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Leg weakness (LW) issues are a great concern for pig breeding industry. And it also has a serious impact on animal welfare. To dissect the genetic architecture of limb-and-hoof firmness in commercial pigs, a genome-wide association study was conducted on bone mineral density (BMD) in three sow populations, including Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire. The BMD data were obtained by ultrasound technology from 812 pigs (including Duroc 115, Landrace 243 and Yorkshire 454). In addition, all pigs were genotyped using genome-by-sequencing and a total of 224 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. After quality control, 218 141 SNPs were used for subsequent genome-wide association analysis. Nine significant associations were identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 18 that passed Bonferroni correction threshold of 0.05/(total SNP numbers). The most significant locus that associated with BMD (P value = 1.92e−14) was detected at approximately 41.7 Mb on SSC6 (SSC stands for Sus scrofa chromosome). CUL7, PTK7, SRF, VEGFA, RHEB, PRKAR1A and TPO that are located near the lead SNP of significant loci were highlighted as functionally plausible candidate genes for sow limb-and-hoof firmness. Moreover, we also applied a new method to measure the BMD data of pigs by ultrasound technology. The results provide an insight into the genetic architecture of LW and can also help to improve animal welfare in pigs.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
Introduction: Despite the visibility of the homeless population, there is limited data on the information of this patient population. Point-in-time counts and survey data from selected samples (such as those admitted to emergency shelter) have primarily been used. This literature suggests that this hard-to-reach population has high rates of presentation at emergency departments (EDs), and as such, EDs often become their main point of contact for health and social services. Leveraging this fact and administrative data we construct a crude census of homeless persons within Ontario. We further examine demographic characteristics of patients experiencing homelessness, and compare this data to findings from previous literature. Methods: All routinely collected administrative health data from EDs located within Ontario, Canada from 2010-2017 were analyzed to examine patient characteristics. Individuals experiencing homelessness were identified by a marker that was adopted in 2009 replacing their recorded postal code with an XX designation. s. Aggregating by LHIN, date and week of year, we examine the overall number of patients experiencing homelessness and number by LHIN location and seasonality. Demographic outcomes examined include age and sex. Results: 640,897 visits to the ED over 7 years were made by 39,525 unique individuals experiencing homelessness. Number of ED visits has steadily increased over 10 years in all of Ontario, despite decline in shelter use for individuals. Presentations were concentrated in large urban centres like Toronto, Ottawa and Hamilton. Fewer presentations occur in the spring and summer months and rise in the winter. Male patients presented older and in greater numbers than female patients. The modal female age of presentation is in the 20-24 age category. The modal male age of presentation is in the 25-29 age category. Older male patients were more likely to have multiple presentations. Conclusion: The utilization of administrative health data offers a novel, cost-effective method to measure demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness. Identifying characteristics of homeless patients through this method allows for a more complete understanding of the characteristics of a hard-to-reach population, which will allow policy makers to develop appropriate services for this sub-group. Furthermore, through analysis of trends of demographics over time, changes in the homeless population can be tracked in real-time to allow for coordination and implementation of services in a time-sensitive manner.
Introduction: Administrative data can aid in study and intervention design, incorporating hard-to-reach individuals who may otherwise be poorly represented. We aim to use administrative health data to examine emergency department visits by people experiencing homelessness and explore the application of this data for planning interventions. Methods: We conducted a serial cross-sectional study examining emergency department use by people experiencing homelessness and non-homeless individuals in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada. The study period included administrative health data from April 1st, 2010 to March 31st, 2018. Outcomes included number of visits, number of unique patients; group proportions of Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) scores; time spent in emergency; and time to see an MD. Descriptive statistics were generated, and t-tests were performed for point estimates and a Mann-Whitney U test for distributional measures. Results: Our data included 1,486,699 emergency department visits. The number of unique people experiencing homelessness ranged from 91 in 2010 to 344 in 2017, trending higher over the study period compared to non-homeless patients. The rate of visits increased from 1.7 to 2.8 per person. People experiencing homelessness tend to present later in the day and with higher overall acuity as compared to the general population. Time in emergency department and time to see an MD were greater among people experiencing homelessness. Conclusion: Administrative health data allows researchers to enhance interventions and models of care to improve services for vulnerable populations. Given the challenging fiscal realities of research, our study provides insights to more effectively target interventions for vulnerable populations.
