by inserting the notches and conductive coating in the dielectric resonator. The dimensions of the notches and conductive coating are selected in such manner that impedance bandwidth remains approximately unchanged. The antenna provides the measured AR and impedance bandwidths of 55.22% and 66.45%, respectively.
Using the data obtained from Kepler satellite, we have analyzed an F-type ultra-fast rotator KIC 6791060. We derive a rotational period of 0.34365±0.00004 d. Multiple periodicity with a period separation of ~0.00016 d was detected, which appears to be a result of the relative velocity between the multiple spot-groups in different stellar latitudes due to the surface differential rotation. Modeling of the surface inhomogeneities using the light curve of 3899 epochs shows the evidence of single active longitude region. The active longitude is found to drift along the longitude at a rate similar to the detected period separation of the F-type star. The surface coverage of cool spots is found to be in the range of ~0.07–0.44%. The low value of the spottedness can be interpreted probably due to the thinner convection zone on the F-type star.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
Molecular categorisation may explain the wide variation in the clinical characteristics of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
Variations in molecular markers in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in an Indian population were investigated and compared with global reports.
Variable molecular marker expression was demonstrated at the regional and global levels. A wide variation in molecular characteristics is evident. Molecular data have been reported for only 11 countries, indicating a clear geographical bias. Only 58 markers have been studied, and most are yet to be validated.
Research into the molecular epidemiology of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is still in its infancy. Although the molecular variation is not well understood, data obtained so far have prompted important research questions. Hence, multicentre collaborative molecular studies are needed to establish the aetiopathogenesis and establish molecular surrogates for clinical characteristics.
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, <6 mm) were collected and matured in vitro either in the presence of GDF9 or BMP15, or both, or with the denuded oocytes (DOs) as a source of native OSFs. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LF-derived than SF-derived oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the DOs and the combination groups compared with the control, GDF9 alone and BMP15 alone groups, both in LF-derived and SF-derived oocytes, although the cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between DOs and combination groups. Relative mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher (P > 0.05) expression of the cumulus cell marker genes EGFR, HAS2, and CD44 in LF-derived than SF-derived oocyte; the expression of these markers was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in DOs and combination groups, irrespective of the follicle size. These results suggested that LF-derived oocytes have a higher developmental competence than SF-derived oocytes and that supplementation of GDF9 and BMP15 modulates the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes by increasing the relative abundance of cumulus-enabling factors and thereby increasing cleavage and the quality of blastocyst production.
The solar corona supports a variety of waves generated by convective upwelling motion in the photosphere. In order to explain the observed coronal temperature profile, resonant absorption of MHD waves by coronal plasma (Goossens et al, 1995) has been proposed as a possible candidate. The physical picture is that the footpoint motion in the photosphere constantly stirs the coronal plasma leading to the MHD wave generation which is then resonantly absorbed producing the enhanced heating of the corona. Here we consider the problem of MHD wave propagation in a twisted solar corona.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.
Background: Premature occlusion of draining veins during surgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVM’s) can lead to disastrous consequences. Interestingly, some authors have recently demonstrated effective endovascular trans-venous Onyx embolization of select AVM’s. Methods: Case report Results: A 71-year old female presented to the hospital with sudden onset right sided weakness and sensory change. Investigations revealed right fronto-parietal ICH secondary to a parasagittal Rolandic AVM with arterial supply from ACA and MCA branches. Drainage occurs via a single large cortical vein to the superior sagittal sinus. Partial intra-arterial embolization was initially performed. Surgical resection of the remaining nidus was deemed high risk. A craniotomy was performed and the large cortical draining vein was cannulated with a 4Fr micro-puncture system under direct visualization. A DMSO compatible micro-catheter was navigated retrograde close to the nidus. The draining vein was occluded using a surgical clip, and Onyx was immediately injected. Retrograde complete embolization of the AVM was observed. A total of 3ml of Onyx was injected, and the catheter was left in-situ. Patient was discharge 2 weeks later with minimal deficits. Conclusions: Open trans-venous embolization is a viable option for select AVM’s with a single draining vein and are not favorable candidates for trans-arterial embolization, surgery or radiation.
Background: Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality (SCIWORA) is underreported and poorly recognized in adults. This entity is an important subtype of spinal cord injury (SCI) with relatively good outcomes. Despite this, few studies have been performed to determine specific imaging-related prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective review of adult patients with cervical SCI admitted to two University hospitals from January 2000 to December 2010 was performed. Only patients with an MRI performed within 72 hours after trauma were included. All patients with bony injury or traumatic malalignment were excluded. Data gathered on the remaining patients included demographics, mechanism of injury, severity of SCI, long-term patient outcome, improvement in neurological condition and MRI results. Results: 49 patients selected. Patients with extramedullary hemorrhage showed worse neurological status at initial examination. Disruption of either the anterior longitudinal ligament or ligamentum flavum was associated with worse outcomes at initial examination and at 1-year follow up. Lesion length was also significantly associated with outcomes at 1 year evaluation and initial evaluation. Conclusions: Early MRI has an important prognostic value in patients suffering SCIWORA. Lesion length is a powerful predictor of outcome. Soft tissue injury and spinal cord changes play a role in the severity of injury as well as the ability to recover.
