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Risperidone has been recommended for the management of disruptive behaviour disorders in children with learning disabilities. This study explored the effects of Risperidone on absolute body weight in children with learning disabilities who received Risperidone for disruptive behaviour disorders.
Data was collected for children (n = 70) with learning disabilities who were prescribed Risperidone for disruptive behaviour disorders in out patient clinic. Weight, height and BMI were recorded at the first appointment and at the follow up for up to one year. Data was analysed to find any changes in weight and BMI during the course of treatment with Risperidone.
Mean weight gain for the sample was 6.1 kg (sd = 2.7), 1.7 kg more than expected in one year which was statistically significant (t = 6.2, df = 69, p < 0.001). Mean BMI change was 1.51 kg; significantly larger than the mean expected BMI change of 0.62 of this sample (t = 4.98, df = 1.6, P = 0.001). Change in BMI was more for girls, 2.17 (sd = 1.00) compared with boys 1.36 (sd = 1.18), but this was not significant (t = 1.90, df = 49, p = 0.06). There is no significant relationship between Risperidone dose and weight gain (Pearson's r = 0.21, p = 0.42) and BMI (Pearson's r = 0.03, p = 1.00).
Risperidone should be used with caution in children where weight gain could have long lasting impact. Prescribing clinicians should obtain baseline measures of weight, height, BMI and monitor them at regular intervals. Emphasis should be placed on life style interventions such as diet, physical activities etc. Further comparable studies with larger sample sizes using more homogenous diagnostic samples are needed.
Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are dreaded complications following total laryngectomy. This paper presents our experience using 3–5 ml gastrografin to detect pharyngeal leaks following total laryngectomy, and compares post-operative videofluoroscopy with clinical follow-up findings in the detection of pharyngocutaneous fistulae.
A retrospective case–control study was conducted of total laryngectomy patients. The control group (n = 85) was assessed clinically for development of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, while the study group (n = 52) underwent small-volume (3–5 ml) post-operative gastrografin videofluoroscopy.
In the control group, 24 of 85 patients (28 per cent) developed pharyngocutaneous fistulae, with 6 requiring surgical correction. In the study group, 24 of 52 patients (46 per cent) had videofluoroscopy-detected pharyngeal leaks; 4 patients (8 per cent) developed pharyngocutaneous fistulae, but all cases resolved following non-surgical management. Patients who underwent videofluoroscopy had a significantly lower risk of developing pharyngocutaneous fistulae; sensitivity and specificity in the detection of pharyngocutaneous fistulae were 58 per cent and 100 per cent respectively.
Small-volume gastrografin videofluoroscopy reliably identified small pharyngeal leaks. Routine use in total laryngectomy combined with withholding feeds in cases of early leaks may prevent the development of pharyngocutaneous fistulae.
Active sun is characterized by compelling short-lived flash of solar eruption like solar flare, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed solar winds and solar energetic particles along with colossal release of energy and mass. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices based on wavelet analysis during the solar flares. The crucial role of IMF-Bz (interplanetary magnetic field) is examined for the two solar flares events. The key result obtained from our study is substantial dependence of solar flare intensity on IMF-Bz together with solar wind velocity. We also observed the duration of solar flares and their effect on ionospheric and ground based parameters.
The daily time series Flare Index (FI) data of Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere and Total Disk for Solar Cycle 21- 23 and 24 up to Dec. 2014 has been pre-processed using a 2nd order exponential smoothing algorithm to remove orthogonal noise. The smoothed data in each case is processed for scaling analysis using Rescaled-Range Analysis as well as Finite Variance Scaling Method in order to search for the Hurst exponent. As the value of H obtained from our analysis lies in between 0 and 1, so it can be said that the signal may behave like Fractional Brownian Motion. Also, it is observed that H is less than 0.5 which indicates the data is anti-persistent in nature and it has a strong negative correlation within the signal. The value of H also indicates the oscillating features of the signal which might have some fundamental periodicities in the Suns atmosphere.