Introduction: People experiencing homelessness have complex psychiatric and medical presentations, and have poor access to primary care. Thus, emergency departments (EDs) often become their main point of healthcare contact. Using routinely collected administrative data from EDs, we examine the ED utilization, health and reasons for presentations of people experiencing homelessness.. Methods: All routinely collected administrative health data from EDs located within Ontario, Canada from 2010-2017 were analyzed. Individuals experiencing homelessness were identified by a marker that was adopted in 2009 replacing their recorded postal code with an XX designation. Outcomes include number of unique patients, number of visits and repeat visits, CTAS scores, ambulance utilization, and type of ICD-10 presentation. Results: 640,897 visits to the ED over 10 years were made by 39,525 unique individuals experiencing homelessness. A visit to an ED by a homeless patient resulted in repeat presentation on the same day 5% of the time. The median repeat presentation to an ED was 14 days. In people experiencing homelessness, the most prevalent category of presentations were primary mental health diagnoses, accounting for 34.8% of visits (n = 223,392). Under mental health conditions, psychoactive substance use presentations made up more than 54% of the presentations (n = 121,112). Alcohol was by far the most common cause of substance use/induced disorders (n = 84,805). Conclusion: Applications of administrative data presents a novel method of measuring health and healthcare outcomes for marginalized populations. We found people experiencing homelessness are presenting to ED more frequently in Ontario, with significant mental health and addiction problems. Our study identifies several important health vulnerabilities within the population, which may serve as potential targets for future interventions.
Introduction: Understanding how homeless patients interact with healthcare systems can be challenging. The nature of the population is such that identifying and following these persons can be severely limited by data. Previous studies have used survey data which relies on self-reporting and selected samples such as those persons admitted to homeless shelters (Gray et al. 2011). Other studies have been able to leverage administrative data but only for selected local geographic areas (Somers et al. 2016, Tompkins et al 2003). It is possible that the current literature has not examined a large proportion of homeless persons and their healthcare use. This is concerning because this population can have higher associated medical costs and greater medical resource utilization especially with regards to psychiatric and emergency department (ED) resources (Tulloch et al. 2012, Forchuk et al, 2015). Methods: Administrative health data (2010 to 2017) is used to analyze ambulatory care records for homeless individuals in Ontario, Canada. Uniquely, we are able to use ED contacts as a way of identifying homeless migrations from region to region within Ontario. Using a network analysis we identify high impact ED nodes and discrete hospital networks where homeless patients congregate. We are also able to more fully characterize this population's demographics, health issues, and disposition from the ED. Results: We provide a more complete understanding of migration patterns for homeless individuals, across Ontario and their concomitant ED use and hospitalizations. The three most frequented regions in Ontario (n = 640,897) were Toronto Central (35.96%), Hamilton Niagara Halimand Brant (8.9%) and Champlain (7.84%). In subsequent visits, the majority of patients presented to different EDs, however a subgroup who always presented to the same site was present. Over the 7 year period, migration between visits occurred most often between urban areas, and increased as a whole. Conclusion: The results of the study allow for the enhancement care coordination for vulnerable populations and enhance the availability and delivery of services for sub-groups of homelessness whose care needs may differ based on migration patterns. Services can be coordinated between jurisdictions for homeless individuals, and appropriate referrals can be made across the health care system. Further evidence is provided for a novel method of mapping migration among the homeless and its associations and effects on ED use.
The relative effect of the atypical antipsychotic drugs and conventional agents on neurocognition in patients with early-stage schizophrenia has not been comprehensively determined.