We present a multi-wavelength study of a nearby radio loud elliptical galaxy NGC 708, selected from the Bologna B2 sample of radio galaxies. We obtained optical broad band and narrow images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India). We supplement the multi-wavelength coverage of the observation by using X-ray data from Chandra, infrared data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE and optical image from DSS and HST. In order to investigate properties of interstellar medium, we have generated unsharp-masked, color, residual, quotient, dust extinction, Hα emission maps. From the derived maps it is evident that cool gas, dust, warm ionized Hα and hot X-ray gas are spatially associated with each other. We investigate the inner and outer photometric and kinematic properties of the galaxy using surface brightness profiles. From X-ray 2d beta model, unsharp masking, surface brightness profiles techniques, it is evident that pair of X-ray cavities are present in this system and which are ~5.6 Kpc away from the central X-ray source.
The role of ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNB) in altering the frequency dependence of the capacitance of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films has been investigated. A cost effective spin coating deposition process was used to integrate the oxide heterostructures onto silicon substrates. This study showed that the frequency stability of the CCTO/LNB structure was much improved when the crystallization conditions and physical dimension of each layer were optimized. To integrate this structure with current silicon technology, heterostructures of CCTO and LNB thin films were fabricated on HF terminated Si using chemical solution deposition. It was found that the order of deposition of the two layers was important for the structural quality of the heterostructures with the CCTO layer followed by the LNB layer being the preferred structure. In addition to improvement of the capacitance variation with frequency, the heterostructures also provide a path to tuning the frequency of operation.
Tumour and organ microenvironments are crucial for cancer progression and metastasis. Crosstalk between multiple non-malignant cell types in the microenvironments and cancer cells promotes tumour growth and metastasis. Blood and lymphatic endothelial cells (BEC and LEC) are two of the components in the microenvironments. Tumour blood vessels (BV), comprising BEC, serve as conduits for blood supply into the tumour, and are important for tumour growth as well as haematogenous tumour dissemination. Lymphatic vessels (LV), comprising LEC, which are relatively leaky compared with BV, are essential for lymphogenous tumour dissemination. In addition to describing the conventional roles of the BV and LV, we also discuss newly emerging roles of these endothelial cells: their crosstalk with cancer cells via molecules secreted by the BEC and LEC (also called angiocrine and lymphangiocrine factors). This review suggests that BEC and LEC in various microenvironments can be orchestrators of tumour progression and proposes new mechanism-based strategies to discover new therapies to supplement conventional anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic therapies.
We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS.
We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.
Since 1997, and following our detection of the first mm afterglow, we have followed-up 70
GRBs, mainly with the IRAMś Plateau de Bure Interferometer, what can be considered as the
IRAM Legacy GRB Sample. 66 events were observed at 3 mm, with 19 of them being detected
(with another 3 having marginal detections). 32 GRBs were followed up at 1 mm, with 6 of
them being detected. Redshifts for the GRB afterglows lie in the range z = 0.03–8.3, with
measured flux densities (at 3 mm) varying between 0.25 and 60 mJy (but usually <1.5
mJy) with first observations taking place around 1–2 days after the GRB. Forward shock
emission expleains the observations with the exception of one particular case (GRB 090423
at z = 8.2) for which reverse shock emission is required.
The prevalence of Bitot's spots (BS) is often used to quantify vitamin A deficiency burden in India, both before and after mega-dose vitamin A supplementation (MVAS) programmes. However, the proportion of BS cured following this intervention is unclear in contemporary times. The current study evaluated the responsiveness of BS over 1 year to MVAS administered as per the national programme in rural India.
Prospective, community-based, 1-year follow-up of a cohort.
Rural Uttar Pradesh, India.
Two hundred and sixty-two children with BS, aged between 1 and 5 years, administered 60 mg (retinol equivalent) of vitamin A on diagnosis and after 1 month. Cure or resolution was defined if there was no discernible BS in either eye.
During 1 year, only three children were lost to follow-up. At 6 months of follow-up (MVAS at baseline and 1 month later), 51·1 (95% CI 45·3, 57·3) % were classified as cured. The corresponding figure at 1 year (additional MVAS at 6 months) was 59·9 (95% CI 54·1, 65·9) %. Among those cured at 6 months, about half and three-quarters had resolved at 2 and 3 months, respectively. Apart from male gender, there were no significant sociodemographic or clinical predictors of response.
Substantial non-response to MVAS at 6 months (49%) and 1 year (40%) of follow-up suggests that presently in the Indian subcontinent, BS is a relatively crude indicator of severe current vitamin A deficiency. For programmatic decisions and evaluation, the public health burden of vitamin A deficiency should not be assessed solely through BS.
Transparent conductive oxide less flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (TCO-less DSC) with flat and cylinder shapes are reported. The cell consists of a plastic cover, a flexible titania/dye sheet back contacted with a metal mesh sheet, a gel electrolyte sheet, and Pt layer on a Ti sheet. How to increase the efficiency were discussed. We concluded that making a titania/dye layer on a metal mesh sheet thinner and using a thinner electrolyte layer were effective for increasing the efficiency. A flat TCO-less DSC with 6.1 % efficiency and a cylindrical TCO-less DSC with 5.1 % efficiency are reported.