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In the present study, compressible low-Reynolds-number flow past a stationary isolated sphere was investigated by direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations using a body-fitted grid with high-order schemes. The Reynolds number based on free-stream quantities and the diameter of the sphere was set to be between 250 and 1000, and the free-stream Mach number was set to be between 0.3 and 2.0. As a result, it was clarified that the wake of the sphere is significantly stabilized as the Mach number increases, particularly at the Mach number greater than or equal to 0.95, but turbulent kinetic energy at the higher Mach numbers conditions is higher than that at the lower Mach numbers conditions of similar flow regimes. A rapid extension of the length of the recirculation region was observed under the transitional condition between the steady and unsteady flows. The drag coefficient increases as the Mach number increases mainly in the transonic regime and its increment is almost due to the increment in the pressure component. In addition, the increment in the drag coefficient is approximately a function of the Mach number and independent of the Reynolds number in the continuum regime. Moreover, the effect of the Mach and Reynolds numbers on the flow properties such as the drag coefficient and flow regime can approximately be characterized by the position of the separation point.
In this study, direct numerical simulation of the flow around a rotating sphere at high Mach and low Reynolds numbers is conducted to investigate the effects of rotation rate and Mach number upon aerodynamic force coefficients and wake structures. The simulation is carried out by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations. A free-stream Reynolds number (based on the free-stream velocity, density and viscosity coefficient and the diameter of the sphere) is set to be between 100 and 300, the free-stream Mach number is set to be between 0.2 and 2.0, and the dimensionless rotation rate defined by the ratio of the free-stream and surface velocities above the equator is set between 0.0 and 1.0. Thus, we have clarified the following points: (1) as free-stream Mach number increased, the increment of the lift coefficient due to rotation was reduced; (2) under subsonic conditions, the drag coefficient increased with increase of the rotation rate, whereas under supersonic conditions, the increment of the drag coefficient was reduced with increasing Mach number; and (3) the mode of the wake structure becomes low-Reynolds-number-like as the Mach number is increased.
The interaction of femtosecond ultra-intense laser pulses with clusters increases absorption of the incident laser light compared with the interaction with solid targets and leads to enhanced generation of different quantum beams with unique parameters. Future investigations of such interaction urgently need detailed modeling and optimization of cluster parameters, for instance, in order to obtain the clusters with desired size, or some specific spatial configuration of the target etc. A numerical model of gas-cluster targets production by the nozzle flows of gases and binary mixtures is presented. Some previous results of the model utilization are summarized, and some new results are given. Techniques of experimental verification of the numerical results are discussed.
This study aimed to predict eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis prognosis by investigating changes in the blood eosinophil count and other disease biomarkers after surgery.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 levels were measured in 22 eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients before and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and compared with equivalent measures in non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps patients. Differences between well-controlled eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and those who experienced recurrence were also assessed.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 level decreased after surgery in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. In this patient group, blood eosinophil counts before surgery were significantly higher in patients who experienced recurrence (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 443.9 ± 76.6 cells/μl, p < 0.05), and decreased significantly after surgery (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 76.7 ± 25.8 cells/μl, p < 0.05).
Blood eosinophil numbers may reflect disease severity in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and their prognosis after surgery.
The superbubble (SB) 30 Dor C with the strong non-thermal X-ray emission is one of the best targets for study of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the SB with a high spatial resolution of ~10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the east regions can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the west regions can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. We found that the observed photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10−7 erg s−1 cm−2 str−1, respectively. The results are possibly caused by the spatial variation of the CR acceleration efficiency and/or the circumstellar environment.
It is shown that various spectroscopic methods based on measurements of X-ray spectra radiated from cluster targets can be used for estimation of the destruction degree of clusters by laser prepulses. These methods allow insight to be gained regarding the important issue of preservation of the dense cluster core at the moment of the arrival of the main laser pulse. In addition, they can be used for quantitative estimation of the size of the undestroyed parts of the clusters and also for measuring the temperature and density of the preplasmas produced by the laser prepulses.
This paper describes a semi-automated conductive ink process used for packaging MEMS devices. The method is applied to packaging of MEMS sensors for wind tunnel testing. The primary advantage of the method is a reduction in surface topology between the package and the integrated MEMS sensors. In this paper we explore the relationship between trace dimensions, resistivity, and deposition parameters such as feed rate, tip-substrate separation and tip diameter. Using this procedure it is possible to generate interconnects between a PC board and MEMS sensor chip with a topology of less than 25 micrometers.