The present study aimed to assess the cognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition under naturalistic treatment conditions.
In a 12 months open-label, multicenter study, 698 patients with early-stage schizophrenia (< 5 years) were monotherapy with chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or aripiprazole. Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Visual Reproduction Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised Digit Symbol Test and Digit-span Task Test, Trail Making Tests Part A and Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered at baseline and 12 months follow-up evaluation. The primary outcome was change in a cognitive composite score after 12 months of treatment.
Compared with scores at baseline, the composite cognitive test scores and individual test scores had significant improvement for all seven treatment groups at 12-month follow-up evaluation (all p-values ≤ 0.013). However, olanzapine and quetiapine provided greater improvement than that provided by chlorpromazine and sulpiride in the composite score, processing speed and executive function (all p-values ≤ 0.045).
Both conventional and atypical antipsychotic medication long-term maintenance treatment can benefit congitive function in patients with early-stage schizophrenia, but olanzapine and quetiapine may be superior to chlorpromazine and sulpiride in improving some areas of neurocognitive function.
We studied circadian thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) response to synthetic thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (protirelin) infusion (200μg IV) at 8 am and 11 pm in 35 drug-free inpatients with DSM III-R Major Depressive Episode and in 22 hospitalized controls. In each group, maximum TSH and PRL responses were lower at 8 am than at 11 pm. The difference between 11 pm-ΔTSH and 8 am-ΔJTSH (ΔΔTSH) was significantly lower in depressed patients compared to controls. No such blunting was observed in PRL responses to protirelin in depressed patients. In the overall population, TSH response to protirelin (ie8 am-ΔTSH, 11 pm-ΔTSH, ΔΔTSH) correlated significantly with TSH circadian parameters (ie mesor and amplitude). These correlations were also observed with PRL (except for ΔΔPRL). TSH mesor and amplitude were lower in depressives than in controls. In contrast, PRL mesor and amplitude were not significantly different between diagnostic groups. ΔΔTSH is thus a chronobiological refinement to the measure of thyroid axis dysfunction in major depression. The blunted TSH response to protirelin suggests that the TRH receptors of the pituitary thyrotrophs are hyposensitive in major depression.
5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) has long (l) and short (s) allelic variations. The s allele is linked to depression, anxiety, and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Both depression and SSRI's are associated with bone loss and fractures. We explored the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and bone loss.
IRB-approved retrospective chart review of adult psychiatric patients during a 10-year period with both 5-HTTLPR genotype and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine BMD stratified by age, Z-scores < 50, T-scores ≥50 years). Age, gender, and BMD scores were compared between the 5-HTTLPR categories of s allele (l/s and s/s genotypes) versus l/l genotype using one-way ANOVA.
Of 3016 with 5-HTTLPR genotyping, 239 had BMD, with 157 (66%) s allele and 82 (34%) l/l genotypes. Among men and women < 50 years, s allele had lower Z-scores in the hip (−0.6628/n=43 vs −0.1306/n=36, p=0.012) and spine (−0.9762/n=42 vs -0.1000/n=41, p=0.0019) than l/l. There were no differences in T-scores between the s allele and l/l genotypes for men and women ≥50 years. Gender analysis (n=198 women, n=41 men) showed women with s allele had lower Z-scores in the hip (−0.68182/n=33 vs −0.08788/n=33, p=0.0146) and spine (−1.0250/n=32 vs − 0.0586/n=29, p=0.0020) than the l/l genotype.
The s allele is associated with lower bone density at the hip and spine in younger adults, particularly in younger women. Our results suggest 5-HTTLPR variants may mediate serotonin effects on bone in a gender-specific or hormonal/ menopausal-dependent interaction.
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of response inhibition in cannabis users have reported inconsistent results. The age of onset of cannabis use and individual genetic differences may play a critical role in the regulation of inhibition in cannabis users.
