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The aim of the study is to contribute to the knowledge on how to develop students’ skills and capabilities required when addressing complex societal challenges in practice. In this paper we are investigating the design and implementation of a teacher training module focusing on improving teacher's ability to facilitate students’ teams learning and collaboration skills. The feedback and learning from the design and implementation of the module at universities in Botswana, Kenya and Sweden is presented and discussed in this paper.
Personality deviations and deficits in cognitive executive function are common among forensic populations. The present study on incarcerated offenders explored whether there are links between the two domains. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Neuropsychological performance, including visual working memory, attentional set-shifting and planning, were tested with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects with personality disorders scored high on harm avoidance, and low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Personality disordered offenders did not differ from the comparison groups (offenders without personality disorder, and non-criminal controls) with regard to CANTAB measures of visual working memory (delayed matching to sample, spatial working memory) and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), but they made a larger number of errors on the attentional set-shifting task. Dimensional analysis of the personality and neuropsychological variables revealed significant associations between self-directedness and cooperativeness on the one hand, and attentional set-shifting on the other. Intellectually disabled, non-criminal individuals (marginal mental retardation) who performed poorly on attentional set-shifting also scored low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. The results indicate that poor development of certain personality traits may be associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning.
To investigate the effects of atomoxetine on emotional control in adults with ADHD.
We performed an integrated analysis using individual patient data pooled from three Eli Lilly-sponsored studies. An integrated analysis can be viewed as a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data, rather than study-level summary data.
Two populations were identified: a large sample of patients with pre-treatment baseline data (the “overall population”; n = 2846); and a subset of these patients with placebo-controlled efficacy data from baseline to 10 or 12 weeks after initiating treatment (the “placebo-controlled population”; n = 829). At baseline, in the overall population, ∼50% of ADHD patients had BRIEF-AS (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self-Report) Emotional control subscores between 21 and 30, compared with ∼10% of normative subjects in the BRIEF-A manual. At endpoint, in the placebo-controlled population, atomoxetine led to a small (effect size 0.19) but significant (P = 0.013) treatment effect for emotional control. The effect size was 0.32 in patients with BRIEF-AS Emotional control scores > 20 at baseline. Improvements in emotional control correlated with improvements in the core ADHD symptoms and quality-of-life.
As deficient emotional control is associated with impaired social, educational and occupational functioning over and above that explained by core ADHD symptoms alone, improvements in emotional control may be clinically relevant.
At baseline, adults with ADHD were more likely to have impaired emotional control than normative subjects. In the adult ADHD patients, atomoxetine treatment was associated with improvements in emotional control, as well as in core ADHD symptoms and quality-of-life.
Syringe exchange has been suggested as a potential conduit to treatment for drug addiction. This has been tried in a few US trials, but never in Europe.
This study aims to assess effectiveness of a syringe exchange for referral of heroin addicts to evidence-based treatment, and to assess, in an RCT design, the contribution of a case management intervention.
Consecutive heroin addicts attending the syringe exchange of Malmö, Sweden, who are willing to participate, are referred to maintenance treatment (methadone or buprenorphine, medication based on clinical assessment and outside the study design), and randomized to either a strength-based case management intervention in order to facilitate referral, or referral-only. If eligible for treatment, patients are initiated on the maintenance treatment after 12 days. Study outcome is successful transfer from syringe exchange to treatment initiation.
The study is currently being finalized, and final results (N = 70–75) will be available before presentation at the EPA congress. Pilot data from the first phase of recruitment revealed that among 21 patients, 16 (76%) were willing to join the study. Among them, all 16 successfully showed up for medical assessment, and all but one (94%) successfully initiated medication. Preliminary follow-up until today confirm a similar picture.
Pilot data indicate that syringe exchange can be used for transfer to evidence-based treatment in heroin addiction. High rates of patients are successfully transferred to treatment, with or without a facilitating case management intervention. Final results will be presented at the congress.
Adolescence is a period of increasing demands in independent social functioning where parenting style may have an impact on social anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been suggested, however research on the gene coding for oxytocin (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors.
This study investigated interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents.
The study group consisted of 1359 adolescents. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms located near OXT, rs4813625 and rs2770378, were genotyped. Social anxiety and perceived parenting style were assessed by behavioral questionnaires.