Boron Phosphide (BP) is a promising material for use as a room temperature semiconductor detector of thermal neutrons. The absorption of a thermal neutron by a 10B nucleus in BP can yield 2.3MeV of energy which in solid state BP can yield ∼0.5 million electron-hole pairs that would be detectable with minimal amplification in a device. BP thin films are grown according to the net reaction below in a cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor: Thin film depositions are performed using diborane and phosphine with a balance of hydrogen gas at near atmospheric pressure with RF induction heating. The resultant BP films are characterized by Raman, XRD, SEM, TEM and TEM-EELS for chemical composition, surface and bulk morphology. BP growths on Si and SiC substrates are compared. SiC provides reduced lattice mismatch for growth of BP and growth of heteroepitaxial BP on SiC will be discussed.
Gallium nitride thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. Subsequently, post-growth annealing of the samples was performed at 400, and 600 oC in the nitrogen atmosphere. Surface morphology of the as-grown and annealed samples was performed by atomic force microscopy, surface roughness of the films improved after annealing. Chemical analysis of the samples was performed using x-ray photon spectroscopy, stoichiometric Gallium nitride thin films were obtained for the samples annealed at 600 oC. Optical measurements of the samples were performed to investigate the effect of annealing on the band gap and optical constants the films.
Abrasive blade dicing is the most common technique for die separation. In this work an alternative dry and non-abrasive die separation method, which is known as "Stealth dicing", is assessed for surface-sensitive MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) wafers. The dicing performance and capability of the system is investigated on 200mm full thickness wafers with and without MEMS structures. The diced wafers are analyzed with respect to the silicon cutting quality, possible particle contamination, the condition of functional structures and their mechanical and electrical functionality. In addition the performance and limitations of two different Stealth Dicing Engine (SDE) types, SDE01 and SDE03, are compared to each other with respect to their performance on MEMS wafer dicing.
From this work design rules and proper dimensions of the scribe line can be determined. Process integration solutions, describing steps before and after the Stealth dicing process, including the contact-less dicing tape application to the wafer back side and the final die separation method by tape stretching, are presented. It was also found that the SDE03 laser with its outstanding performance in terms of process speed and separation quality can bring a breakthrough for applying this technology for MEMS wafers.
High reliability, low power consumption and high speed laser diodes are required for optical interconnect. We developed 1060nm VCSELs with InGaAs/GaAs strained quantum wells, oxide-confined and double intra-cavity structures for that purpose. As for the power consumption, low power dissipation of 0.14 mW/Gbps at 10 Gbps operation has been achieved. Clear eye openings up to 20 Gbps were confirmed at a low bias current of 5 mA. In the reliability test, accelerated aging tests were performed up to 5,000 hours at 6 mA in three different temperatures, 70 oC, 90 oC and 120 oC. The total number of the VCSELs was 4,898 pcs (approximately 5,000). No failure was observed. Under the normal operating condition of 40 oC and 6 mA, the total device-hours was 7.75×107 hours assuming Ea = 0.35 eV according to Telcordia GR-468-CORE. The random failure rate of 30 FIT with the confidence level (C.L.) of 90 % and 12 FIT with the C.L. of 60 % were estimated. To estimate the wear-out lifetime and the number of FITs, high stressed aging tests with 170 oC and 6 mA were performed. With the acceleration factor of Ea = 0.7 eV in the wear-out failure, the median lifetime was 3,000 hours which was equivalent to 300 years in 40 oC ambient. The FIT numbers due to the wear-out were estimated as 0.3 FIT for 10 years. Compared with the random failure rate of 30 FIT, the wear-out failure rates are considered to be negligible. In the extremely long term aging test with 90 oC and 6 mA, no wear-out trend has been observed in both threshold current and optical power up to 20,000 hours operation. These results indicate that 1060 nm VCSEL is promising light source used in optical interconnect for high performance computers and data centers.
