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In Pakistan, oral cancer ranks as the most common malignancy in males and the second most common malignancy in females. Cyclooxygenase-2 has been explored as an agent of carcinogenesis in oral and other neoplasms. This study aimed to observe the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and to correlate the expression with patients’ clinical features and overall and disease-free survival.
Immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 was performed on a total of 100 oral squamous cell carcinoma formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks. Expression was correlated with patients’ clinicopathological variables and overall and disease-free survival.
Cyclooxygenase-2 was overexpressed in 55 per cent of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Overexpression was correlated with overall survival (p = 0.013) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis, cyclooxygenase-2 was associated with only disease-free survival (p = 0.044) and not overall survival (p = 0.208).
Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with poorer overall survival and higher rates of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
This study associated Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and other clinical parameters with five-year survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.
A total of 140 patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma were enlisted. HPV status and subtypes were established through polymerase chain reaction performed in a previously published study. Clinical data including five-year survival were obtained through institutional medical records.
Ninety-five patients (67.9 per cent) were positive for HPV. Of these, 85 patients were HPV 16 positive while 2 patients were HPV 18 positive. The mean survival time for HPV positive patients was 44.3 months, whereas survival time for HPV negative patients was 46.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that HPV status in oral squamous cell carcinoma was not a statistically significant factor in determining five-year survival rate (p = 0.386).
There is a high prevalence of HPV positive oral squamous cell carcinoma in Pakistan; however, there is no difference in the five-year survival rate when compared to HPV negative oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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