One hundred and twenty-five Shigella flexneri strains, isolated during January-December 1984, at the Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, were serotyped using absorbed rabbit antisera specific for all type-and group-factor antigens, as well as a group of ten mouse and rat monoclonal antibodies. Electropherotypes of the plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were also determined. S. flexneri 2a was the predominant serotype followed by 3b, 1a, and 2b.The recently described E1037 antigen was also found in three strains of S. flexneri serotype 6. Electropherotyping of the plasmid DNA showed that three plasmids of approximately 140. 2·7. and 2 megadalton (MDa) were present, respectively, in 97, 97 and 94% of the 125 strains. Additional plasmids of various other sizes were also present in different serotypes except in serotype 2a. The additional plasmids again appeared to be specific for that particular serotype. For example, all 12 strains of S. flexneri 2b harboured an additional plasmid of approximately 1 MDa. Thus, electropherotyping of plasmid DNA of different serotypes of S. flexneri might be useful to differentiate S. flexneri from other species of Shigella and in identifying different serotypes of S. flexneri. Therefore, the common plasmids, plus the additional plasmids. could be used to identify epidemic, as well as sporadic, subclones of S. flexneri strains.