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Q fever (caused by Coxiella burnetii) is thought to have an almost world-wide distribution, but few countries have conducted national serosurveys. We measured Q fever seroprevalence using residual sera from diagnostic laboratories across Australia. Individuals aged 1–79 years in 2012–2013 were sampled to be proportional to the population distribution by region, distance from metropolitan areas and gender. A 1/50 serum dilution was tested for the Phase II IgG antibody against C. burnetii by indirect immunofluorescence. We calculated crude seroprevalence estimates by age group and gender, as well as age standardised national and metropolitan/non-metropolitan seroprevalence estimates. Of 2785 sera, 99 tested positive. Age standardised seroprevalence was 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.5%–6.8%), and similar in metropolitan (5.5%; 95% CI 4.1%–6.9%) and non-metropolitan regions (6.0%; 95%CI 4.0%–8.0%). More males were seropositive (6.9%; 95% CI 5.2%–8.6%) than females (4.2%; 95% CI 2.9%–5.5%) with peak seroprevalence at 50–59 years (9.2%; 95% CI 5.2%–13.3%). Q fever seroprevalence for Australia was higher than expected (especially in metropolitan regions) and higher than estimates from the Netherlands (2.4%; pre-outbreak) and US (3.1%), but lower than for Northern Ireland (12.8%). Robust country-specific seroprevalence estimates, with detailed exposure data, are required to better understand who is at risk and the need for preventive measures.
Human stampedes (HS) may result in mass casualty incidents (MCI) that arise due to complex interactions between individuals, collective crowd, and space, which have yet to be described from a physics perspective. HS events were analyzed using basic physics principles to better understand the dynamic kinetic variables that give rise to HS.
A literature review was performed of medical and nonmedical sourced databases, Library of Congress databases, and online sources for the term human stampedes resulting in 25,123 references. Filters were applied to exclude nonhuman events. Retrieved references were reviewed for a predefined list of physics terms. Data collection involved recording frequency of each phrase and physics principle to give the final proportions of each predefined principle used a single-entry method for each of the 105 event reports analyzed. Data analysis was performed using the R statistics packages “tidyverse”, “psych”, “lubridate”, and “Hmisc” with descriptive statistics used to describe the frequency of each observed variable.
Of the 105 reports of HS resulting in injury or death reviewed, the following frequency of terms were found: density change in a limited capacity, 45%; XY-axis motion failure, 100%; loss of proxemics, 100%; deceleration with average velocity of zero, 90%; Z-axis displacement pathology (falls), 92%; associated structure with nozzle effect, 93%; and matched fluid dynamic of high pressure stagnation of mass gathering, 100%.
Description or reference to principles of physics was seen in differing frequency in 105 reports. These include XY-axis motion failure of deceleration that leads to loss of human to human proxemics, and high stagnation pressure resulting in the Z-axis displacement effect (falls) causing injury and death. Real-time video-analysis monitoring of high capacity events or those with known nozzle effects for loss of proxemics and Z-axis displacement pathology offers the opportunity to prevent mortality from human stampedes.
Children with prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) exhibit early self-regulatory impairments, reflecting a life-course persistent propensity toward behavioral disinhibition. Previously, we demonstrated the protective role of parental responsiveness for reducing the risk of exposure-related disruptive behavior in adolescence. Here, we expanded this line of inquiry, examining whether responsiveness moderates the relation of PTE to a broader set of behavioral disinhibition features in early childhood and testing alternative diathesis-stress versus differential susceptibility explanatory models. PTE was assessed prospectively using interviews and bioassays in the Midwestern Infant Development Study (MIDS). Mother-child dyads (N = 276) were re-assessed at approximately 5 years of age in a preschool follow-up. We quantified maternal responsiveness and child behavioral disinhibition using a combination of directly observed activities in the lab and developmentally sensitive questionnaires. Results supported a diathesis-stress pattern. Children with PTE and less responsive mothers showed increased disruptive behavior and lower effortful control compared with children without PTE. In contrast, exposed children with more responsive mothers had self-regulatory profiles similar to their non-exposed peers. We did not observe sex differences. Findings provide greater specification of the protective role of maternal responsiveness for self-regulation in children with PTE and help clarify mechanisms that may underscore trajectories of exposure-related behavioral disinhibition.
Australian abattoir workers, farmers, veterinarians and people handling animal birthing products or slaughtering animals continue to be at high risk of Q fever despite an effective vaccine being available. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data were analysed for the period 1991–2014, along with enhanced risk factor data from notified cases in the states of New South Wales and Queensland, to examine changes in the epidemiology of Q fever in Australia. The national Q fever notification rate reduced by 20% [incident rate ratio (IRR) 0·82] following the end of the National Q fever Management Program in 2006, and has increased since 2009 (IRR 1·01–1·34). Highest rates were in males aged 40–59 years (5·9/100 000) and 87% of Q fever cases occurred in New South Wales and Queensland. The age of Q fever cases and proportion of females increased over the study period. Based on the enhanced risk factor data, the most frequently listed occupation for Q fever cases involved contact with livestock, followed by ‘no known risk’ occupations. More complete and comparable enhanced risk factor data, at the State/Territory and national levels, would aid in further understanding of the epidemiology of Q fever.