The Sun is an active star and its magnetic field fluctuates from a fraction of a second to a long period of time. The solar wind, CME, solar prominence, solar flares, solar particle and solar filament are the direct result of solar magnetic activity effects on the interplanetary space, Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere. The intensity of irruption of these phenomena from the Sun’s surface depends upon its phases. The extreme events affect technology both in space and on the ground.The data obtained from series of observations can help to predict solar activities and safekeeping to the space technology. In this study the cross correlations between IMF Bz, solar wind velocity(Vsw) and interplanetary electric field(Ey) with AE and SYM-H are studied. The results reveal that strong geomagnetic disturbances have high impact on the components of space weather than weak disturbances have.
Artificial Neural Network based Nonlinear Autoregressive Model is designed to reconstruct and predict Forbush Decrease (FD) Data obtained from Izmiran, Russia. Result indicates that the model seems adequate for short term prediction of the FD data.
To utilize the manipulation of wave properties by metamaterials, in this paper, a microstrip-fed patch antenna array, loaded with metamaterial superstrate, has been proposed. Under unloaded conditions, the conventional patch antenna array resonates at IEEE 802.16a 5.8 GHz Wi-MAX band with gain of 4.31 dBi and bandwidth of 425 MHz, whereas when each patch of this array is loaded with a metamaterial superstrate, composed with the pair of circular split ring resonators and wire strips, gain and bandwidth approaches to 11.9 dBi and 685 MHz, respectively, which corresponds to gain improvement by 7.6 dBi and bandwidth enhancement of 260 MHz. The proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare simulated and measured results. A good compliance is observed between these two results. Equivalent circuit model of the composite structure has been developed and analyzed.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
To develop and evaluate a Nutrition Transition-FFQ (NT-FFQ) to measure nutrition transition among adolescents in South India.
We developed an interviewer-administered NT-FFQ comprising a 125-item semi-quantitative FFQ and a twenty-seven-item eating behaviour survey. The reproducibility and validity of the NT-FFQ were assessed using Spearman correlations, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and levels of agreement using Bland–Altman and cross-classification over 2 months (NT-FFQ1 and NT-FFQ2). Validity of foods was evaluated against three 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR). Face validity of eating behaviours was evaluated through semi-structured cognitive interviews. The reproducibility of eating behaviours was assessed using weighted kappa (κw) and cross-classification analyses.
A representative sample of 198 adolescents aged 14–18 years.
Reproducibility of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·33 (pulses) to 0·80 (red meat) and ICC from 0·05 (fruits) to 1·00 (tea). On average, concordance (agreement) was 60 % and discordance was 7 % for food groups. For eating behaviours, κw ranged from 0·24 (eating snacks while watching television) to 0·67 (eating lunch at home) with a mean of 0·40. Validity of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·11 (fried traditional foods) to 0·70 (tea) and ICC ranged from 0·02 (healthy global foods) to 1·00 (grains). The concordance and discordance were 48 % and 8 %, respectively. Bland–Altman plots showed acceptable agreement between NT-FFQ2 and 24-HR. The eating behaviours had acceptable face validity.
The NT-FFQ has good reproducibility and acceptable validity for food intake and eating behaviours. The NT-FFQ can quantify the nutrition transition among Indian adolescents.
Fiscal deficits have been a worry for the Indian economy for over two decades. The initial budget making years focussed on a planned model of economic growth, and capital expenditures out of the government budget were used largely for plan expenditure. The focus was much more on revenue deficit figures, that is, the difference between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure. The austerity models of the early political leaders and a socialist model of growth led to a focus on high levels of personal taxation, barriers to imports, an import substitution model of growth, and reliance on the public sector for economic growth. In this model, public finances were a tool for capital formation, aided by funds from the banking sector that had been substantially nationalized by the early seventies.
Towards the second half of the seventies, and subsequently thereafter, expenditure on social sectors started to grow both at the state and central levels. Government increasingly found it necessary to borrow to maintain the infrastructure for schools, hospitals and water supply that it had funded. Government borrowing was used not just for capital funding, but also for revenue expenditure gaps. At about this time, the role of subsidies in expenditure started increasing. The food grains procurement and distribution programmes devolved substantial expenditure on to the central government budget starting from wheat, and then rice, procurement operations. Fertilizer subsidies increased after the Green Revolution initiatives focussed on fertilizer application as an important production input. Finally, the change in fuel pricing policies after the 1973–1974 oil price shock added a big burden to the budgets in the form of fuel and energy subsidies. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 trace the growth in fiscal deficits from 1992 at the centre and state level (Ministry of Finance).