We examine the influence of COMT Val158Met functional polymorphism on the response inhibition brain network in a group of early-onset chronic cannabis users compared with healthy controls.
fMRI data was acquired from 27 chronic cannabis users who began use cannabis before 16 years of age, and 29 non-using control subjects matched in terms of age, educational level and intelligence quotient while undergoing the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). Participants were male, Caucasians aged between 18 and 30 years. All were assessed by a structured psychiatric interview (PRISM) to exclude any lifetime Axis-I disorder (DSM-IV). COMT genotyping was performed and resonance imaging data was analysed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Both groups did not differ on their behavioural performance and brain responses during the MSIT task. A significant group-by-genotype interaction was observed on task-related brain activation (and on MSIT reaction times), in which met carrier load was associated with increased activation in cannabis users and val carrier load with increased activation in controls. The interaction pattern included the medial frontal cortex, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus, ventral striatum, anterior mesencephalon, inferior parietal and superior temporal cortices and the PCC.
Chronic cannabis exposure interacts with the genetically driven dopamine function in the modulation of the neural mechanisms related to response inhibition.
Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD. Thus, we aimed to assess alterations in the inter-network interactions of these large-scale networks in IGD, and to associate the alterations with IGD-related behaviors.
DMN, ECN and SN were identified using group-level independent component analysis (gICA) in 39 individuals with IGD and 34 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs). Then alterations in the SN-ECN and SN-DMN connectivity, as well as in the modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN, using a resource allocation index (RAI) developed and validated previously in nicotine addiction, were assessed. Further, associations between these altered network coupling and clinical assessments were also examined.
Compared with HCs, IGD had significantly increased SN-DMN connectivity and decreased RAI in right hemisphere (rRAI), and the rRAI in IGD was negatively associated with their scores of craving.
These findings suggest that the deficient modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN might provide a mechanistic framework to better understand the neural basis of IGD and might provide novel evidence for the triple-network model in IGD.
Tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a disease that principally afflicts the low-income segments of a population. In the Nanshan District of Shenzhen, China, with the economic transformation and a new Headquarters Economy (HE) emerging, there are now more cases in office workers than in manufacturing workers. To illustrate this trend, we describe a small TB outbreak in an office building located in the centre of the rapidly growing HE district. Two active pulmonary tuberculosis cases were found in workers who shared an office, and whole genome sequencing showed that the genetic distance between the strains of the two cases was just one single nucleotide polymorphism, consistent with intra-office transmission. Investigation of 30 other workers in the same or adjacent offices with interviews, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and chest X-rays, identified one new TB case and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in 40.0% (12/30) of the contacts. The offices were under-ventilated. None of the IGRA positive, asymptomatic contacts agreed to receive treatment for LTBI, presumably due to TB stigma, and over the next 2 years 69.0% (20/29) of the contacts were lost to follow-up. Treatment for LTBI and stigma of TB remain challenges here. Office workers in the HE of rapidly economic developing areas should be targeted with increased vigilance by TB control programmes.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
In this paper, a novel continuous fiber reinforced piezoelectric composite (CFRPC) actuator is proposed to improve the stability and reliability of piezoelectric actuators. A piezoelectric driving structure composed of a cantilever beam and the CFRPC actuator is utilized to research the actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator. The expression of the equivalent moment for the CFRPC actuator is obtained using the equivalent load method and electro-mechanical coupling theory. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the analytical expression of the deflection for the cantilever beam is derived. The accuracy of the obtained analytical expressions is demonstrated by finite element simulation as well as published experimental results. The actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator is investigated through the analytical expressions of the equivalent moment and deflection. The results show that the key parameters such as driving voltage, fiber volume fraction, cantilever beam height, actuator height, actuator length and actuator position have great influence on the actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator. The CFRPC actuator has good mechanical and electrical properties, and has a wide application prospect in the field of structural shape control.
To examine the associations between overall diet quality and hearing function among middle–older aged adults in the USA.