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, virtually all developed nations became countries of immigration. International migration is inextricably bound to the globalization of the economy. As international trade and investment expand and markets penetrate more deeply into regions and sectors that were formerly outside or on the margins of global capitalism, the structural organization of society shifts in ways that accelerate geographic mobility (Massey, 1988). Since industrialization first permitted the global expansion of markets beginning in the early nineteenth century, two eras of globalization have prevailed (Hatton & Williamson, 2006; Massey, 2009; Williamson, 2004).
The first occurred during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and involved exchanges between the industrializing nations of Europe and their overseas extensions – settler societies in the Americas and Oceania and colonies in Africa and Asia. From 1846 to 1924, some 48 million migrants left Europe in response to the dislocations of industrialization, with more than 60 percent going to the United States and the rest proceeding mainly to Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Australia (Massey, 1988). This first era was curtailed in 1914 by World War I, which squandered massive amounts of capital and labor in the trenches and destroyed the international order on which trade and commerce had rested (O’Rourke & Williamson, 1999).
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
In this paper we adjudicate between competing claims of persisting segregation and rapid integration by analyzing trends in residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation for African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians living in 287 consistently defined metropolitan areas from 1970 to 2010. On average, Black segregation and isolation have fallen steadily but still remain very high in many areas, particularly those areas historically characterized by hypersegregation. In contrast, Hispanic segregation has increased slightly but Hispanic isolation has risen substantially owing to rapid population growth. Asian segregation has changed little and remains moderate, and although Asian isolation has increased it remains at low levels compared with other groups. Whites remain quite isolated from all three minority groups in metropolitan America, despite rising diversity and some shifts toward integration from the minority viewpoint.
Multivariate analyses reveal that minority segregation and spatial isolation are actively produced in some areas by restrictive density zoning regimes, large and/or rising minority percentages, lagging minority socioeconomic status, and active expressions of anti-Black and anti-Latino sentiment, especially in large metropolitan areas. Areas displaying these characteristics are either integrating very slowly (in the case of Blacks) or becoming more segregated (in the case of Hispanics), whereas those lacking these attributes are clearly moving toward integration, often quite rapidly.
Anterior tongue reduction is indicated when macroglossia causes problems with oral hygiene, airway compromise, deglutition, articulation or orthognathic complications. Causes of macroglossia include hypothyroidism, mucopolysaccharide and lipid storage disease, lymphangioma, haemangioma, neurofibroma, and muscular macroglossia. This paper presents an 11-year experience of anterior tongue reduction at Great Ormond Street Hospital.
Retrospective study of patient medical records identified from the hospital ENT database. Anterior wedge resection was the preferred technique.
Anterior tongue reduction was performed on 18 patients, due to cystic hygroma with tongue involvement (nine patients), Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (eight) and Down's syndrome (one). Anterior wedge resection was preferred, using electrocautery in the majority, except for four cases involving CO2 laser. All but one patient had a good surgical outcome (i.e. tongue in mouth at rest). One patient subsequently required multiple laser procedures for recurrent macroglossia.
Anterior tongue reduction can be a safe procedure, with limited post-operative morbidity, consistently resulting in good surgical outcomes and improvement in macroglossia symptoms. Speech development does not appear to be adversely affected.
In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at twenty-eight selective U.S. colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen (NLSF), we show that Black males, Black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that Black males are thirty-five percent less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyses consider an array of personal and institutional indicators of academic performance. Grades and graduation rates are improved by academic preparation (particularly high school grade point average), scholarly effort, and, for graduation rates, membership in career-oriented or majority-White campus groups. Grade performance and graduation rates are undermined by a hostile racial climate on campus, family stress, and stereotype threat, all of which disproportionately affect minority students. We conclude with recommendations to college administrators for ways of selecting and supporting minority students to reduce differentials in academic achievement across race-gender groups.
Intranasal vaccines of inactivated or living attentuated A2/Hong Kong influenza viruses were compared for clinical acceptability, serological effects and protective efficiency against natural epidemic influenza in a large industrial and clerical population.
