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This is the story of how women in France and Britain between 1915 and 1933 appropriated the cultural identity of female war veteran in order to have greater access to public life and a voice in a political climate in which women were rarely heard on the public stage. The 'veterans' covered by this history include former nurses, charity workers, secret service agents and members of resistance networks in occupied territory, as well as members of the British auxiliary corps. What unites these women is how they attempted to present themselves as 'female veterans' in order to gain social advantages and give themselves the right to speak about the war and its legacies. Alison S. Fell also considers the limits of the identity of war veteran for women, considering as an example the wartime and post-war experiences of the female industrial workers who led episodes of industrial action.
Background: Preliminary studies have supported the utility of exercise as a treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) patients. Despite being the most common inherited neuropathy, there remains a paucity of guidelines for CMT management. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 297 CMT patients. Self-reported exercise and strength results from standardized dynamometer testing were obtained from adult patients’ first visits. Values were converted and analyzed based on previously reported age and sex matched normative values. Results: Participants with CMT2 were stronger than CMT1 in hand grip, elbow flexion, and dorsiflexion (p<0.05). CMT1A participants were weaker than those with CMT1B/D. Participants with CMT1 and CMT2 who exercised were statistically significantly stronger in elbow flexion and dorsiflexion than those who did not exercise. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that self-directed exercise is associated with greater strength in patients with CMT. Furthermore, they support the evidence that the dysmyelinating process in CMT1 may lead to greater loss of strength compared to the axonal degeneration in CMT2, and that exercise may benefit both subtypes. Self-directed exercise may be a convenient, sustainable, and effective method of improving strength and decreasing disability in these individuals. Future research should explore the type of exercise prescription that best addresses the needs of the CMT population.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, both French and British commentators began to view white middle-class women as an increasingly important element of the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonial enterprise. In an 1899 address to the Colonial Nursing Association, Sir George Goldie, governor of the Royal Niger Company, spoke for many when he labelled the work of European nurses in British West African colonies as the ‘white woman's burden’; a year later, French Jesuit priest Jean-Baptiste Piolet wrote in relation to French colonialism that ‘woman is made to civilize and police, to inspire and purify, to elevate and exalt all that surrounds her’. At the same time, the presence of white women in the colonies was seen to be fraught with dangers, especially in terms of the protection of ‘white prestige’, a central component of imperial discourse. White women in the colonies were expected to conform to an idealised model of sexually pure and morally virtuous femininity and were criticised if they were perceived to have failed to do so – some of the nurses Goldie addressed in 1899, for example, were subsequently accused of improper appearance and sexual impropriety, and requests were made for lady nurses ‘of mature years and less attractive appearance’. Further it was equally assumed that their presence left them sexually vulnerable to the ‘uncontrolled’ sexuality and ‘primitive urges’ of the colonised men.
Inverse Compton scattering is a promising method to implement a high brightness, ultra-short, energy tunable X-ray source at accelerator facilities. We have developed an inverse Compton backscattering X-ray source driven by the multi-10 TW laser installed at Daresbury. Hard X-rays, with spectral peaks ranging from 15 to 30 keV, depending on the scattering geometry, will be generated through the interaction of laser pulses with electron bunches delivered by the energy recovery linac machine, initially known as energy recovery linac prototype and subsequently renamed accelerators and lasers in combined experiments. X-ray pulses containing 9 × 107 photons per pulse will be created from head-on collisions, with a pulse duration comparable to the incoming electron bunch length. For transverse collisions 8 × 106 photons per pulse will be generated, where the laser pulse transit time defines the X-ray pulse duration. The peak spectral brightness is predicted to be ~1021 photons/(s mm2 mrad2 0.1% Δλ/λ).
The Vulcan Nd:glass laser at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) is a
petawatt (1015 Watts) interaction facility, designed to deliver
irradiance on target of 1021W.cm−2 for the UK
and international user community. The facility came online to users in
2002 and considerable experience has been gained operating Vulcan in this
mode. The facility delivers a wide-ranging experimental program in
fundamental physics and advanced applications. This includes the
interaction of ultrahigh intensity light with matter, fast ignition fusion
research, photon induced nuclear reactions, electron and ion acceleration
by light waves, and the exploration of the exotic world of plasma physics
dominated by relativity. We report on the first year's operation of
the facility and the highlights of the experimental campaigns.