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This study proposed the application of a novel immersed boundary method (IBM) for the treatment of irregular geometries using Cartesian computational grids for high speed compressible gas flows modelled using the unsteady Euler equations. Furthermore, the method is accelerated through the use of multiple Graphics Processing Units – specifically using Nvidia’s CUDA together with MPI - due to the computationally intensive nature associated with the numerical solution to multi-dimensional continuity equations. Due to the high degree of locality required for efficient multiple GPU computation, the Split Harten-Lax-van-Leer (SHLL) scheme is employed for vector splitting of fluxes across cell interfaces. NVIDIA visual profiler shows that our proposed method having a computational speed of 98.6 GFLOPS and 61% efficiency based on the Roofline analysis that provides the theoretical computing speed of reaching 160 GLOPS with an average 2.225 operations/byte. To demonstrate the validity of the method, results from several benchmark problems covering both subsonic and supersonic flow regimes are presented. Performance testing using 96 GPU devices demonstrates a speed up of 89 times that of a single GPU (i.e. 92% efficiency) for a benchmark problem employing 48 million cells. Discussions regarding communication overhead and parallel efficiency for varying problem sizes are also presented.
Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
This paper studies the transition to three-dimensional flow in the wake of a cylinder immersed in a free stream, where the cylinder is externally forced to continuously rotate about its axis and to linearly oscillate in the streamwise direction. Floquet stability analysis is used to assess the stability of the nominal two-dimensional flows at a Reynolds number
and rotation rate
to three-dimensional perturbations, as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the linear oscillations. Two modes of instability are found, distinguished by their spatial structure, temporal behaviour and apparent mechanism. The first mode has a shorter wavelength in the spanwise direction and appears to be linked to a centrifugal instability in the layer of fluid near the rotating body. The second mode has a longer wavelength and is linked to an instability of the vortex cores in the wake that is subharmonic, leading to a period doubling. Either mode can be stable while the other is unstable, depending primarily on the frequency of the oscillation of the cylinder. This indicates that either mode can control the transition to a three-dimensional flow. The results are compared to the fully three-dimensional simulation results of a rotating cylinder elastically mounted and free to oscillate in the streamwise direction from Bourguet & Lo Jacono (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 781, 2015, pp. 127–165), and appear to be able to explain the surprising switching of the observed spanwise wavelength in that flow as a change in the dominant mode, and therefore mechanism, of instability.
To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective observational cohort study.
This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies.
The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites.
To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012–2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models.
The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72–0.93; OR for 2014–2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69–0.95).
These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies.
Diatoms microalgae represent a natural source of highly porous biosilica shells (frustules) with promising applications in a wide range of technological fields. Functionalization of diatoms’ frustules with tailored luminescent molecules can be envisaged as a convenient, scalable biotechnological route to new light emitting silica nanostructured materials. Here we report a straightforward protocol for the in vivo modification of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatoms’ frustules with a red emitting organic dye based on thienyl, benzothiadiazolyl and phenyl units. The metabolic insertion of the dye molecules into the diatoms shells, combined with an acidic-oxidative isolation protocol of the resulting dye stained biosilica, represents a novel strategy to develop highly porous luminescent biosilica nanostructures with promising applications in photonics.
A numerical study of the flow-induced vibration of two elastically mounted cylinders in tandem and staggered arrangements at Reynolds number
is presented. The cylinder centres are set at a streamwise distance of 1.5 cylinder diameters, placing the rear cylinder in the near-wake region of the front cylinder for the tandem arrangement. The cross-stream or lateral offset is varied between 0 and 5 cylinder diameters. The two cylinders are identical, with the same elastic mounting, and constrained to oscillate only in the cross-flow direction. The variation of flow behaviours is examined for static cylinders and for elastic mountings of a range of spring stiffnesses, or reduced velocity. At least seven major modes of flow response are identified, delineated by whether the oscillation is effectively symmetric, and the strength of the influence of the flow through the gap between the two cylinders. Submodes of these are also identified based on whether or not the flow remains periodic. More subtle temporal behaviours, such as period doubling, quasi-periodicity and chaos, are also identified and mapped. Across all of these regimes, the amplitudes of vibration and the magnitude of the fluid forces are quantified. The modes identified span the parameter space between two important limiting cases: two static bodies at varying lateral offset; and two elastically mounted bodies in a tandem configuration at varying spring stiffnesses. Some similarity in the response of extremely stiff or static bodies and extremely slack bodies is shown. This is explained by the fact that the slack bodies are free to move to an equilibrium position and stop, effectively becoming a static system. However, the most complex behaviour appears between these limits, when the bodies are in reasonably close proximity, and the natural structural frequency is close to the vortex shedding frequency of a single cylinder. This appears to be driven by the interplay between a series of time scales, including the vortex formation time, the advection time across the gap between the cylinders and the oscillation period of both bodies. This points out an important difference between this multi-body system and the classic single-cylinder vortex-induced vibration: two bodies in close proximity will not oscillate in a synchronised, periodic manner when their natural structural frequencies are close to the nominal vortex shedding frequency of a single cylinder.