Significant joint effects in line with the differential susceptibility framework were observed for rs4813625 with parenting style. The levels of social anxiety among C allele carriers were conditional on the level of supportive parenting style whereas homozygote G carriers’ levels of social anxiety were unaffected by supportive parenting style. The nature of the interactions between rs2770378 and parenting style was in line with the diatheses-stress model. However, associations of rs2770378 and parenting style with social anxiety became nonsignificant in nonlinear models.
The study provides preliminary evidence for a modifying effect of supportive parenting style on the relationship between rs4813625 and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents, independent of sex. The findings may be interpreted from the perspective of the social salience hypotheses of oxytocin, with rs4813625 affecting social anxiety levels along a perceived unsafe–safe social context dimension.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aims of the present study was to investigate the long-term stability of problematic gaming among adolescents, and whether problematic gaming at wave 1 (W1) were associated with problematic gambling at wave 2 (W2), three years later.
Data from the SALVe-Cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, at two waves were analyzed (W1, n = 1868; 1035 girls, W2, n = 1576; 914 girls). Adolescents self-rated the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Problematic Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and gambling frequencies. Stability of gaming using Gamma correlation, and Spearman's rho was performed. General linear model analysis (GLM), and logistic regression analysis were performed, adjusted for sex, age, and ethnicity using PGSI as dependent variable, and GAIT as independent variable, for investigating associations between problematic gaming and problematic gambling.
Problematic gaming was stable over time, γ = 0.810, P ≤ 0.001, and ρ = 0.555, P ≤ 0.001. Furthermore, problematic gaming at wave 1 increased the probability of having problematic gambling three years later, GLM F = 3.357, η2 = 0.255, P ≤ 0.001, and logistic regression OR = 5.078 (95% CI: 1.388–18.575), P = 0.014. Male sex was associated with higher probability of problematic gambling.
The present study highlights the importance of screening for problematic gambling among problematic gamers in order not to overlook possible coexisting gambling problems. The stability of problematic gaming indicates a need for development and evaluation of treatment for problematic gaming and also for coexisting gambling problems.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We re-analyzed OJ287 in 120 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA, MOJAVE) observations (at 15 GHz) covering the time span between Apr. 1995 and Apr. 2017. We find that the radio jet motion over the sky is consistent with a precessing and nutating jet source. The variability of the radio flux-density can be explained by Doppler beaming due to a change in the viewing angle. We suggest that part of the optical emission is due to synchrotron emission related to the jet radiation. We find a strikingly similar scaling for the timescales for precession and nutation as indicated for SS433 with a factor of roughly 50 times longer in OJ287.
Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
The blazar QSO B0218+357 is the first gravitationally lensed blazar detected in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray spectral range (Ahnen et al. 2016). It is gravitationally lensed by the intervening galaxy B0218+357G (zl = 0.68466 ± 0.00004, Carilli et al. 1993), which splits the blazar emission into two components, spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10-12 days delay. In July 2014 a flare from QSO B0218+357 was observed by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope, Atwood et al. 2009, Ackermann et al. 2012), and followed-up by the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, a stereoscopic system of two 17m Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located on La Palma, Canary Islands (Aleksić et al. 2016a, 2016b), during the expected time of arrival of the delayed component of the emission. MAGIC could not observe the leading image due to the Full Moon. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by optical data from KVA telescope at La Palma, and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT (Fig. 1 left). Variability in gamma-rays was of the order of one day, while no variability correlated with gamma-rays was observed at lower energies. The flux ratio of the leading to trailing image in HE gamma-rays was larger than in the flare of QSO B0218+357 observed by Fermi-LAT in 2012 (Cheung et al. 2014). Changes in the observed flux ratio can be caused by gravitational microlensing on individual stars in the host galaxy (Neronov et al. 2015), or by other compact objects like for ex. clumps in giant molecular clouds (Sitarek & Bednarek 2016).
Hippocampal volume reductions in major depression have been frequently reported. However, evidence for functional abnormalities in the same region in depression has been less clear. We investigated hippocampal function in depression using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological tasks tapping spatial memory function, with complementing measures of hippocampal volume and resting blood flow to aid interpretation.