The year 2008–2009 represents an inflection point in the fiscal deficit strategy of the central government. In that year, fiscal expansion increased the fiscal deficit from Rs. 126,912 crores to Rs. 336,992 crores, from 2.54 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) to 5.99 per cent. It was argued by government that, this fiscal expansion was required to cushion the economy from the impact of the global financial crisis of 2008.
In this study, we provide a novel approach to the epitaxial integration of TiO2 with Si(100) and investigate the defect mediated ferromagnetism in TiO2 structure. Epitaxial TiO2 thin films were grown on a TiN/Si(100) epitaxial heterostructure through oxidation of TiN where a single crystalline rutile-TiO2 (r-TiO2) with a  out-of-plane orientation was obtained. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be TiO2(1
0)||TiN(100) and TiO2(110)||TiN(110). We rationalized this epitaxy using the domain matching epitaxy paradigm. First TiN is grown epitaxially on Si(100). Subsequently, TiN/Si(100) samples are oxidized to create r-TiO2/TiN/Si(100) epitaxial heterostructures. The details of the mechanism behind the oxidation of single crystalline TiN to TiO2 was investigated using atomic scale high resolution electron microscopy techniques. Defects introduced to the heterostructure during oxidation caused ferromagnetism in TiO2 thin film which is reversible and can be tuned by controlling oxygen partial pressure. The source of magnetization is correlated with the presence of oxygen vacancy leading to introduction of two localized states; hybrid and polaron among neighboring Ti atoms, and titanium vacancy providing four holes to form molecular oxygen. We present structure property correlations and its impact on the next generation solid state devices.
From the photoinduced transport of energy that accompanies photosynthesis to the transcontinental transmission of optical data that enable the Internet, our world relies and thrives on optical signals. To highlight the importance of optics to society, the United Nations designated 2015 as “The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies.” Although conventional optical technologies are limited by diffraction, plasmons—collective oscillations of free electrons in a conductor—allow optical signals to be tailored with nanoscale precision. Following decades of fundamental research, several plasmonic technologies have now emerged on the market, and numerous industrial breakthroughs are imminent. This article highlights recent industrially relevant advances in plasmonics, including plasmonic materials and devices for energy; for medical sensing, imaging, and therapeutics; and for information technology. Some of the most exciting industrial applications include solar-driven water purifiers, cell phone Raman spectrometers, high-density holographic displays, photothermal cancer therapeutics, and nanophotonic integrated circuits. We describe the fundamental scientific concepts behind these and related technologies, as well as the successes and challenges associated with technology transfer.
The contribution of subsidized food commodities to total food consumption is unknown. We estimated the proportion of individual energy intake from food commodities receiving the largest subsidies from 1995 to 2010 (corn, soyabeans, wheat, rice, sorghum, dairy and livestock).
Integrating information from three federal databases (MyPyramid Equivalents, Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities, and What We Eat in America) with data from the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we computed a Subsidy Score representing the percentage of total energy intake from subsidized commodities. We examined the score’s distribution and the probability of having a ‘high’ (≥70th percentile) v. ‘low’ (≤30th percentile) score, across the population and subgroups, using multivariate logistic regression.
Community-dwelling adults in the USA.
Participants (n 11 811) aged 18–64 years.
Median Subsidy Score was 56·7 % (interquartile range 47·2–65·4 %). Younger, less educated, poorer, and Mexican Americans had higher scores. After controlling for covariates, age, education and income remained independently associated with the score: compared with individuals aged 55–64 years, individuals aged 18–24 years had a 50 % higher probability of having a high score (P<0·0001). Individuals reporting less than high-school education had 21 % higher probability of having a high score than individuals reporting college completion or higher (P=0·003); individuals in the lowest tertile of income had an 11 % higher probability of having a high score compared with individuals in the highest tertile (P=0·02).
Over 50 % of energy in US diets is derived from federally subsidized commodities.
Thermodynamic modeling of the MOCVD process, using the standard free energy minimization algorithm, cannot always explain the deposition of hybrid films that occurs. The present investigation explores a modification of the procedure to account for the observed simultaneous deposition of metallic iron, Fe3O4, and carbon nanotubes from a single precursor. Such composite films have potential application in various device architectures and sensors, and are being studied as electrode material in energy storage devices such as lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors.