It is both surprising and exciting to find that young galaxies at high redshift contain large dust masses. For galaxies at z > 5, after only 1 Gyr, there has not been time for low-mass stars to have evolved to the AGB phase and produce dust. In such galaxies, Type II SNe and red supergiants (RSGs) may even dominate the dust production rate. It has long been known that RSG atmospheres produce dust, but little is known about it. We are pursuing three parallel studies to better understand RSG dust. First, we are using optical spectra and JHK photometry to characterize the optical and near-IR extinction curves of the RSGs. Second, we are using the optical spectra combined with 2MASS, IRAC and MIPS photometry to estimate the dust mass loss rates from Local Group RSGs. In addition, we will use our Monte Carlo radiative transfer models to analyze the emission from dust in the circumstellar shells. Third, the final piece of the puzzle is being provided by obtaining new IRS spectra of LMC and SMC RSGs. We plan to use the IRS to make a systematic study of the dust properties in RSG shells in the LMC and SMC so that we can probe how they may vary with a large range of galactic metallicities. The derived stellar SEDs and extinction curves will be combined with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry and IRS spectra for use as inputs to our Monte Carlo codes which will be used to study the composition, size distributions and clumpiness of the dust.
The year 1986 was pivotal for the political economy of North America. In that year, two events signaled the end of one era and the beginning of another. In Mexico, a new political elite succeeded in overcoming historical opposition within the ruling party and orchestrated the country's entry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Then the Mexican president approached the United States to forge a new alliance that would create a free trade zone stretching from Central America to the North Pole. As U.S. officials worked jointly with Mexican authorities to integrate North America economically, however, they simultaneously and unilaterally acted to prevent the integration of its labor markets. Rather than incorporating the movement of workers into the new trade agreement, the United States insisted there would be no migration in North America, and to underscore its resolve Congress in 1986 passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA).
Since then, the United States has pursued an escalating politics of contradiction, simultaneously moving toward integration while insisting on separation. Even as it moved headlong toward a consolidation of markets for capital, goods, commodities, services, and information, it somehow sought to keep labor markets separate. In the ensuing years, the U.S. government would spend increasing financial and human resources to demonstrate to the American public that the border was not porous with respect to migrants, even as it was becoming more permeable with respect to an increasing variety of flows.
Introduction: Epistaxis is the most common nasal emergency and if nasal packing is required this commonly results in admission.
Methods: A literature search could find no published (UK) protocols for the management of this common condition in accident and emergency (A&E) departments. This paper presents a retrospective review of 116 patients with epistaxis, following implementation of the new peer reviewed protocol in June 2004.
Results: Apart from cautery, 62 had nasal packing inserted. Only 17 required admission. Forty-six patients were discharged with nasal packing in situ and only seven (16 per cent) returned due to bleeding. The overall return rate was 11 per cent.
Discussion: We feel this is a safe and logical protocol. Compared to mandatory admission after nasal pack insertion, we saved 39 admissions in five months. There were also the added benefits to patients of being able to recuperate at home rather than in hospital and avoidance of the risk of hospital acquired infection.
The Spitzer Space Telescope has delivered impressive infrared images of numerous low-mass star forming regions at unprecedented sensitivity. In this paper we focus on their high-mass counterparts, the most massive HII regions in the Local Group: NGC3603 (MW), W49A (MW), 30 Doradus (LMC), NGC346 (SMC), and NGC604 (M33). The deep mid-IR images, taken with IRAC show the complex structure of the ISM, the interplay between ISM and stellar clusters, and reveal new sites of star formation. We compare the IRAC data with observations from Chandra and find good anti-correlations between the mid-IR and soft X-ray emission regions. We also investigate the commonalities and differences between the giant HII regions NGC604 and 30 Doradus.
The theory of stereotype threat was developed to account for
persistent minority underachievement in American colleges and
universities. It hypothesizes that members of minority groups underperform
academically because of unconscious fears of living up to negative group
stereotypes. While evidence pertaining to stereotype threat has been
positive, it mostly comes from small experimental studies of selected
undergraduate subjects at a few universities. In this paper we test the
theory of stereotype threat on a large, representative population of
college and university students. Using data from the National Longitudinal
Survey of Freshmen, which surveyed nearly 4,000 students at twenty-eight
academic institutions, we construct scales to measure stereotype threat
and use them to predict grades. We uncover a clear process of
disidentification in response to minority stereotyping and show how it,
along with other theoretically specified mechanisms, undermines the grade
performance of minorities.
The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family's migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work.
Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a
residentially segregated society in which Blacks and Whites inhabit
different neighborhoods of vastly different quality. Given high levels
of racial segregation and elevated rates of Black poverty, it is
axiomatically true that African Americans will experience more
neighborhood poverty than other groups. Moreover, because poverty is
associated with crime and delinquency, they will also be exposed to far
higher rates of social disorder and violence. In this article I argue
that long-term exposure to social disorder and violence because of
segregation produces a high allostatic load among African Americans,
which leads, in turn, to a variety of deleterious health and cognitive
outcomes. After summarizing recent research on stress and allostatic
load, I specify a biosocial model of racial stratification and draw
upon it to explicate well-documented racial differentials with respect
to health and cognition.