A total of 20 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a matched group of 20 healthy individuals participated. Participants underwent multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): fMRI during a spatial memory task, and structural MRI and resting blood flow measurements of the hippocampal region using arterial spin labelling. An offline battery of neuropsychological tests, including several measures of spatial memory, was also completed.
The fMRI analysis showed significant group differences in bilateral anterior regions of the hippocampus. While control participants showed task-dependent differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, depressed patients did not. No group differences were detected with regard to hippocampal volume or resting blood flow. Patients showed reduced performance in several offline neuropsychological measures. All group differences were independent of differences in hippocampal volume and hippocampal blood flow.
Functional abnormalities of the hippocampus can be observed in patients with MDD even when the volume and resting perfusion in the same region appear normal. This suggests that changes in hippocampal function can be observed independently of structural abnormalities of the hippocampus in depression.
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14 277 women aged 35–64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.
The Åland Islands were recently ranked as Finland’s healthiest region with lower prevalence of several non-communicable diseases compared with the national mean. We have compared birth characteristics of 1697 individuals born on the Åland Islands between 1937 and 1944 with contemporaneous data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS; n=11,808). This is a first step towards a potential future analysis of Ålandic health from a life-course perspective. Mean birth weight and length were calculated for both cohorts. Birth weight was entered into a multiple linear regression model with sex, maternal age, marital status and birth year as predictors. Mean birth weight in the Åland cohort was 3499 g, 87 g (95% CI 62; 111) higher compared with the HBCS. Sex and maternal marital status were the strongest predictors of birth weight. More detailed studies are needed to explore the potential effects of this difference in average birth weight between cohorts.
The main purpose of Commission 14 is to foster interactions between the astronomical community and those conducting research to provide data vital to reducing and analysing astronomical observations and conducting theoretical investigations. One way that the Commission accomplishes this goal is through triennial compilations on recent relevant research in astronomy, atomic, molecular and solid state physics, and related fields of chemical analysis. The most recent compilations appear in the accompanying set of Commission 14 WG Triennial Reports, which were produced by members of the Working Groups and the Organizing Committee of Commission 14.
The possible role of neutral PAHs as catalysts for H2 formation in the
interstellar medium is investigated by a combined experimental and density function theory
study of the superhydrogenation of coronene (C24H12). The
calculations suggest efficient hydrogenation of both edge and centre sites, along with
competing abstraction reactions to form H2 in a series of catalytic cycles.
Scanning tunneling microscopy and thermal desorption measurements have been used to
provide direct evidence of the formation of superhydrogenated coronene as a result of
exposure to D atoms. Lower limit estimates for the cross-sections of
1.8 × 10-17, 5.5 × 10-18 and 1.1 × 10-18 cm2
for the formation of singly, doubly and triply hydrogenated coronene are derived. The
results suggest that superhydrogenated PAHs may play an important role in H2
formation in the ISM.
Stainless steels are among the most important engineering materials, finding their principal scope in industry, specifically in cutlery, food production, storage, architecture, medical equipment, etc. Austenitic stainless steels form the largest sub-category of stainless steels having as the main building blocks the paramagnetic substitutional disordered Fe-Cr-Ni-based alloys. Because of that, austenitic steels represent the primary choice for non-magnetic engineering materials. The presence of the chemical and magnetic disorder hindered any previous attempt to calculate the fundamental electronic, structural and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels from first-principles theories. Our ability to reach an ab initio atomistic level approach in this exciting field has become possible by the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals (EMTO) method. This method, in combination with the coherent potential approximation, has proved an accurate tool in the description of the concentrated random alloys. Using the EMTO method, we presented an insight to the electronic and magnetic structure, and micromechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel alloys. In the present contribution, we will discuss the role of magnetism on the stacking fault energies and elastic properties of paramagnetic Fe-based alloys.
Immobilization of oligonucleotide-functionalized magnetic nanobeads by hybridization in DNA-coils formed by rolling circle amplification has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TEM results supported earlier made observations that small beads with low oligonucleotide surface coverage preferably immobilize in the interior of the DNA-coils and do not tend to link several DNA-coils together whereas large beads with high surface coverage to a larger extent connect several DNA-coils together to clusters of several DNA-coils with beads. AFM provided direct visualization of the DNA-coils as thread-like objects. DNA-coils with immobilized beads appeared as a collection of beads with thread-like features in their near vicinity.