With ferric acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3] as the precursor, MOCVD in argon ambient results in a nanocomposite of CNT, Fe, and Fe3O4 (characterized by XRD and Raman spectroscopy) when growth temperature T and total reactor pressure P are in the range from 600°C-800°C and 5-30 torr, respectively. No previous report could be found on the single-step formation of a CNT-metal-metal oxide composite. Equilibrium thermodynamic modeling using available software predicts the deposition of only Fe3C and carbon, without any co-deposition of Fe and Fe3O4, in contrast with experimental observations. To reconcile this contradiction, the modeling of the process was approached by taking the molecular structure of the precursor into account, whereas “standard” thermodynamic simulations are restricted to the total number of atoms of each element in the reactant(s) as the input. When Ocon (statistical average of the oxygen atom(s) taken up by each metal atom during CVD) is restricted to lie between 0 and 1, thermodynamic computations predict simultaneous deposition of FeO1-x, Fe3C, Fe3O4 and C in the inert ambient. At high temperature and in a carbon-rich atmosphere, iron carbide decomposes to iron and carbon. Furthermore, FeO1-x yields Fe and Fe3O4 when cooled below 567°C. Therefore, the resulting film would be composed of Fe3O4, Fe and C, in agreement with experiment. The weight percentage of carbon (∼40%) calculated from thermodynamic analysis matches well with experimental data from TG-DTA.
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
To determine the effectiveness of biocements in rebridging isolated incudostapedial erosion.
A review of the use of biocements for isolated incudostapedial joint erosion was performed on publications from 1998 to 2012 available from Medline, Embase and Pubmed. Inclusion criteria were papers published in English, case series or comparative studies with more than 10 patients, isolated incudostapedial erosion through chronic ear disease, minimal air-bone gap less than 20 dB (or air-bone gap less than 10 dB) and follow up for at least one year.
In 108 patients, rebridging ossiculoplasty was performed using hydroxyapatite cement. Closure of air-bone gaps less than 20 dB and less than 10 dB was achieved in 80–94.4 per cent and 29–75 per cent, respectively. Glass ionomer cement was used in 318 patients. Closure of air-bone gaps less than 20 dB and less than 10 dB was achieved in 74–94 per cent and 40–76 per cent, respectively.
Biocements can be successfully used to close isolated incudostapedial erosions. Larger comparative prospective studies documenting the length of eroded incus and types of reformation of the incudostapedial joint, with standardised reporting, are needed in the future.
the maternally inherited MTTL1 A3243G mutation in the mitochondrial genome causes MelaS (Mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis with Stroke-like episodes), a condition that is multisystemic but affects primarily the nervous system. Significant intra-familial variation in phenotype and severity of disease is well recognized.
retrospective and ongoing study of an extended family carrying the MTTL1 A3243G mutation with multiple symptomatic individuals. tissue heteroplasmy is reviewed based on the clinical presentations, imaging studies, laboratory findings in affected individuals and pathological material obtained at autopsy in two of the family members.
there were seven affected individuals out of thirteen members in this three generation family who each carried the MTTL1 A3243G mutation. the clinical presentations were varied with symptoms ranging from hearing loss, migraines, dementia, seizures, diabetes, visual manifestations, and stroke like episodes. three of the family members are deceased from MelaS or to complications related to MelaS.
the results of the clinical, pathological and radiological findings in this family provide strong support to the current concepts of maternal inheritance, tissue heteroplasmy and molecular pathogenesis in MelaS. neurologists (both adult and paediatric) are the most likely to encounter patients with MelaS in their practice. genetic counselling is complex in view of maternal inheritance and heteroplasmy. newer therapeutic options such as arginine are being used for acute and preventative management of stroke like episodes.
Bacterial infections are commonly found on paper towels and other paper products leading to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent health concerns. The objective of this in vitro study was to introduce antibacterial properties to paper towel surfaces by coating them with selenium nanoparticles. Results showed that the selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels inhibited the growth of S. Aureus and P. aeruginosa by 80%∼90% after 72 hours compared with the uncoated paper towels. Thus, the study showed that nano-selenium coated paper towels may lead to an increased eradication of bacteria to more effectively clean a wide-range of clinical environments, thus, improving health.