To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Structure and optical properties have been successfully determined for a series of niobium- and tantalum-containing layered alkaline-earth silicate compounds, Ba3(Nb6−xTax)Si4O26 (x = 0.6, 1.8, 3.0, 4.2, 5.4). The structure of this solid solution was found to be hexagonal P-62m (No. 189), with Z = 1. With x increases from 0.6 to 5.4, the lattice parameter a increases from 8.98804(8) to 9.00565(9) Å and c decreases from 7.83721(10) to 7.75212(12) Å. As a result, the volume decreases from 548.304(11) to 544.479(14) Å3. The (Nb/Ta)O6 distorted octahedra form continuous chains along the c-axis. These (Nb/Ta)O6 chains are in turn linked with the Si2O7 groups to form distorted pentagonal channels in which Ba ions were found. These Ba2+ ions have full occupancy and a 13-fold coordination environment with neighboring oxygen sites. Another salient feature of the structure is the linear Si–O–Si chains. When x in Ba3(Nb6−xTax)Si4O26 increases, the bond valence sum (BVS) values of the Ba sites increase slightly (2.09–2.20), indicating the size of the cage becoming progressively smaller (over-bonding). While SiO cages are also slightly smaller than ideal (BVS range from 4.16 to 4.19), the (Nb/Ta)O6 octahedral cages are slightly larger than ideal (BVS range from 4.87 to 4.90), giving rise to an under-bonding situation. The bandgaps of the solid solution members were measured between 3.39 and 3.59 eV, and the x = 3.0 member was modeled by density functional theory techniques to be 3.07 eV. The bandgaps of these materials indicate that they are potential candidates for ultraviolet photocatalyst.
Structural characterization and X-ray reference powder pattern determination have been conducted for the Co- and Zn-containing tridymite derivatives Ba(Co1−xZnx)SiO4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8). The bright blue series of Ba(Co1−xZnx)SiO4 crystallized in the hexagonal P63 space group (No. 173), with Z = 6. While the lattice parameter “a” decreases from 9.126 (2) Å to 9.10374(6) Å from x = 0.2 to 0.8, the lattice parameter “c” increases from 8.69477(12) Å to 8.72200(10) Å, respectively. Apparently, despite the similarity of ionic sizes of Zn2+ and Co2+, these opposing trends are due to the framework tetrahedral tilting of (ZnCo)O4. The lattice volume, V, remains comparable between 626.27 Å3 and 626.017 (7) Å3 from x = 0 to x = 0.8. UV-visible absorption spectrum measurements indicate the band gap of these two materials to be ≈3.3 and ≈3.5 eV, respectively, therefore potential UV photocatalytic materials. Reference powder X-ray diffraction patterns of these compounds have been submitted to be included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF).
To identify important risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to assist clinicians in identifying high-risk patients for continued surveillance and follow-up.
In this retrospective cohort study, we examined patients with MRSA bacteremia at 122 Veterans Affairs medical facilities from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2010. Recurrent MRSA bacteremia was identified by a positive blood culture result from 2 to 180 days after index hospitalization discharge. Subset analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for early-onset (2–60 days after discharge) and late-onset (61–180 days after discharge) recurrence. Risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Of 18,425 patients, 1,159 (6.3%) had recurrent MRSA bacteremia. The median time to recurrence was 63 days. Longer duration of index bacteremia, increased severity of illness, receipt of only vancomycin, community-acquired infection, and several comorbidities were risk factors for recurrence. Congestive heart failure, hypertension, and rheumatoid arthritis/collagen disease were risk factors for early-onset but not late-onset recurrence. Geographic region and cardiac arrhythmias were risk factors for late-onset but not early-onset recurrence.
Risk factors for recurrent MRSA bacteremia included comorbidities, severity of illness, duration of bacteremia, and receipt of only vancomycin. Awareness of risk factors may be important at patient discharge for implementation of quality improvement initiatives including surveillance, follow-up, and education for high-risk patients.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and costly condition affecting a predominantly older population. Physical rehabilitation has been shown to enhance motor performance and functional mobility in the short-term. However, there is limited information available about how best to design and deliver an ambulatory rehabilitation (AR) programme for this patient group. This article reviews the current evidence, aiming to provide guidance about best-practice service provision. We highlight the benefits of group therapy and techniques aimed at reducing falls. Further research is required to determine the optimal dose and intensity of AR necessary to provide sustained benefits in people with different stages of PD.
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond are currently considered excellent solid-state magnetic field sensors. Their long coherence times at room temperature and their atomic size allow for achieving both high magnetic field sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution in ambient conditions. This article reviews recent progress in magnetic field imaging with NV centers. We focus on two topics: scanning probe techniques with single NV centers and their application in the imaging of nanoscale magnetic structures, as well as recent development of magnetometers with ensembles of NV centers, which image magnetic fields at micron-length scales with extremely high sensitivities.
