To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Carotid artery aneurysm is a potentially fatal complication of skull base osteomyelitis. It is important to know the warning signs for this complication, as early diagnosis is of great importance. This report aimed to determine whether the pattern of cranial nerve involvement may predict the occurrence of aneurysm involving the internal carotid artery in skull base osteomyelitis.
Two diabetic patients with skull base osteomyelitis were incidentally diagnosed with pseudo-aneurysm of the petrous internal carotid artery on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. They presented with lower cranial nerve palsy; however, facial nerve function was almost preserved in both cases. Computed tomography angiography confirmed aneurysms at the junction of the horizontal and vertical segments of the petrous carotid artery.
Internal carotid artery trapping was conducted using coil embolisation. Post-coiling magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no procedure-related complications. Regular follow up has demonstrated that patients’ symptoms are improving.
One should be mindful of this potentially fatal complication in skull base osteomyelitis patients with lower cranial nerve palsies, with or without facial nerve involvement, especially in the presence of intracranial thromboembolic events or Horner's syndrome.
Pale soft exudative pork (PSE) is a major problem affecting swine industries worldwide that results in significant economic loss because it reduces processing and saleable product yields. The PSE condition results from a rapid rate of muscle glycolysis early postmortem and a rapid drop in muscle pH while the temperature of the carcass is still high. Stress prior to slaughter can increase the rate of glycolysis and postmortem acidification. Blood acid-base has been used as an indicator of stress in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between blood acid-base status at slaughter and fresh meat quality in pigs.
The percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device can be associated with more soft tissue complications when compared to the magnetic transcutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device. This study aimed to determine whether fewer soft tissue complications may result in the transcutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device being a lower cost option in hearing rehabilitation.
This retrospective case note review included adult patients who underwent implantation with the transcutaneous Cochlear Attract (n = 22) or percutaneous Cochlear DermaLock (n = 25) bone-anchored hearing aids between September 2013 and December 2014. The number of post-operative clinic appointments, complications and treatments undertaken, and calculated cost average, were compared between the two groups.
Although the transcutaneous device was slightly more expensive than the percutaneous device, the percutaneous device was associated with a greater number of soft tissue complications and, as a result, the percutaneous device had significantly higher follow-up costs in the first six months following surgery.
The transcutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device may represent a more cost-effective method of hearing rehabilitation compared to the percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device.
Adulthood psychological health predicts labour force activity but few studies have examined childhood psychological health. We hypothesized that childhood psychological ill-health would be associated with labour force exit at 55 years.
Data were from the 55-year follow-up of the National Child Development Study (n = 9137). Labour force participation and exit (unemployment, retirement, permanent sickness, homemaking/other) were self-reported at 55 years. Internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood (7, 11 and 16 years) and malaise in adulthood (23, 33, 42, 50 years) were assessed. Education, social class, periods of unemployment, partnership separations, number of children, and homemaking activity were measured throughout adulthood.
Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with unemployment, permanent sickness and homemaking/other at 55 years, after adjustment for adulthood psychological health and education: one or two reports of internalizing was associated with increased risk for unemployment [relative risk (RR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–2.25; RR 2.37, 95% CI 1.48–3.79] and permanent sickness (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00–1.74; RR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.17); three reports of externalizing was associated with increased risk for unemployment (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.01–5.04), permanent sickness (RR 2.63, 95% CI 1.46–4.73) and homemaking/other (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.00–3.78).
Psychological ill-health across the lifecourse, including during childhood, reduces the likelihood of working in older age. Support for those with mental health problems at different life stages and for those with limited connections to the labour market, including homemakers, is an essential dimension of attempts to extend working lives.
We report results from a program of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the H2 emission from planetary nebulae, being carried out at McDonald Observatory using an InSb array-detector spectrometer. Our observations employ both high spatial resolution (3″ diameter aperture) and high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ = 200–600), thus avoiding potential problems with line blending and spatial registration. These observations provide simultaneous measurements of H I recombination lines and H2 emission lines, thus accurately defining the relative extent and distribution of the ionized vs. molecular material. One-dimensional cuts through the compact planetary nebulae BD+30 3639 and Hubble 12, taken along east-west and north-south axes through the nebular centers, show that the H2 emission is concentrated in a ring or shell outside the ionized nebular core. The angular extent of the H2 emission in Hb 12, with a characteristic diameter of about 8–10″ arc seconds, is strikingly larger than the dimensions of the ionized core, which is less than 2″ in diameter.
We present radial velocities for approximately 40 stars in each of four optically obscured, off-axis fields toward the Galactic bulge. The mean heliocentric radial velocity and velocity dispersion are −75 ± 24 km s–1 and 127 ± 16 km s–1 2 ± 23 km s–1 and 127 ± 14 km s–1, −14 ± 22 km s–1 and 126 ± 14 km s–1, and −31 ± 28 km s–1 and 153 ± 17 km s–1 for fields located at 299, 288, 171, and 160 pc projected radius, respectively. The dispersions generally match Kent's (1992) axisymmetric mass model but may be higher than the model's predictions at small projected radius.
We are measuring Fe abundances of cool, luminous stars within 30 pc of the center of the Milky Way. Our sample contains both AGB stars and M supergiants. Low-resolution (λ/Δλ = 500) H and K band spectra are used to estimate temperatures and gravities. Stellar Fe abundances are determined from high-resolution (λ/Δλ = 40 000) K band spectra obtained on the IRTF using CSHELL. We find that Fe abundances of stars in the Galactic Center are consistent with the solar Fe abundance.
