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In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
The Japan-U.S. satellite ASCA was launched in February 1993 and provides a new capability to obtain high-resolution X-ray spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars in the 0.5 — 10 keV band. We present spectra of the wide binary HD 193793 (WC7+O4-5) obtained three months after periastron with the WC7 star in front, and of the WN7 star HD 93162 in Carina. The spectrum of HD 193793 is heavily absorbed below 2 keV by the WC7 wind and shows a prominent emission line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV. Acceptable fits were obtained using a Raymond-Smith model with kT ≈ 3 keV and non-solar abundances. In contrast, the spectrum of HD 93162 is softer and shows very little emission above ≍2 keV. The relatively low signal-to-noise precludes emission line analysis, and an acceptable spectral fit was obtained using a simple Bremsstrahlung model with kT ≍ 1.6 keV. No significant variability was detected in the X-ray light-curves of either star.
We report detections of thermal X-ray line emission and proper motions in the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946, the prototype of the small class of synchrotron dominated SNRs. Based on deep XMM-Newton observations, we find clear line features including Ne Lyα, Mg Heα, and Si Heα from the central portion of the remnant. The metal abundance ratios suggest that the thermal emission originates from core-collapse SN ejecta arising from a relatively low-mass (≲20 M⊙) progenitor. In addition, using XMM-Newton observations on a 13 yr time interval, we have measured expansion in the southeastern rim to be ~0.75″ yr−1 or ~3500 km s−1 at a distance of 1 kpc. Given this, we derive an upstream density to be ~0.01 cm−3, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium. We also estimate the age of the remnant to be ~1200–1600 yr, roughly consistent with the idea that RX J1713.7-3946 is the remnant of SN 393.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The region south of the reflection nebula NGC1333 in Perseus is an active star forming region including numerous Herbig-Haro objects and at least 5 protostar candidates with molecular outflows and far-infrared emission. It has been actively studied in various wave bands (e.g. Aspin et al 1994 and references therein). We observed this region with ASCA with the primary objective to detect X-rays from the protostars embedded deep in the molecular cloud.
On 1993 August 20, we observed the Rho-Oph dark cloud and detected hard X-rays from Class I sources (Koyama et al.(1994), Kamata et al.(1997)). One of the sources (EL29) showed a flare-like variability, while another (WL6) exhibited sinusoidal variation with no large spectral change. The later would be due to a spin of the protostar. The sinusoidal period of about 1 day is shorter than spin periods of TTSs of ~3-7 day.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
One major objective of our ASCA Galactic Plane Survey Project (AGPSP) is, utilizing the wide and high energy band (up to 10 keV) X-ray imaging capability and the high spectral resolving power of ASCA, to search possible X-ray SNRs in the Galactic inner disk. The observation of the field including G352.7-0.1 reported in this paper, was performed on 1996 March 14 during the first AO4 survey. We report on the X-ray SNR G352.7-0.1 found in AGPSP. G352.7-0.1 is one of the radio SNRs (Green 1996), and is classified as a shell-like SNR with the size of 8' x 6'.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
Objectives: Clinical neuroscience is increasingly turning to imaging the human brain for answers to a range of questions and challenges. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the neural basis of current psychiatric symptoms, which can facilitate the identification of neurobiological markers for diagnosis. However, the increasing availability and feasibility of using imaging modalities, such as diffusion imaging and resting-state fMRI, enable longitudinal mapping of brain development. This shift in the field is opening the possibility of identifying predictive markers of risk or prognosis, and also represents a critical missing element for efforts to promote personalized or individualized medicine in psychiatry (i.e., stratified psychiatry). Methods: The present work provides a selective review of potentially high-yield populations for longitudinal examination with MRI, based upon our understanding of risk from epidemiologic studies and initial MRI findings. Results: Our discussion is organized into three topic areas: (1) practical considerations for establishing temporal precedence in psychiatric research; (2) readiness of the field for conducting longitudinal MRI, particularly for neurodevelopmental questions; and (3) illustrations of high-yield populations and time windows for examination that can be used to rapidly generate meaningful and useful data. Particular emphasis is placed on the implementation of time-appropriate, developmentally informed longitudinal designs, capable of facilitating the identification of biomarkers predictive of risk and prognosis. Conclusions: Strategic longitudinal examination of the brain at-risk has the potential to bring the concepts of early intervention and prevention to psychiatry. (JINS, 2016, 22, 164–179)
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
The redshift interval z = 2–3 is known as the cosmic noon that is the most active era of star formation across the Universe (Hopkins & Beacom 2006). In the past decade, many authors have investigated global properties of star-forming (SF) galaxies in this turbulent era, such as gas fractions and gaseous metallicities (e.g. Erb et al. 2006). With those achievements, we are going on to the next stage to understand more details i.e. those physical parameters in star-forming regions. Recent advent of near-infrared instruments typified by MOSFIRE on the Keck telescope, enable us with identifying the physical parameters of Hii regions in ‘typical’ SF galaxies individually (Steidel et al. 2014). Recent highlights suggest higher electron densities, higher ionization parameters, and harder UV radiation fields may be common.
In order to know how galaxy evolution physically correlates with the natures of their star-forming regions, we have explored relationships between the electron density (ne) of ionized gas from the oxygen line ratio and other physical properties, based on the deep spectra of Hα emitters at z = 2.5 by the MOSFIRE. MOSFIRE for the first time provides ne of the galaxies at high-z with a high level of confidence. The result shows the specific star formation rate (sSFR) and the SFR surface density (ΣSFR) are correlated with ne (Shimakawa et al. 2015). The ne-ΣSFR relation could be linked to the star formation law in Hii regions if we assume that hydrogen in Hii regions is fully-ionized. Otherwise, more active star formation per unit area (higher ΣSFRs), may cause higher ionization states. However, we need some specific concerns that obtained physical parameters should depend on the scale dependence, since typical size of Hii region is only <100 pc despite that we study physical states of entire galaxies. Thus we obtain surface-brightness-weighted and ensemble averaged line fluxes for the entire galaxy or the part that falls into the slit width (a few kpc scale size). The thirty meter telescope (TMT) is a powerful instrument to resolve such a difficulty, since its spatial resolution reaches <100 pc on the physical scale at z ~ 2 by AO assistance.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
We have investigated characteristic ferroelectric and structural antiphase domain structures in single crystals of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu, and Yb) by obtaining various electron diffraction patterns, dark-filed images and high-resolution lattice images. In the ferroelectric phase of RMnO3 characteristic domain structures consisting of six ferroelectric and structural antiphase domains, which can be identified as the “cloverleaf” pattern, is found in the (110) plane, in addition to the (001) plane, and are inherent to the ferroelectric phase of hexagonal RMnO3. In domain configuration with the cloverleaf pattern in the (110) plane, the structural antiphase boundaries are inclined to be parallel to the  direction.
Light emitting devices (LEDs) based on porous polysilicon (PPS) have been fabricated on a transparent quartz substrate. Several structures have been developed, each consisting of a backside contact (ITO or p+ polysilicon), a light emitting PPS layer, a capping layer, and a metal top contact. Photoluminescence (PL) from PPS is similar to that of etched crystalline Si, peaking near 750 nn and showing degradation during 515 nm laser excitation with intensity <100 mW/cm2. This degradation disappears if PPS is oxidized after formation. Visible electroluminescence (EL) has been achieved in both oxidized and non-oxidized PPS devices with voltages under 10 V and current densities <200 mA/cm2.