The transformation plateau on the strain-stress curve is the characteristic of superelasticity of bulk shape memory alloys upon tension/compression loading. However, recent studies show that such transformation plateau is hard to see when the sample size of shape memory alloys decreases to submicrons. In order to see what happened in such small scale samples during loading, in-situ compression test has been done with single crystal Cu-14.2Al-4.0Ni (wt %) submicron pillars. Our in-situ observation during compression demonstrates that the stress-induced martensitic transformation indeed occurs in submicron pillars, but is not suppressed. Furthermore, the transformation proceeds in a sequential nucleation-growth-nucleation dominated mode, but not the transient way like that in bulk materials. As a result, the stress keeps increasing throughout the transformation and no obvious transformation plateau can be detected. However, the underlying reason for such contrast transformation behaviors between our submicron pillars and bulk materials still needs further investigation.
The crystal structure of a-plane GaN/ZnO heterostructures on r-plane sapphire was investigated by using the XRD and TEM measurment. It was found the formation of (220) ZnGa2O4 and crystal orientation of semipolar (10
3) GaN at GaN/ZnO interface. The epitaxial relation of normal surface direction are the sapphire (1
02) // a-GaN (11
0) and ZnGa2O4 (220) // semi-polar GaN (10
). Beside, the emission peak energy of ZnO appears shift about 60 meV in the GaN/ZnO/GaN heterostructures due to the re-crystallization of ZnO layer with Ga or N atom and the formation of the localized state.
High quality dilute nitride subcells for multijunction solar cells are achieved using GaInNAsSb. The effects on device performance of Sb composition, strain and purity of the GaInNAsSb material are discussed. New world records in efficiency have been set with lattice-matched InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple junction solar cells and a roadmap to 50% efficiency with lattice-matched multijunction solar cells using GaInNAsSb is shown.
To discuss the minimally invasive treatment and prognosis of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving the eye and optic nerve.
Retrospective analysis of clinical data for 18 large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, with reports of three typical cases.
The tumour invaded the orbit, eye, optic nerve and optic chiasm in 18, 9, 8 and 5 patients, respectively. Twelve patients were cured after surgery, with the affected eye and vision essentially returning to normal. In six patients, tumour residue was found in the middle cranial fossa; two of these six did not return for follow up. Four patients underwent radiotherapy; all four regained placement of the eye in a normal or near-normal position. One of these four patients regained normal visual acuity, two experienced no improvement in visual acuity, and one became blind.
In patients with this tumour, surgery may return the eye to the normal position and may restore visual acuity if the optic fundus, macula, retina and optic nerve are only mildly affected. Modern radiotherapy can treat the intracranial residue effectively. A combined approach via the antrum, infratemporal fossa and nasal cavity, using a Caldwell–Luc incision, provides minimally invasive surgical access.
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonosis that threatens global public health. In this study, a total of 95 bird serum samples from 14 species and 341 horse serum samples were collected from 2008 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. All serum samples were screened initially for WNV-reactive antibodies using a competitive ELISA. The positive samples detected by ELISA were further confirmed using a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for WNV and its most closely related flaviviruses in the area to avoid false positives due to cross-reactivity. Five (5·3%) of the bird serum samples and none (0·0%) of the horse serum samples tested positive for WNV antibodies. The findings strongly suggest that some of the birds, specifically the resident birds in China, had been exposed to WNV.
The subaqueous margins of calving glaciers have the potential to make significant contributions to glacier mass loss. However, to date, very little is known about the morphology and development of subaqueous margins. A unique combination of sub-bottom profile and bathymetric data collected between 2008 and 2010 in proglacial lakes at Mueller, Hooker and Tasman glaciers in New Zealand’s Southern Alps reveal subaqueous ice ramps extending up to 510 m from the terminus of each glacier. Ice ramp surfaces are undulating and covered with a thick layer (up to 10 m) of unsorted sediment derived from supraglacial and englacial debris, lateral moraines and deltaic deposits. A cyclic calving pattern, relatively stable lake level and the debris cover appear to control the development and maintenance of these ice ramps. High subaerial retreat rates generally correspond to high subaqueous calving rates, although the highest subaerial retreat rates are not associated with the largest ice ramp. Debris mantling the subaqueous ice ramp surfaces insulates the ice from melting and also reduces buoyant forces acting on the terminus. Comparisons with previous studies show that the ice ramps evolve over time with changes in glacier dynamics and water-body properties.
