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Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is an important physical phenomenon as one design a riser or a cylindrical structure in ocean. As the riser or the cylindrical structure is adjacent to a seabed, the boundary effect on VIV is not fully understood yet. The direct-forcing immersed boundary (DFIB) method is used to investigate a two-degree-of-freedom VIV of a flexible supported circular cylinder adjacent to a plane boundary in this study. Furthermore, the effect of the VIV of cylinder on skin friction of the plane boundary is investigated. The effects of varying reduced velocity and gap ratio on VIV are discussed. Only a single vortex street is found when the cylinder is close to plane boundary. Hydrodynamic coefficients of the freely vibrating cylinder are analyzed in time and spectral domains. Furthermore, nearly round oval-shaped motion is observed as the so-called lock-in phenomenon occurs. The skin friction of the plane boundary is predicted by the DFIB model. Results show that the vibrating cylinder in the boundary layer flow can reduce the friction effectively. This proposed DFIB model can be useful for the investigation of VIV of the structures under the plane boundary effect even for a small gap between the cylinder and the boundary.
As the consciousness of energy saving and carbon reduction and comfortable environment is paid increasing attention to, the common objective of various countries with decreasing energy is to develop and popularize high efficiency and low running noise blowers. This study uses CFD to calculate the flow field and performance of a blower and compare with the experimental measurement. The characteristic curve of blower shows that the simulated and experimental values are close to each other, the difference between the values is only 0.4%. This analysis result proofs the CFD package is a highly reliable tool for the future blower design improvement. In addition, this study discusses the noise distribution of blower flow field, the periodic pressure output value calculated by CFD is used in the sound source input of sound pressure field, so as to simulate and analyze the aerodynamic noise reading of the flow field around the blower. The result shows that the simulated value of flow field around the fan has as high as 80.5 dB(A) ∼ 81.5 dB(A) noise level and is agree with measurement (82 dB(A)). The noise level is low but has a sharp noise. According to the numerical results, designer of the blower modify the tongue geometry and remove the sharp noise.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to obtain measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH3OH emission from comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) on 28-29 June 2014. Detection of 12-14 emission lines of CH3OH on each day permitted the derivation of spatially-resolved rotational temperature profiles (averaged along the line of sight), for the innermost 5000 km of the coma. On each day, the CH3OH distribution was centrally peaked and approximately consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. The azimuthally-averaged CH3OH rotational temperature (Trot) as a function of sky-projected nucleocentric distance (ρ), fell by about 40 K between ρ= 0 and 2500 km on 28 June, whereas on 29 June, Trot fell by about 50 K between ρ =0 km and 1500 km. A remarkable (~50 K) rise in Trot at ρ = 1500-2500 km on 29 June was not present on 28 June. The observed variations in CH3OH rotational temperature are interpreted primarily as a result of variations in the coma kinetic temperature due to adiabatic cooling, and heating through Solar irradiation, but collisional and radiative non-LTE excitation processes also play a role.
In this article, we investigated the effect of Sn grain structure on the electromigration (EM) reliability of Sn–2.5Ag (wt%) solder joints used in flip-chip packages. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was applied to characterize the Sn grain size and orientation of the solder joints. Failure analyses on Sn–2.5Ag solder joints after EM tests showed that the Sn grain structure was important in controlling the kinetics of the intermetallic compound growth and void formation under EM. Further microstructural analysis revealed that the grain sizes and orientations of the solder joints after multiple solder reflows were statistically different from those with a single solder reflow and resulted in an improved EM reliability. Thermal annealing effect was also investigated to separate the thermal effect from the EM-induced effect. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that EM reliability of Pb-free solder joints could be improved by optimization of the Sn grain structure.
Templated growth for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots and lattice-mismatched structures has been employed in this study. Self assembly of block copolymers (BCP) has been exploited to create a regular array of nanoscale patterns on a substrate to generate the growth template. These patterned templates were used for the selective area growth of pseudomorphic quantum dots, allowing for precise control over the dot size and spatial distribution. Strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched structures grown past the pseudomorphic limit was also studied. Analysis of the grown structures suggests that this approach using block copolymer templating followed by selective growth can be used for defect reduction in lattice-mismatched materials.
Multilayer microcantilevers present in micro-/nano- electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) applications serving passive and active structural roles. The application and commercialization of MEMS devices suffer from reliability problems. Appropriate nanocoatings, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD), have been demonstrated to be promising solutions for these reliability problems in MEMS devices. However, the micro/nano- mechanics within and/or between the microcantilevers and nanocoatings are not fully understood, especially when temperature, time, microstructural evolution and material nonlinearities play significant roles in thermomechanical response. The overall goal of this work is to suppress and understand the inelastic deformation and microstructural evolution in multilayer microcantilevers with nanocoatings. Moreover, to better understand the stress relief and Al2O3 suppression mechanism, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to explore the microstructural evolution.
