To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Fascin is an actin-binding protein which is expressed in the basal areas of healthy squamous epithelium. Although overexpression of fascin has been shown in many tumours, the relationship between fascin and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has not previously been investigated, to the best of our knowledge. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between fascin expression and tumour behaviour in 30 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Materials and methods:
For all lesions, a section of paraffin-embedded tissue was immunohistochemically stained for fascin. The percentage of positive, stained cells was scored from one to five (one = 0–5 per cent, two = 6–25 per cent, three = 26–50 per cent, four = 51–75 per cent and five = 76–100 per cent), and the staining intensity from one to three (one = mild, two = moderate and three = strong). A total immunohistochemical fascin expression score was obtained by multiplying the staining percentage and intensity. The relationship between the total fascin score and each case's age, sex, tumour localisation, tumour–node–metastasis stage and differentiation was evaluated statistically.
Various amounts of fascin expression were observed in all cases. There was a statistically significant relationship between high levels of fascin expression (i.e. a total fascin score of 10 or more) and the cases' tumour stage (p = 0.022), node stage (p = 0.024) and clinical stage (p = 0.014). In addition, worsening tumour differentiation was associated with an increasing fascin score, but this finding was statistically insignificant.
These results suggest that laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas with high levels of fascin expression may be more aggressive than those with low expression levels. Further studies with larger series are needed to support these results and to clarify rationales.
Conscious and deceptive exaggeration of hearing loss is termed pseudohypacusis. Even though the Stenger test has been used in the management of pseudohypacusis for almost a century, its sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for unilateral pseudohypacusis have not previously been reported, to our best knowledge. We investigated the efficiency of the Stenger test in detecting unilateral pseudohypacusis, accepting auditory brainstem response testing as the ‘gold standard’.
Materials and methods:
Candidates with questionable profound or total hearing loss were enrolled in the study. Pure tone audiometry, speech and tonal Stenger tests, and click test auditory brainstem response measurement were performed. Accepting auditory brainstem response testing as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Stenger test for unilateral, profound pseudohypacusis were assessed.
Two hundred military candidates were enrolled in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of the Stenger test in verifying unilateral, profound hearing loss were 99.4 and 70 per cent, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test were 87.5 and 98.4 per cent, respectively.
The Stenger test is widely used for the evaluation of unilateral or asymmetrical pseudohypacusis. In our opinion, it is a powerfully reliable test. More difficult cases require objective electrophysiological testing to verify functional hearing loss and to exclude specific diagnoses that may imitate pseudohypacusis.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.