Childhood trauma has been significantly associated with first-episode psychosis, affective dysfunction and substance use.
To test whether people with first-episode psychosis who had experienced childhood trauma, when compared with those who had not, showed a higher rate of affective psychosis and an increased lifetime rate of substance use.
The sample comprised 345 participants with first-episode psychosis (58% male, mean age 29.8 years, s.d.=9.7).
Severe sexual abuse was significantly associated with a diagnosis of affective psychosis (χ2=4.9, P=0.04) and with higher rates of lifetime use of cannabis (68% v. 41%; P = 0.02) and heroin (20% v. 5%; P=0.02). Severe physical abuse was associated with increased lifetime use of heroin (15% v. 5%; P = 0.03) and cocaine (32% v. 17%; P = 0.05).
Patients with first-episode psychosis exposed to childhood trauma appear to constitute a distinctive subgroup in terms of diagnosis and lifetime substance use.
To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada.
Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent).
Alberta’s Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort.
Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35–69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009.
Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age.
Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.
Diatoms represent a natural source of mesoporous silica whose applications range from biomedical to photonic fields. Porous hierarchically organized micro structures, the biosilica shells called frustules, can be obtained by removal of the organic biological matter from the unicellular living algae. Diatoms frustules have been investigated as scaffold for bone tissue growth taking advantage of their nanostructured surface and of the possibility to chemically modify the biosilica. Here we report on an easy way to calcium-doped biosilica supports for bone tissue regeneration by in vivo feeding the algae. FTIR and EDX analyses confirmed the incorporation of calcium into the mesopouros biosilica. Cell viability studies showed an ameliorative effect on the Saos-2 cells spreading compared with the cells grown on non-doped biosilica supports.
Expert judgement is frequently used within general insurance. It tends to be a method of last resort and used where data is sparse, non-existent or non-applicable to the problem under consideration. Whilst such judgements can significantly influence the end results, their quality is highly variable. The use of the term “expert judgement” itself can lend a generous impression of credibility to what may be a little more than a guess. Despite the increased emphasis placed on the importance of robust expert judgements in regulation, actuarial research to date has focussed on the more technical or data-driven methods, with less emphasis on how to use and incorporate softer information or how best to elicit judgements from others in a way that reduces cognitive biases. This paper highlights the research that the Getting Better Judgement Working Party has conducted in this area. Specifically, it covers the variable quality of expert judgement, both within and outside the regulatory context, and presents methods that may be applied to improve its formation. The aim of this paper is to arm the insurance practitioner with tools to distinguish between low-quality and high-quality judgements and improve the robustness of judgements accordingly, particularly for highly material circumstances.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in the Singaporean elderly and its association with presbyacusis, age and other associated risk factors.
A cross-sectional study was undertaken in a tertiary otorhinolaryngology department and the community. Healthy adults aged 40 years and above who participated in the institution's community presbyacusis screening programme were invited to participate. The main outcome measures including pure tone audiometry and vestibular assessment were obtained using a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance.
The prevalence of vestibular dysfunction and presbyacusis in the study population of 216 participants was 30.1 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 24.0 to 36.2 per cent) and 55.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 49.0 to 62.2 per cent), respectively. The median age was 60 years (range, 40–86 years). The adjusted odds ratio for vestibular dysfunction increased by 6.2 per cent with every year of life (p < 0.05), and by 3.14 times in the presence of presbyacusis (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age and presbyacusis, diabetes (n = 30), hypertension (n = 85), hypercholesteraemia (n = 75), cardiac disease (n = 14), stroke (n = 7) and smoking (n = 55) were associated with an increased odds ratio for vestibular dysfunction which did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05).
Vestibular dysfunction is independently associated with ageing and presbyacusis. Further research into the benefits of additional screening for vestibular dysfunction in elderly presbyacusis patients is warranted.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
M82 (NGC 3034) is a nearby (D = 3.3 Mpc) “prototypical” starburst galaxy which emits most of its luminosity in the infrared (LIR = 3×1010L⊙, see Rieke et al. 1980). M82 is also a strong radio source 3C 231, with numerous compact knots which are thought to be young SNR's (Kronberg et al., 1981; Muxlow et al., 1994). Its strong 1.4 GHz radio continuum is extended over the entire 500 pc nuclear starburst region, and the HI absorption is easily mapped at 2″ (30 pc) resolution using the VLA. The resulting velocity integrated optical depth (τΔV) map can be converted to HI column density map if HI spin temperature (Tsp) is known.