This paper presents the mechanical characterization of the elastic modulus, hardness and fracture toughness of silicon oxynitride films (SiON) with different oxygen and nitrogen content, subjected to thermal annealing processed at 400 °C and 800 °C. The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to characterize the SiON films with respect to the absorbance peak in the infrared spectrum. The nanoindentation testing showed that both the elastic modulus and hardness slightly increased after thermal annealing. Finally, the fracture toughness of the SiON films were estimated using Vickers micro-indentation tests and the result revealed that the fracture toughness decreased with increasing rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature and nitrogen content. We believe these results benefit microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in regards to maintaining the structural integrity and improving reliability performance.
In this work, thin ALD alumina films were fabricated for evaluating their capabilities as a barrier material for corrosive environments. The fracture toughness and the corrosion-resisting properties after fatigue cycle of these thin ALD alumina films have been characterized. Indentation tests indicate that the ALD alumina/Al structures could enhance both the yield strength of the metal and the effective fracture toughness of the coated ALD alumina films and this result could be useful for designing nanocomposite structures. However, the test results also indicate that the interfacial strength of the ALD/Al structures was prone to degrade under fatigue loading under corrosive environment. This could potentially be a problem for the long term reliability of related devices operated under a harsh environment. In addition, the strong correlation between indentation behavior and fatigue loading for the structure indicate that nanoindentation response could be possibly used to indicate the damage level of microstructures for future reliability evaluations.
The mechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were characterized by using uniaxial compression, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and nanoindentation tests as well as finite element simulation methods. A five-parameter linear solid model was used to emulate the behavior of PDMS. The study results indicated that the effect of viscoelasticity affected the PDMS pillar arrays significantly. The traditional approach for calculating the cell force basing on the linear elastic mechanics could result in considerable errors.
We have recently achieved a non-dispersive, low-order pseudogap in the blue region near the L-point in electrodeposited ZnO inverse opal. This behavior is a consequence of the change in the interconnecting network of interstices from a low dielectric (air) in the opal to a high dielectric one in the inverse opal. To verify this, we present the calculated photonic bands along the LW direction, which corresponds to the angular range explored experimentally by means of angle-resolved spectroscopy. We also studied the dispersion as a function of refractive index contrast (RIC). Further increase of the RIC above the threshold necessary to open up a complete photonic bandgap between the 8th and 9th bands does not have significant effects on improving the non-dispersive characteristic in the pseudogap. The results could be extended to make other inverse photonic structures of different symmetry with non-dispersive bands suitable for the study of optical processes involving low group velocity.
Growth and polarity control of GaN and AlN on carbon-face SiC (C-SiC) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are reported. The polarities of GaN and AlN layers were found to be strongly dependent on the pre-growth treatment of C-SiC substrates. A pre-flow of trimethyaluminum (TMAl) or a very low NH3/TMAl ratio results in Al(Ga)-polarity layers on C-SiC. Otherwise, N-polarity layers resulted. The polarities of AlN and GaN layers were conveniently determined by their etching rate in KOH or H3PO4, a method reported earlier. We suggest that the Al adatoms, which have a high sticking coefficient on SiC, form several Al adlayers on C-SiC and change the incorporation sequence of Ga(Al) and N leading to metal polarity surface. In addition, the hexagonal pyramids, typical on N-polarity GaN surface, are absent on N-polarity GaN on off-axis C-SiC owing to high density of terraces on off-axis C-SiC. The properties of GaN layers grown on C-SiC are studied by X-ray diffraction.
We have synthesized rare-earth doped sub-10 nm diameter upconverting yttrium oxide based nanophosphors by flame spray pyrolysis. We have investigated the emitted visible fluorescence of the sub-10nm nanophosphors under both infrared excitation and electron excitation, and observed comparable narrow band emission spectra. The viability of the nanoparticles for biological imaging was confirmed by imaging the digestive system of the nematode worm C. elegans in the upconversion mode. We have surface functionalized the nanophosphors making them suitable for bio labeling.
A method for depositing large grained polycrystalline GaAs on lattice mismatched substrates through controlled nucleation and selective growth is presented. The process was developed on Si wafers. Nucleation site formation began with nanolithography to create submicron holes in photoresist on Si. Ga metal was electrochemically deposited into the holes. Subsequent arsine anneals converted the gallium deposits into GaAs. Photoluminescence and electron diffraction verified conversion to GaAs. Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) enlarged the seed crystals to coalescence without creating additional nucleation sites within the patterned field. Having successfully demonstrated the approach, subsequent work has been directed at lower cost, alternative ways to define initial nucleation sites, such as, microcontact lithography and direct decomposition of triethyl gallium to Ga metal in the MOCVD chamber.
Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically important molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically important molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have important implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.
GaN films have been grown homoepitaxially by MOCVD on MBE-grown GaN template layers, using both porous and nonporous SiC substrates. The effect of the porous SiC substrates on dislocations in the MBE and MOCVD GaN layers has been studied using TEM and x-ray characterization. A reduction in dislocation density from ≥1×1010 cm-2 in the MBE template to 2.5×109 cm-2 at the top of the MOCVD film is found, with similar final values in the MOCVD films for both porous and nonporous substrates. We discuss various mechanisms by which dislocation density is reduced in the MOCVD layers.