Star formation in the Galactic Center (GC) happens under unusual conditions, which include high gas temperatures, high velocity dispersions, and strong tidal shear (Spergel & Blitz 1992; Blitz et al. 1993). All these conditions may lead to an initial mass function (IMF) dominated by massive stars (Morris & Serabyn 1996). A history of chemical evolution dominated by massive stars is expected to result in enhancements of α-elements (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) relative to Fe (Wheeler et al. 1989). This argument is the main motivation to study the abundance of Fe and Mg in GC stars.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and postnatal catch-up growth confer an increased risk of adult-onset disease. Overnourishment of adolescent ewes generates IUGR in ∼50% of lambs, which subsequently exhibit increased fractional growth rates. We investigated putative epigenetic changes underlying this early postnatal phenotype by quantifying gene-specific methylation at cytosine:guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted from IUGR [eight male (M)/nine female (F)] and normal birth weight (12 M/9 F) lambs. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers targeting CpG islands in 10 genes: insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, IGF2, H19, insulin receptor, growth hormone receptor, IGF receptors 1 and 2, and the glucocorticoid receptor. Using pyrosequencing, methylation status was determined by quantifying cytosine:thymine ratios at 57 CpG sites. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IGF system genes and plasma IGF1/insulin were determined. DNA methylation was independent of IUGR status but sexual dimorphism in IGF1 methylation was evident (M<F, P=0.008). IGF1 mRNA:18S and plasma IGF1 were M>F (both P<0.001). IGF1 mRNA expression correlated negatively with IGF1 methylation (r=−0.507, P=0.002) and positively with plasma IGF1 (r=0.884, P<0.001). Carcass and empty body weights were greater in males (P=0.002–0.014) and this gender difference in early body conformation was mirrored by sexual dimorphism in hepatic IGF1 DNA methylation, mRNA expression and plasma IGF1 concentrations.
To identify factors that significantly influence myringoplasty success.
A retrospective study was performed of all adults and children who underwent myringoplasty from January 2005 to January 2010 in a teaching hospital. Outcome measures were tympanic membrane perforation closure and air–bone gap closure to within 20 dB HL. The factors assessed were the surgeon grade, pre-operative condition of the ipsilateral and contralateral middle ears, perforation site, perforation size, graft material, and whether simultaneous cortical mastoidectomy was performed. Factors with statistically significant effects were determined by logistic regression analysis.
In the adult group, the perforation site significantly influenced tympanic membrane closure (p = 0.016): anterior (p = 0.008) and subtotal (p = 0.017) sites had the greatest influence. None of the factors proved to have a significant influence on tympanic membrane closure in the paediatric group.
There was a significant association between perforation site and tympanic membrane perforation closure in adults. Anterior and subtotal perforations had a significantly reduced closure rate.
The West Virginia University Hot hELIcon eXperiment (HELIX) provides variable density and ion temperature plasmas, with controllable levels of thermal anisotropy, for space relevant laboratory experiments in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropy (LEIA) as well as fundamental studies of helicon source physics in HELIX. Through auxiliary ion heating, the ion temperature anisotropy (T⊥/T∥) is variable from 1 to 20 for parallel plasma beta (β = 8πnkTi∥/B2) values that span the range of 0.0001 to 0.01 in LEIA. The ion velocity distribution function is measured throughout the discharge volume in steady-state and pulsed plasmas with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The wavelengths of very short wavelength electrostatic fluctuations are measured with a coherent microwave scattering system. Operating at low neutral pressures triggers spontaneous formation of a current-free electric double layer. Ion acceleration through the double layer is detected through LIF. LIF-based velocity space tomography of the accelerated beam provides a two-dimensional mapping of the bulk and beam ion distribution functions. The driving frequency for the m = 1 helical antenna is continuously variable from 8.5 to 16 MHz and frequency dependent variations of the RF coupling to the plasma allow the spontaneously appearing double layers to be turned on and off without modifying the plasma collisionality or magnetic field geometry. Single and multi-species plasmas are created with argon, helium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon. The noble gas plasmas have steep neutral density gradients, with ionization levels reaching 100% in the core of the plasma source. The large plasma density in the source enables the study of Aflvén waves in the HELIX device.
The paper is the result of work carried out by the authors as members of the Bonus Research Group of the Faculty of Actuaries. The authors designed a computer model of a life office in order to examine the emergence of reversionary bonus under differing conditions. The use of a computer model enabled a dynamic study to be made over many years. The investigations quantified the extent to which the reversionary bonus emerging was affected by the valuation basis, the rate of expansion of the office, the rate of return on the fund, the extent of investment in equities and the office's experience in respect of expenses, withdrawals and mortality. The authors also examined in quantitative terms the extent to which policies would, on the assumptions made, receive more or less than the full share of surplus to which they were entitled as well as examining the size of the valuation estate under differing conditions.
There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities.
The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18–64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants.
The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18–64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence.
Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.
The PULSE@Parkes project has been designed to monitor the rotation of radio pulsars over time spans of days to years. The observations are obtained using the Parkes 64-m and 12-m radio telescopes by Australian and international high school students. These students learn the basis of radio astronomy and undertake small projects with their observations. The data are fully calibrated and obtained with the state-of-the-art pulsar hardware available at Parkes. The final data sets are archived and are currently being used to carry out studies of 1) pulsar glitches, 2) timing noise, 3) pulse profile stability over long time scales and 4) the extreme nulling phenomenon. The data are also included in other projects such as gamma-ray observatory support and for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. In this paper we describe the current status of the project and present the first scientific results from the Parkes 12-m radio telescope. We emphasise that this project offers a straightforward means to enthuse high school students and the general public about radio astronomy while obtaining scientifically valuable data sets.