Charge trapping and slow (10 s to > 1000 s) detrapping in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs designed for high breakdown voltage (> 1500 V) are studied to identify the impact of Al molefraction and passivation on trapping. Two different trapping components, TG1 (Ea = 0.62 eV) and TG2 (with negligible temperature dependence) in AlGaN dominate under gate bias stress in the off-state. Al0.15Ga0.85N shows much more vulnerability to trapping under gate stress in the absence of passivation than does AlGaN with a higher Al mole fraction. Under large drain bias, trapping is dominated by a much deeper trap TD. Detrapping under illumination by monochromatic light shows TD to have Ea ≈ 1.65 eV in Al0.26Ga0.74N and Ea ≈ 1.85 eV in Al0.15Ga0.85N. This is consistent with a transition from a deep state (Ec - 2.0 eV) in the AlGaN barrier to the 2DEG.
By pumping AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with below band-gap light we observe changes in drain current that correspond to the trapping and detrapping of carriers within the band-gap. These changes in drain current are indicators of trap density, since the energy from a specific wavelength of light pumps traps whose activation energies are less than or equal to that of the light source.
AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC with dual submicron gates with widths of 125nm, 140nm, or 170nm, are DC-stressed under three different conditions along a load line: VGS=0, VDS=5 (on-state), VGS=-2, VDS=9.2 and, VGS=-6, VDS=25 (off-state). The stress tests are interrupted at 20% degradation and the optically pumped comparisons to the baseline are measured.
This paper describes the optical pumping technique and results from experiments of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs under the three DC stress biases along a load line.
Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically.
The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is composed of
many Filamentary Discharges (FDs), and it can be applied to ozone
generation, gaseous pollution control, etc. In our laboratory, we
investigated efficient cleaning methods of diesel exhaust gas by DBD. From
the results of numerical simulation of chemical reactions, a homogeneous DBD
was expected to improve the efficiency of pollution control and also the
ozone yield. Recently, we found that a DBD device using alumina as barrier
material can generate an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (APTD) in
air. In this research, we setup two ozonizers with different discharge modes
of FD and APTD, and compared the ozone yield. The experimental results
showed that the ozone yield was higher by the FD mode than by the APTD mode
in lower Specific Input Energy (SIE) region. However in the region that the
SIE is larger than 420J/L, the APTD mode showed higher ozone yield than FD
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to track changes in total body water (TBW). Accurate TBW estimations can be influenced by both methodological and biological factors. One methodological variation that contributes to BIS TBW errors is the electrode placement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reproducibility and validity of fixed-distance electrode placements (5 cm) with the standard single-site electrode placements. Twenty-nine subjects (fifteen men and fourteen women) participated in the reproducibility study, while sixty-nine subjects (thirty-three men and thirty-six women) participated in the validity study. The reproducibility study included two measurements that were taken 24 h apart, while the validity study consisted of a 12-week exercise intervention with measurements taken at weeks 1 and 12. TBW was estimated using BIS and 2H techniques. Reproducibility results indicated that fixed-distance electrodes reduced the day-to-day standard error of the measurement in men (from 1·13 to 0·81 litres) but not in women (0·47 litres). sem values were lower for women than for men, suggesting that BIS TBW estimates are sex dependent. Validity results produced similar accurate findings (mean difference < 0·21 litres). However, fixed-distance electrodes improved delta TBW errors (mean difference improvements>0·04 litres in men, women, and men and women combined). When tracking changes in TBW, fixed-distance electrodes may reduce reproducibility errors and allow for smaller changes to be detected. However, the reduction of reproducibility errors may be greater for men than for women. Therefore, reproducibility calculations should be based on the sex of the sample population.
We have demonstrated that scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) exhibited high performance and high resolution in observing the dopant concentration profile of transistors. In this study, good quantitative agreement between the SNDM signals and dopant density values obtained by SIMS in standard Si samples, which dopant concentrations have been calibrated. We succeeded in visualizing high-resolution dopant profiles in n- and p-type MOSFET with 40 nm gate channels. It is considered that SNDM would be an effective method in measuring the quantitative two-dimensional dopant profiles of transistors. Finally, we have succeeded in detecting the dopant profiles of SRAM memory cell transistors.
A thermomechanical model to explain the formation of dark defects in AlGaAs high power laser bars is presented. The local heating at facet defects due to nonradiative recombination and self-absorption of photons induces thermal stresses capable of producing a local plastic deformation and subsequent degradation of the device. The output power density thresholds calculated are in agreement with the data reported in the literature for these lasers.