Cross-sectional analysis. Diet quality was examined using the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), using data from a single 24 h dietary recall. Hearing function was objectively measured by audiometry assessments and hearing loss, including high- and low-frequency hearing loss, was defined as pure-tone averages at specific ranges of hearing frequencies >25 dB. Weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of MDS (scored 0–9, categorized at the median as ≤3 or >3) with hearing loss and high- and low-frequency hearing loss.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2000–2006 and 2009–2012.
Adults aged ≥50 years (n 1639) with valid dietary and audiometry assessments.
After adjusting for potential confounders, a non-significant trend for a protective association of higher MDS was observed for hearing loss (OR = 0·78; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·23). A significant inverse association was observed for high-frequency hearing loss (OR = 0·64; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·95). No association was found for low-frequency hearing loss among women; however, higher MDS was significantly associated with higher odds of low-frequency hearing loss among men (OR = 2·63; 95 % CI 1·39, 4·95).
Among middle–older aged adults, adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was inversely associated with hearing loss, including those at high hearing frequencies, among older adults. However, a detrimental association was observed at low hearing frequencies among men. Future investigations with a longitudinal design are needed to clarify the associations between diet quality and hearing loss.
The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) can only be applied to children under 5 years of age and does not contemplate obesity. The aim of this study was to propose an Extended CIAF (ECIAF) that combines the characterization of malnutrition due to undernutrition and excess weight, and apply it in six Argentine provinces.
ECIAF excludes children not in anthropometric failure (group A) and was calculated from a percentage of children included in malnutrition categories B: wasting only; C: wasting and underweight; D: wasting, stunting and underweight; E: stunting and underweight; F: stunting only; Y: underweight only; G: only weight excess; and H: stunting and weight excess.
Cross-sectional study conducted in Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, Mendoza and Misiones (Argentina).
10 879 children of both sexes aged between 3 and 13·99.
ECIAF in preschool children (3 to 4·99 years) was 15·1 %. The highest prevalence was registered in Mendoza (16·7 %) and the lowest in Misiones (12·0 %). In school children (5 to 13·99 years) ECIAF was 28·6 %. Mendoza also recorded the highest rate (30·7 %), while Catamarca and Chubut had the lowest values (27·0 %). In the whole sample, about 25 % of the malnutrition was caused by undernutrition and 75 % by excess weight.
The ECIAF summarizes anthropometric failure by both deficiency and excess weight and it highlights that a quarter of the malnutrition in the Argentine population was caused by undernutrition, although there are differences between Provinces (P < 0·05). ECIAF estimates are higher than those of CIAF or under-nutrition.
We describe the case of an 11-month-old girl with a rare cerebellar glioblastoma driven by a NACC2-NTRK2 (Nucleus Accumbens Associated Protein 2-Neurotrophic Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2) fusion. Initial workup of our case demonstrated homozygous CDKN2A deletion, but immunohistochemistry for other driver mutations, including IDH1 R132H, BRAF V600E, and H3F3A K27M were negative, and ATRX was retained. Tissue was subsequently submitted for personalized oncogenomic analysis, including whole genome and whole transcriptome sequencing, which demonstrated an activating NTRK2 fusion, as well as high PD-L1 expression, which was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, H3 and IDH demonstrated wildtype status. These findings suggested the possibility of treatment with either NTRK- or immune checkpoint- inhibitors through active clinical trials. Ultimately, the family pursued standard treatment that involved Head Start III chemotherapy and proton radiotherapy. Notably, at most recent follow upapproximately two years from initial diagnosis, the patient is in disease remission and thriving, suggesting favorable biology despite histologic malignancy. This case illustrates the value of personalized oncogenomics, as the molecular profiling revealed two actionable changes that would not have been apparent through routine diagnostics. NTRK fusions are known oncogenic drivers in a range of cancer types, but this is the first report of a NACC2-NTRK2 fusion in a glioblastoma.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Explore the current molecular landscape of pediatric high grade gliomas
2.Recognize the value of personalized oncogenomic analysis, particularly in rare and/or aggressive tumors
3.Discuss the current status of NTRK inhibitor clinical trials