Both fish oil (FO) and curcumin have potential as anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory agents. To further explore their combined effects on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, C57BL/6 mice were randomised to four diets (2 × 2 design) differing in fatty acid content with or without curcumin supplementation (FO, FO+2 % curcumin, maize oil (control, MO) or MO+2 % curcumin). Mice were exposed to one or two cycles of DSS in the drinking-water to induce either acute or chronic intestinal inflammation, respectively. FO-fed mice exposed to the single-cycle DSS treatment exhibited the highest mortality (40 %, seventeen of forty-three) compared with MO with the lowest mortality (3 %, one of twenty-nine) (P = 0·0008). Addition of curcumin to MO increased (P = 0·003) mortality to 37 % compared with the control. Consistent with animal survival data, following the one- or two-cycle DSS treatment, both dietary FO and curcumin promoted mucosal injury/ulceration compared with MO. In contrast, compared with other diets, combined FO and curcumin feeding enhanced the resolution of chronic inflammation and suppressed (P < 0·05) a key inflammatory mediator, NF-κB, in the colon mucosa. Mucosal microarray analysis revealed that dietary FO, curcumin and FO plus curcumin combination differentially modulated the expression of genes induced by DSS treatment. These results suggest that dietary lipids and curcumin interact to regulate mucosal homeostasis and the resolution of chronic inflammation in the colon.
To assess the impact of habitat fragmentation on tropical avian communities, we sampled lowland forest birds on six land-bridge islands and two mainland forest sites in Lake Kenyir, Peninsular Malaysia using timed point counts, hypothesizing that insectivorous birds are the worst affected guild. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the effects of area, isolation, primary dietary guild (omnivore, frugivore and insectivore) and their interactions in predicting species richness, abundance and diversity. Our analysis showed that a model that considered the effects of area, dietary guild and their interaction best explained observed patterns of species richness. But a model considering both area and dietary guild best explained the variation in abundance. Notably, insectivorous birds were singled out as the dietary guild most sensitive to fragmentation, followed by frugivorous and omnivorous birds and hence provide support for our hypothesis. Assemblages of insectivorous birds were clearly depauperate on anthropogenic forest islands in Lake Kenyir and are consistent with forest fragmentation studies in the Neotropics. Given their specialized foraging ecology and diversity, conservation of intact communities of insectivorous bird guilds in Malaysia will be critical for maintaining predator–prey interactions in lowland tropical forests.
The paper addresses the �green innovation� in the non-fossil fuel energy industry. The objective of the study is to identify the changes in trends of non-fossil fuel energy industry demand, growth and opportunities. The study uses the databases such as patents, news events, income/financial statements to assess the company status and the track record of the industry. The research adopts the methodology of Innovation Radar (Sawhney, MIT Sloan Management Research, 2001) to assess the positioning of the dominant company and design in photovoltaic, geothermal and wind renewable energy industry. The study also summarizes the sustainable competitive advantages of some of the successful companies in the energy sector. This study correlates the gains in innovation tripartite (product, process, business) to the corporate competitive advantage. The companies selected in this study are based on the innovations brought to improve the product, process and business aspects and are evaluated in terms of market adaptability.
Elastomeric composites based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene-Monomer (EPDM) filled with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been prepared, showing improved mechanical properties as compared to the pure EPDM matrix. The results have been discussed using the Guth model. The main focus of the study was on the electrical behavior of the nanocomposites, in view of possible sensor applications. A linear relation has been found between conductivity and deformations up to 10% strain, which means that such materials could be used for applications such as strain or pressure sensors. Cyclic experiments were conducted to establish whether the linear relation was reversible, which is an important requirement for sensor materials.
A white cast iron of composition Fe81C14Si5 can be cast into a nanostructure with network morphology by a fluxing technique. The conventional morphology of white cast iron, which is brittle, is eutectic. The mechanical behavior of network white cast iron is attractive. Hardness tests indicate that its average hardness value is ∼770 HV. The indentations made during hardness tests have no cracks. A stylus surface profiler was employed to study the surface profile at and near the indentations. The studies indicate that there are severe plastic flows, but without cracks.
To understand the relationship between the gastrointestinal inhabiting microbial community and broiler health, a literature review is presented. The available information on the development of gut microbial community, the relationship between commensal microflora and digestive function, the role of gut microorganisms on competitive exclusion of chickens against pathogens, and modulation of the gut microbial community by addition of prebiotics to the diet is summarized. Gut dominant microbial communities become more complex as broilers grow older. The establishment of the dominant bacterial community is affected by dietary and host-related factors. Dietary prebiotics can modulate bacterial community shift towards non-harmful bacteria, which is beneficial for the health of broiler chickens. Gut commensal microorganisms play an important role in the prevention of colonization by pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, a process known as competitive exclusion. In conclusion, the dilemma caused by the forthcoming ban of antibiotics feed additives and need to maintain the intestinal health of broiler chickens, has produced an enormous interest in finding alternatives. Modulating the intestinal microbial community in a healthy direction, by dietary ingredients such as prebiotics, could be a good solution.