Galaxy-galaxy collisions are known to produce drastic changes in morphology and, in many cases, enhance the level of star formation activity in galaxies. In order to better quantify the effects that interactions have on the star formation characteristics of galaxies we have undertaken a multiwavelength survey of a large sample of interacting disk-type galaxies. The sample is optically-selected, the inclusion of systems having been based upon the presence of unusual morphological features—such as tidal tails, plumes, rings, warped disks—suggestive of tidal interaction. The sample is composed of about 115 systems, most of which are spiral-spiral pairs, with a few spiral-elliptical pairs and a few merging systems (see Bushouse 1986 for more details of the sample selection). This sample has now been studied in the optical, infrared, and radio regimes, including optical spectra and Ha images, near-infrared photometry and imaging, far-infrared photometry, HI 21cm emission-line measurements, VLA 20cm maps, and CO emission-line measurements. This paper presents an overview and comparison of the results of the optical, infrared and CO surveys. With these data we can compare the far-infrared and CO properties of the galaxies with the classic optical and radio indicators of star formation activity and thereby determine what, if any, relationships exist between star formation activity and the far-infrared and CO properties of the galaxies.
This paper presents the results of numerical stability analysis of the wake of an elliptical cylinder. Aspect ratios where the ellipse is longer in the streamwise direction than in the transverse direction are considered. The focus is on the dependence on the aspect ratio of the ellipse of the various bifurcations to three-dimensional flow from the two-dimensional Kármán vortex street. It is shown that the three modes present in the wake of a circular cylinder (modes A, B and QP) are present in the ellipse wake, and that in general they are all stabilized by increasing the aspect ratio of the ellipse. Two new pertinent modes are found: one long-wavelength mode with similarities to mode A, and a second that is only unstable for aspect ratios greater than approximately 1.75, which has similar spatiotemporal symmetries to mode B but has a distinct spatial structure. Results from fully three-dimensional simulations are also presented confirming the existence and growth of these two new modes in the saturated wakes.
To assess an intervention to limit community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) dissemination.
Randomized, controlled trial.
County Jail, Dallas, Texas.
A total of 4,196 detainees in 68 detention tanks.
Tanks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: in group 1, detainees received cloths that contained chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) to clean their entire skin surface 3 times per week for 6 months; group 2 received identical cloths containing only water; and group 3 received no skin treatment. During the study, all newly arrived detainees were invited to enroll. Nares and hand cultures were obtained at baseline and from all current enrollees at 2 and 6 months.
At baseline, S. aureus was isolated from 41.2% and MRSA from 8.0% (nares and/or hand) of 947 enrollees. The average participation rate was 47%. At 6 months, MRSA carriage was 10.0% in group 3 and 8.7% in group 1 tanks (estimated absolute risk reduction [95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.4% [−4.8% to 7.1%]; P = .655). At 6 months, carriage of any S. aureus was 51.1% in group 3, 40.7% in group 1 (absolute risk reduction [95% CI], 10.4% [0.01%–20.1%]; P = .047), and 42.8% (absolute risk reduction [95% CI], 8.3% [−1.4% to 18.0%]; P = .099) in group 2.
Skin cleaning with CHG for 6 months in detainees, compared with no intervention, significantly decreased carriage of S. aureus, and use of water cloths produced a nonsignificant but similar decrease. A nonsignificant decrease in MRSA carriage was found with CHG cloth use.
Fibrous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified by organometallic vapor exposure to form hybrid materials with unique photoluminescent characteristics. Using a sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) process, the elongated exposures of trimethylaluminum (TMA) to PET were examined. As the infiltration temperature increased, the evidence of changes in the reaction between the organometallic vapor and the polymer was observed as well as significant changes in the infiltration depth into the polymer fiber, owing to the variation in the reaction mechanisms of the hybrid material formation. At TMA exposures of 60 °C, the mass of the polymer fiber increased by ∼55 wt%, whereas exposures at 150 °C were limited to ∼25 wt% infiltration. Photoluminescence analysis of PET after TMA infiltration shows an intensity increase of up to ∼13x and an increase in red shift with increasing infiltration temperature, attributed to the variations in the reaction mechanism to form the hybrid modification observed through the spectroscopy analysis.